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Challenges and strategies in anti-cancer nanomedicine …

JavaScript is disabled on your browser. Please enable JavaScript to use all the features on this page.Abstract

Successfully translating anti-cancer nanomedicines from pre-clinical proof of concept to demonstration of therapeutic value in the clinic is challenging. Having made significant advances with drug delivery technologies, we must learn from other areas of oncology drug development, where patient stratification and target-driven design have improved patient outcomes. We should evolve our nanomedicine development strategies to build the patient and disease into the line of sight from the outset. The success of small molecule targeted therapies has been significantly improved by employing a specific decision-making framework, such as AstraZeneca’s 5R principle: right target/efficacy, right tissue/exposure, right safety, right patient, and right commercial potential. With appropriate investment and collaboration to generate a platform of evidence supporting the end clinical application, a similar framework can be established for enhancing nanomedicine translation and performance. Building informative data packages to answer these questions requires the following: (I) an improved understanding of the heterogeneity of clinical cancers and of the biological factors influencing the behaviour of nanomedicines in patient tumours; (II) a transition from formulation-driven research to disease-driven development; (III) the implementation of more relevant animal models and testing protocols; and (IV) the pre-selection of the patients most likely to respond to nanomedicine therapies. These challenges must be overcome to improve (the cost-effectiveness of) nanomedicine development and translation, and they are key to establishing superior therapies for patients.

Nanomedicine

EPR effect

Clinical translation

Pre-clinical models

Industry

Companion diagnostics

Patient pre-selection

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2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Testosterone Replacement & Potassium | Healthfully

Potassium and testosterone levels play a key role in how your body develops. Low testosterone levels could lead to testosterone replacement therapy. These treatments may benefit you, but care should be taken to evaluate lab results for other abnormalities. According to the Cleveland Clinic, these may include a change in potassium levels, red blood cells, cholesterol concentrations, or a decrease in sperm count.

Male sexual characteristics are dependent upon the production of testosterone from the testicles. Muscle bulk and bone density are features that are influenced by the amount of testosterone. According to the Cleveland Clinic, testosterone is also important in keeping a sense of well being. If you have a low sense of well-being, lethargy, low libido, erectile dysfunction, or are feeling depressed, you may be having symptoms of low testosterone. If this is true, you may benefit from testosterone replacement therapy.

Testosterone replacement therapy can be prescribed by your doctor after he has confirmed your low testosterone levels. The testosterone hormone can be given by intramuscular injections, body or scrotum patches, and also in a gel form that can be rubbed into the body. Your doctor will know which therapy treatment would be best for you. The Testosterone Report states that care should be taken if you are using the patches or gels to assure that your partner or another individual does not come into contact with the product. This could cause an increase in testosterone levels and create unwanted side effects.

Potassium helps with the conduction of electricity throughout your body. This electrolyte functionality is crucial in helping the muscles in your heart and body to contract, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. It is important to have the correct amount of potassium in your blood levels to ensure that your cells function correctly. If you are having testosterone therapy treatments, you need to know that your potassium levels may be affected.

In a study published by “Neurology,” individuals were given a 10 to 13 week testosterone therapy treatment with weekly injections of testosterone. That study showed that at the end of the treatments, their potassium levels rose by 16 percent. One of the side effects of testosterone therapy treatment is the retention of potassium. Due to this increase, you should discuss with your doctor whether you should avoid high potassium foods or if any medication changes are needed.

Although there is a link to higher potassium levels with testosterone replacement therapy, more studies are needed to determine the significance of these findings. Your doctor will be able to decide if the risk of a high potassium level outweighs the risk of low testosterone. With lab tests and medications, your doctor should be able to keep a good balance between the two.

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Transhumanism and the Image of God – InterVarsity Press

“Jacob Shatzer deepens our understanding and practice of Christianity by showing us how profound and perilous the influence of technology is on how we think and conduct ourselves today. Shatzer gives us a calm and comprehensive account of how the intellectual community is responding to these transformative forces, both the observers who are enchanted with the lures of technology and the critics who help us see what is at stake. Most important, Shatzer concludes with consolations that are well founded and inspire confidence.”

Albert Borgmann, author of Real American Ethics

“Jacob Shatzer’s book is a superb guide for the Christian disciple who seeks to be faithful to Christ in a technology-dominant society. It is engagingly written, highly accessible, wide-ranging in its scope, and immensely practical in its application. I am pleased to recommend this thoughtful, importantindeed, essentialwork.”

Paul Copan, Pledger Family Chair of Philosophy and Ethics, Palm Beach Atlantic University, coauthor of Introduction to Biblical Ethics: Walking in the Way of Wisdom

“Jacob Shatzer demonstrates serious Christian thinking while wrestling with the seemingly overwhelming issues associated with technology and its effect on our world. Moreover, Shatzer probes the questions of how these ever-expanding technologies are influencing us. This most insightful and helpful volume raises important issues for readers about what it means to be human, what it means to be created in the image of God, what it means to function in space and time, what it means to be human in relationship with others, what it means to live in genuine community, and what all of this means for Christian theology, ethics, worship, discipleship, and the practice of authentic fellowship. Shatzer challenges readers to reflect on how technology has changed us and how it continues to change us, recognizing that technology has both drawn us away from aspects of our past while opening up new opportunities for the days ahead. This carefully researched and well-written book calls for and deserves thoughtful engagement and reflection. I heartily recommend Transhumanism and the Image of God and congratulate Professor Shatzer on this fine work.”

David S. Dockery, president, Trinity International University/Trinity Evangelical Divinity School

“During the remainder of this century we will increasingly have the potential to alter the future, not just of individuals, but of the entire human species. Genetic augmentation, artificial intelligence, robotics, and other technologies will either serve a truly human future or human beings will serve those technologies. According to many tranhumanists, we are transitional humans on our way to becoming posthuman. So transhumanism offers a vision of a future in which we have the freedom to escape our humanity altogether. Jacob Shatzera new and refreshing voice in the conversationprovides cogent analyses of the transhumanist impulse and important practical strategies for preserving our humanity against the so-called technological imperative. Nothing less than our very humanity is at stake.”

C. Ben Mitchell, Graves Professor of Moral Philosophy, Union University

“The adage that ‘we shape our tools, and thereafter our tools shape us’ takes on a new meaning with transhumanism. In this timely book, Shatzer explores how the liturgies of certain technologies can nudge us unwittingly toward a transhuman future and recommends practices that remind us what it truly means to be human.”

Derek C. Schuurman, professor of computer science, Calvin College, author of Shaping a Digital World: Faith, Culture and Computer Technology

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Hcg Diet and Positive Pregnancy Test? Dr. Rao Q&A – HCG …

Q & A with Dr. Rao

Hcg Diet Injections can result in a positive pregnancy test. However, there is more to the answer.

When it comes to Hcg weight loss injections and pregnancy tests, there are a number of variables to consider. The first is how much of the hCG that is injected ends up in the urine. Urine excretion of hCG is estimated at 10-12% of the injected dose over 24 hours. Keep in mind that this amount excreted will not be uniform and will vary based on the urine sample. So for a 150 IU dose of hCG, we could expect that about 10% of this, or 15 IU would get excreted over the duration of 24 hours. This is an absolute amount, vs. a concentration and so if a person has to urinate 5-6 times in a day it is impossible to know how much would be in any given void (this is separate from the issue of dilution). An average person urinates about 1-2 liters per day. So we have around 15 IU of hCG per 1-2 liters concentration, or 7-15 IU/L

An at home urine pregnancy test is sensitive to 25 IU/L for the most sensitive tests. For our example of a patient using 150 IU per day their urinary levels will be just below the sensitivity of the at home urine test. However, if they metabolize just a few percent more than average, or if their urine is slightly more concentrated, their urinary excretion levels would fall just within the sensitivity range for the test to go positive.

This surprisingly lines up very well with what is seen when people use the at home tests to test their hCG which is that the results vary greatly from the person and each time they would do it. Using this method is very prone to failing due to a huge margin of error based on your unique metabolism.

The only way to be assured of the potency and purity of the product is to ask for a certificate of authenticity from the US pharmacy which is a very rigorous standard (significantly higher level of testing than at home pregnancy tests) to ensure the product has what is listed on the label and nothing else, and also is as potent as advertised. These are two different standards which are not looked at with an at home pregnancy test.

This is what a US quality and potency certificate looks like (courtesy of Diet Doc, an FDA-approved Telemedicine company that offers an advanced Hcg Weight Loss Program online.)

Urine pregnancy tests are made to test hCG in a very different context and at very different urine concentrations which are also rapidly increasing day by day during a normal pregnancy. They have never been certified to be used for injected hCG at low doses and then metabolized to be measured in the urine.

Using the hCG solution from the vial directly onto a urine pregnancy test strip will have a concentration of 1000 IU/mL, or 1 IU/L Keeping in mind that the at home test is sensitive above 25 IU/L this will again only yield a positive result if enough of the test strip is saturated with a large volume of solution. The test strips are not designed to be used in this way, and errors from a phenomenon known as the hook effect can yield false negatives from the antibodies on the test strip.

Summarizing Hcg Diet Injections and Pregnancy Tests

In summary, using the hCG hormone can sometimes cause a false positive on a urine pregnancy test, but generally the hCG dose levels will fall below that threshold. The results are unpredictable and will vary greatly. Dieters need to make sure there is no possibility of pregnancy during the diet because a false positive urine test has to be addressed as a true positive by the clinician until proven other wise by a blood test and they diet has to be stopped for safety. The only way to establish the true potency, bioavailability and purity of the hCG is to request the certificate of authenticity from the pharmacy, or CoA.

More about Diet Doc Hcg Weight Loss Provider

Diet Doc Weight Loss is the nations leader in telemedicine medical weight loss, offering a full line of prescription medications, doctor, nurse and nutritional coaching support. For over a decade, Diet Doc has produced a sophisticated, doctor designed weight loss program that addresses each patients specific health needs to promote fast, safe and long-term weight loss.

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5 Surprising Benefits of Hormone Replacement Therapy | BHRC

Approximately after the age of 25, both men and women experience a decline in hormone production hormones such as progesterone, estrogen and testosterone which can lead to a range of symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, low libido, sexual dysfunction, reduced muscle mass, decreased bone density, uncontrolled weight gain, and more.

Hormone replacement therapy has been around for a long time now, and has had a bad reputation for many years. Now, with advancements in technology and extensive research into this revolutionary science, the true benefits of hormone replacement are being recognized, and taken advantage of. In fact, research now suggests that hormone replacement therapy (or HRT) can actually reverse many of the typical signs of aging that you may have come to accept weight gain, low libido, reduced muscle mass and can even help to prevent conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, and dementia.

So what is hormone replacement therapy? HRT is a process of replenishing the hormones that your body no longer makes in sufficient amounts. Once this hormonal balance in both men and women is restored, then you will often be able to reverse many adverse effects of aging, which are actually due to an inherent hormonal imbalance, and allow you to experience an extraordinary quality of life again.

How extraordinary? Heres five hormone replacement therapy benefits that will elevate your life, and have you feeling younger again. Bring back your youthful 20s and relive some of the best years of your life

Its an unfortunate fact that nature has programmed women to remain fertile up to the age of 45 to 50, then kick in the all-familiar condition of menopause. Whats more unfortunate, is that many women suffer from early menopause which can appear as soon as the age of 30 to 35. Sometimes this is caused by surgical procedures such as having the ovaries and uterus removed, but in many cases it is a hormonal imbalance in women which is leading to the onset of premature menopause. And the good news is that many of the unpleasant symptoms of menopause can be treated by replacing your deficient hormones. Thats right girls, you now have the ability to prevent and reverse many of the unwanted symptoms of early menopause such as hot flashes, lowered libido, slowing metabolism, increased weight gain, and more.

Aside from the demoralizing effects of aging like the appearance of wrinkles, a beer-belly, or unsightly cellulite, hormone imbalance can cause many psychological issues such as depression, anxiety and frequent outbursts of erratic anger or sadness. At a deeper level, many people suffering from hormonal imbalance will also suffer from a lack of confidence, high irritability, lower patience levels, and a lack of empathy. And if that wasnt enough, then you can also expect to suffer from a fading memory, mood swings, and increased confusion. Many of these symptoms that one would typically associate with aging, and which can have devastating effect on your level of confidence, can actually be attributed to a hormonal imbalance.

The good news is that hormone replacement therapy can help you counter these effects. And while you could opt for over the counter hormone replacement supplements, what you really benefit from is a tailored solution that works for your unique body type and hormonal requirements. Thats where our revolutionary hormone optimization program, administered by our certified medical professionals, can help you transform your world.

As the hormones in your body decline, this weakens the integrity of your body which then opens you up to many health risks you were previously protected against.

Youll begin to notice uncontrolled weight gain that no amount of dieting or exercising will prevent. Many men and women will also begin to lose bone density, increasing the risk of fractures and breaks. You may also become prone to getting diabetes, heart disease and some forms of cancer such as ovarian cancer, among other problems.

And while youre probably aware of some of the well-publicized hormone replacement therapy side effects, our advanced application methods, continuous research and development, and proven results ensure that HRT side-effects are minimized.

Remember your glorious 20s, when the world was your oyster and you could seemingly do no wrong with your body? Abundant energy, a youthful appearance for your skin, and a slim, toned figure. The years when you were at your youthful best. I know it may seem like those years have long passed you by, but that doesnt need to be the case

Its been proven that hormone replacement therapy for men and women can help improve the quality of your life, and make you look and feel younger again. How? By treating imbalanced hormone levels which often lead to:

When people talk about hormone replacement therapy, its often women that receive all the attention, but that neednt be the case. HRT is effectively used to treat hormonal imbalance in men as well as in women. Thats because these hormone imbalances in men can cause various symptoms that are often linked to their premature aging as well.As levels of hormones in men (such as testosterone and thyroid) decline, men face many problematic health issues as well, such as:

Like women, men can also develop osteoporosis or brittle bones. In addition, some men go through erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism where the testicles stop functioning correctly which both amount to a higher rate of male infertility. Hormone replacement therapy can help men reverse these symptoms, and have you looking and feeling younger again.

As you now know, its possible to use revolutionary new hormone replacement therapy techniques, such as BHRCs Hormone Optimization program, to replace your imbalanced hormone levels so that you can eliminate the symptoms of premature aging that are more often the result of hormonal imbalance. These five benefits of HRT are a broad summary of the potential benefits you can expect to experience, all of which will have you live a better quality of life, today.

Consider opting for Hormone Replacement Therapy at a reputed clinic like The Beverly Hills Rejuvenation Center. Using bio-identical hormones that occur naturally, we can create the perfect hormone replacement therapy program for you that can have you look and feel younger again.

BHRC Hormone Replacement Therapy Locations:

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TRANSHUMANISM: What is it?: Natasha Vita-More …

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TRANSHUMANISM: What is it?: Natasha Vita-More …

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Research Paper Transhumanism – Middlebury College

Sophie Robart

Professor Tom Beyer

FYSE 1286

11 November 2013

What is a Society of Posthumans?

Transhumanism is a field of philosophy that aspires to further the abilities of humans by utilizing opportunities of science and technology to enhance human life. Transhumanists see the human condition today as less than what it could or should be, and strive for society to become full of posthumans. These philosophers believe that the next few generations will belong to those who want to advance human life conditions, rather than act skeptically towards the idea of change. These Transhumanists hope that this change in society will stem from a generation that will have been raised and assimilated with the ideas of Transhumanism. While for Transhumanists the concept of changing mankind in order to eliminate disease and enhance intellectual capacity is solely to better the world, their concept of change has sparked uproar among bio-conservatives throughout the world. These bio-conservatives, religious ethicists and philosophical ethicists, agree on two major principles regarding Transhumanism: that boundaries were set to keep humans as humans, and to try and pass those boundaries is greedy.

Max More, one philosopher and futurist, defines Transhumanism as a class of philosophies of life that seek the continuation and acceleration of the evolution of intelligent life beyond its currently human form and human limitations by means of science and technology, guided by life-promoting principles and values.[1] Max More, the Chief Executive Officer of Alcor Life Extension Foundation, a world leading company in cryonics, proposed this definition of transhumanism in his essay: Transhumanism: Toward a Futurist Philosophy. He also proclaims that we have achieved two of the three alchemists dreams: We have transmuted the elements and learned to fly. Immortality is next.

Three names, including Max More, stand out as leaders and innovators within the Transhumanist and post human movement. Fereidoun M. Esfandiary, more commonly known as FM-2030, distinguished himself inside of Transhumanism with Are You a Transhuman.[2] When asked about his name and identification, Esfandiary explained that In 2030 we will be ageless and everyone will have an excellent chance to live forever. 2030 is a dream and a goal. FM-2030 died in 2000 and was placed in cryonic suspension at the Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Natasha Vita-More, often considered the first female philosopher of transhumanism, founded the Transhumanist Arts and Extropic Arts Movement in 1982: designed to provide insight into the future directions of art and creativity of the 21st Century as well as a brief history of Transhumanity, Transhumanist Arts, and Extropic Art.

The leaders of the Transhumanism movement claim that the idea and goal of enhancement are not new to the twenty-first centurythere are many texts written about the ideas of enhancement from before the 1800s. The French philosopher, Marquis de Condorcet, wrote in 1794 that no bounds have been fixed to the improvement of facultiesthe perfectibility of man is unlimited (Encyclopedia of Bioethics, p.2517). Kevin Warwicks claims in 2000 that, [he] was born a human. But this was an accident of fatea condition merely of time and place (Encyclopedia of Bioethics 2518).

Current Transhumanists express their beliefs in multiple different ways. Some people do not openly live a life supporting Transhumanism due to the social stigma that may be associated with the movement, but they do their part. Others actively fund and investigate the science that might eventually lead to a reality full of posthumans. One of the major goals of that Transhumanists is to advance the human nervous system to enhance the capability of intelligence, and subsequently strengthen the defense system against disease. Through the processes of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and cognitive science, Transhumanist scientists are attempting to further life span, eradicate diseases, and enhance intelligence.

Nanotechnology is a process in which scientists manipulate matter on a molecular level. A new piece of technology called the Nano-Bio Processor mimics responses of the human body and aids the development of corresponding treatments. Professor Nick Bostrom, director of the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University, believes that this technology offers the potential to alleviate human suffering. Professor Bostrom claims that the Nano-Bio Processor will improve human condition, and that humans have a fundamental right to develop this technology or many preventable deaths might occur as a result of not developing NBIC.

Scientists are also using biotechnology to investigate and further the Transhumanism movement. Biotechnology is the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. Biotechnology is one of the processes more apparent in society, which bio-conservatives happily feel limits some of the risky actions by lend[ing] credence to visions of transcendence and transformation (Lilley Part 1). Meanwhile, biotechnology is a technology that is backed by well financed research programs while corporations and nation states compete fiercely over them (Lilley Part 1). One of the current uses of biotechnology that Transhumanists use is DNA and related genetic structure manipulation (Lilley Part 1). Currently, stem cells are being coaxed from embryos, placentas, and skin and are being primed to promote regeneration (Lilley Part 1). Transhumanists see the completion of the rough draft of the human genome project, published in 2000, as a scientific milestone, and research is now focused on decoding the functions and interactions of all these different genes (Humanity+, Answer 23).

Other Transhumanist scientists are studying cognitive sciencehow information is processed in different ways including perception, language, and emotion. It is apparent that scientists hope this research will lead to the elimination of mental diseases, as well as a faster processing speed. These different technologies are quite controversial; Nancy Campbell claims that these different technologies in their development, deployment, and effects are unevenly distributed, differential, and more likely to be socially unjust than not (Lilley Part 1).

Transhumanists often argue with bio-conservatives about the ethics of these practices. Transhumanists maintain that changing the genetics and human practices will not change the humanity of people:

[we] read and write; we wear clothes; we live in cities; we earn money and buy food from the supermarket; we call people on the telephone, watch television, read newspapers, drive cars, file taxes, vote in national elections; women give birth in hospitals; life-expectancy is three times longer than in the Pleistocene[3]. (Bostrom Ethics)

Bostrom, a prominent Transhumanist, explains in the quote above that nothing about everyday life will change due to the changes that Transhumanists bring about. This idea that nothing will change is hard for bio-conservatives to understand because of the fear of unfair advantages that certain citizens will have over one another.

Transhumanists understand that bio-conservatives argue that these actions will change the dignity of moral status, as well as the quality of being worthy and honorable. In Stephen Lilleys book Transhumanism and Society, he claims that the difference in a transhumanist definition might be man remaining man, but transcending himself, by realizing new possibilities of and for his human nature (Lilley Part 2). Lilley supplements the argument for Transhumanism by claiming that, science can contribute greatly to making the world and mankind more human (Lilley Part 2). While there is a line that bio-conservatives feel must not be crossed, because that line is not specifically defined, transhumanists often take this uncertainty into consideration when starting a new type of research (Chadwick 32).

Bio-conservatives believe in two major theories: there are some boundaries that keep humans the way they were made; and to try and pass these boundaries is greedy. One theorist claims that, to bring about such radical changes in humankindcan only be described as the death of the species(Goffi 8). They also believe that while medicine can be used for legitimate or illegitimate aims (Goffi 9), to enhance human life is an illegitimate use of medicine. Even Professor Goffi, however, understands that it is difficult to draw a sharp line between therapeutic and enhancing procedures (Goffi 10). Many theorists agree with M. Sandel that, although more health is better than less, at least within a certain range, it is not the kind of good than that can be maximized (Goffi 10). Ruth Chadwick, a distinguished research professor at Cardiff School of English, Communication, and Philosophy, claims that if intervention restores a person species-typical normal functioning it falls within the therapy category; otherwise it counts as enhancement (Chadwick 28). Most bio-conservatives believe that human enhancement will eventually dehumanize (Bostrom 2) people. Leon Kass, a prominent bio-conservative, claims that while biotechnology can produce better children, superior performance, ageless bodies, and happy souls, it might eventually be used as a substitute for virtue, hard work, study, or love in order to fulfill our deepest human desires. Overall, bio-conservatives believe that people have a common genetic endowmentand this implies, of course, a common set of genetic limitationsthat they have a common nature and a common set of rights (Goffi 11). Stephen Lilley warns against transgression, or a point of no return from which humanity will suffer a most grievous, irretrievable loss (Lilley Part 2).

While Transhumanists believe that they are advancing humans to a better point in life, one also might claim that advancing beyond a point can become dangerous to society. Paul Ramsey, author of Fabricated Man: The Ethics of Genetic Control, explains in his book that techno-theologians (Goffi 8) and supporters of neo-eugenics (Goffi 9) are willing to manipulate genetics, and reconstruct mankind, yet through this process they are subsequently putting the humanity of man (Goffi 9) at stake. Alan Padgett has a pessimistic view on this movement as well, claiming:

The dream of a happy and harmonious techno-secular future is based on false hopes in infinite energy, infinite human potential, infinite human progress, and complete human good will. Such a techno-secular dream, even if it comes about, will self-destruct after a few centuries, inevitably smashing on the rocks of our finitude and sin. (Lilley, Part 2)

Paul Ramsey explains that he sees transhumanist dreams as well-meaning but all the more dangerous attempt to raise human beings above their own condition. Both George Annas, chair of Bioethics and Human Rights at the Boston University School of Public Health, and Rosario Isasi, a health and human rights attorney, understand and explain that human cloning and genetic modification are both considered crimes against humanity (Bostrom, Ethics). Some scientists even argue that this genetic manipulation will cause a GATTACA-like society, or even the emergence of old fashioned eugenics (Goffi 11).

Not only do people criticize Transhumanism because of its threats to science and humanity, but there are also many religious objections that people find with the transhumanist movement. John Jefferson Davis, a Professor of Systematic Theology and Christian Ethics at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, claims that, all of Gods creation, including the human body, is good (Gen. 1:31; Tim. 4:4) and as such is worth of care and respect (Lilley Part 2). Often Christians disapprove of Transhumanism because of the stance that most transhumanists take on cloning. Ironically, Transhumanism itself has been classified as a religion, and some of the rhetoric is often compared to Christian apologetics.

Transhumanism is a larger part of the media than most people usually notice. Gattaca, the 1997 film staring Ethan Hawke and Jude Law, is a movie, based in a time where eugenics are common, about a genetically inferior man who assumes the identity of a superior one in order to pursue his lifelong dream of space travel. This movie includes genetic manipulation, genetic discrimination, and unfair advantages due to these manipulations. This movie is a prime example of bio-conservatives fear for human society. Another example of transhumanism in the media is Dan Browns 2013 novel Inferno. This trilling fast pace novel incorporates the Zobrist, an active Transhumanist, who threatens an unknown plague upon the world. Finally, I am Legend is another movie with transhumanist values etched into it. A genetically engineered vaccine is created and distributed to people in order to cure cancer, and ends up spreading through the air and killing 90% of the population. This movie then turns into a post-apocalyptic science fiction horror film, in which the 588 million survivors become Darkseerers that prey on people immune to the virus. Clearly this movie shows some of the issues that bio-conservatives fearthe worry of creating viruses that manipulate human genes to a point of no return. Overall, these three examples show that Transhumanism is in our culture more than we notice or even understandsoon transhumanism will be completely immersed in our society without us even noticing.

Overall it is evident that there are multiple different opinions and views someone may have concerning the debate of Transhumanism and genetic manipulation. One may accept in part of the Transhumanist movement, some of its scientific methods but not others. Or one might reject any and all manipulation. Some people think that a genetically manipulated society will cause large differences in out society; but one might become more accepting, such enhancement as eradicating diseases. As the technology continues to develop even more areas of concern and disengagement are sure to arise between Transhumanists and bio-conservatives. But the fact that bio-engineering from vaccinations and flu shots to the potential eradication of aids is likely to find multiple points where one draws his or her No Trespassing Line!

Works Cited

Alcors Mission. Cryonics: Alcor Life Extension Foundation. 25 Sept. 2013 .

Cardiff School of English Communication and Philosophy. Professor Ruth Chadwick. 02 Nov. 2013 .

John Jefferson Davis. Wikipedia. 29 Nov. 2012. Wikimedia Foundation. 02 Nov. 2013 .

Leon Kass. Wikipedia. 24 Sept. 2013. Wikimedia Foundation. Oct. 2013 .

Max More. Wikipedia. 23 July 2013. Wikimedia Foundation. 26 Sept. 2013 .

Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno: Paradigm for the Future. H+ Magazine. 12 Feb. 2010. Oct. 2013 .

Nanotechnology. Credo Reference. 2005. Nov. 2013 .

Nanotechnology. Wikipedia. 25 Oct. 2013. Wikimedia Foundation. 2013 .

Outline of transhumanism. Wikipedia. 23 Oct. 2013. Wikimedia Foundation. Oct. 2013 .

Rosario Isasi. Wikipedia. 22 Feb. 2013. Wikimedia Foundation. Oct. 2013 .

School of Public Health. Boston University. Sept. 2013 .

Transhumanist FAQ. Humanity +. 22 Sept. 2013 .

Berger, Michael. Nanotechnology, Transhumanism and the Bionic Man. NanoWerk. 28 May 2008. Oct. 2013 .

Bostrom, Nick. Home Page. Nick Bostrom. Oct. 2013 .

Bostrom, Nick. In Defense of Posthuman Dignity. In Defense of Posthuman Dignity. 8 May 2007. Oct. 2013 .

Bostrom, Nick. Transhumanist Values. Transhumanist Values. May 2005. Oct. 2013 .

Goffi. Transhumanism & Bioconservatives. Transhumanism & Bioconservatives. Sept. 2013 .

Gordijn, Bert, and Ruth F. Chadwick. Medical Enhancement and Posthumanity. [Dordrecht]: Springer, 2008.

Hook, Christopher. Transhumanism and Posthumanism. Yumpu. 1 Oct. 2013

and-posthumanism-gale>.

Lilley, Stephen. Transhumanism and society: The social debate over human enhancement. Dordrecht: Springer, 2013.

More, Max. The Extropian Principles 2.5. The Extropian Principles 2.5. July 1993. .

Sandberg, Anders. Definitions of Transhumanism. Definitions of Transhumanism. 22 Sept. 2013 .

[2] Are You a Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Growth in a Rapidly Changing World (1989)

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Transhumanism: Evolutionary Futurism and the Human …

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What does a low T cell count mean? – Doctor.ndtv.com

Q:What does it mean to have a low T cell count and low liver count?

A:A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell present in the blood. White blood cells help protect the body against diseases and fight infections. When the general defense systems of the body have been penetrated by dangerous invading microorganisms, lymphocytes help provide a specific response to attack the invading organisms. There are several kinds of lymphocytes (although they all look alike under the microscope), each with different functions to perform. Lymphocytes, like other blood cells, develop in the bone marrow and arise from immature cells called stem cells. In early childhood, some lymphocytes then migrate to the thymus, an organ in the top of the chest, where they mature to become T cells. Others remain in the bone marrow and mature there to become B cells. Both B cells and T cells also take up residence in lymph nodes, the spleen and other tissues where they encounter antigens; continue to divide by mitosis and mature into fully functional cells. These lymphocytes play an important role in recognising and destroying infecting organisms such as bacteria and viruses. In normal conditions, most of the lymphocytes circulating in the body are T cells. Their role is to recognise and destroy abnormal body cells (for example, cells that have been infected by a virus). There are several subsets of T-lymphocytes inflammatory T cells that recruit macrophages and neutrophils to the site of infection or other tissue damage; T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells (CTLs) possess that kill virus-infected and, perhaps, tumor cells and also inhibit B-cell development; helper T cells that help immature B cells develop into mature B cells and enhance the production of antibodies by B cells. B-lymphocytes are responsible for making antibodies as they recognise foreign cells and material (for example, bacteria that have invaded the body). When these cells come into contact with a foreign protein (for example, on the surface of bacteria), they produce antibodies, which then stick to the surface of the foreign cell and cause its destruction.If the number of T-lymphocytes is reduced, that is referred to as low T-cell count. There is no term in medicine like low liver cell count.

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