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Immortality Medicine –

Humans have wanted to live forever for as long as weve lived at all. Its an obsession that stretches back so far that it feels like its somehow hard-coded into our DNA. Over the years, immortality (to a greater or lesser extent) has been promised by everyone from religions and cults to the cosmetics industry, big tech companies and questionable food blogs.

Its also a staple of fiction, all the way back to the earliest surviving great work of literature. The Epic of Gilgamesh, carved onto stone tablets in 2100 BC, depicts its titular king hunting for the secret of eternal life, which he finds in a plant that lives at at the bottom of the sea. He collects the plant by roping stones to his feet, but then a snake steals it while hes having a pre-immortality bath. Gilgamesh has a little cry, then gives up.

A cuneiform tablet containing part of The Epic of Gilgamesh.

The reason why we age is still the subject of major scientific debate, but it basically boils down to damage accumulating in our cells throughout our lives, which eventually kills us. By slowing that damage first by making tools, then controlling fire, inventing writing, trade, agriculture, logic, the scientific method, the industrial revolution, democracy and so on, weve managed to massively increase human life expectancy.

Theres a common misconception that to live forever we need to somehow pause the ageing process. We dont. We just need to increase the rate at which our lifespans are lengthening. Human lifespan has been lengthening at a constant rate of about two years per decade for the last 200 years. If we can speed that up past the rate at which we age then we hit what futurist Aubrey de Grey calls longevity escape velocity the point we become immortal.

Theres a common misconception that to live forever we need to somehow pause the ageing process. We dont. We just need to increase the rate at which our lifespans are lengthening.

That all sounds rather easy, and of course its not quite that simple. Its all we can do at the moment to keep up with the Moores Law of increasing lifespans. But with a major research effort, coordinated around the world, who knows? Scientific history is filled with fields that ticked along slowly and then suddenly, massively, accelerated. Computer science is one. Genetics is another recent example.

To understand what we need to do to hit longevity escape velocity, its worth looking at how life expectancy has increased in recent history. The late statistician Hans Rosling made a powerful case that average lifespans rise alongside per capita income. Take a couple of minutes to watch this video and youll be convinced:

Reducing the gap between the global rich and poor, therefore, is probably the fastest way to boost the world average life expectancy figure, but its limited. And it wont do much for people in rich countries.

To boost the lifespans of the people living in countries that are already pretty wealthy, we need to look closer at the countries that are forecast to have the highest life expectancies in the coming years. A study published earlier this year in the Lancet shows what life expectancy might look like in 2030 in 35 industrialised countries, using an amalgamation of 21 different forecasting models.

South Korea tops the chart with women living on average beyond 90, while France, Japan, Switzerland and Australia are not far behind. Most of the countries at the top of the chart have high-quality healthcare provision, low infant deaths, and low smoking and road traffic injury rates. Fewer people are overweight or obese. The US, meanwhile, is projected to see only a modest rise due to a lack of healthcare access, and high rates of obesity, child mortality and homicides.

The study results are interesting, not only because theyre the best possible guess at our future but because they clearly show how social policies make a massive difference to how long people live. There are unknowns, of course no-one could have predicted the 80s AIDS epidemic, for example, and no doubt further pandemics lurk in humanitys future. But ban smoking, fight obesity, and introduce autonomous cars and personalised medicine, and youll see lifespans rise.

The US is projected to see only a modest rise in lifespan due to a lack of healthcare access, and high rates of obesity, child mortality and homicides.

The other interesting thing is that the studys results are a shot across the bows of scientists who claim that there are hard limits to human lifespan.

As recently as the turn of the century, many researchers believed that life expectancy would never surpass 90 years, lead author Majid Ezzati of Imperial College London told the Guardian back in February.

That prediction mirrors another, published in Nature in October 2016, that concluded that the upper limit of human age is stuck at about 115 years.

By analysing global demographic data, we show that improvements in survival with age tend to decline after age 100, and that the age at death of the worlds oldest person has not increased since the 1990s, wrote the authors Xiao Dong, Brandon Milholland & Jan Vijg.

Our results strongly suggest that the maximum lifespan of humans is fixed and subject to natural constraints.

The maximum length of a human lifespan remains up for debate.

Other researchers, however, disagree. Bryan G. Hughes & Siegfried Hekimi wrote in the same journal a few months later that their analysis showed that there are many possible maximum lifespan trajectories.

We just dont know what the age limit might be. In fact, by extending trend lines, we can show that maximum and average lifespans, could continue to increase far into the foreseeable future, Hekimi said.

Three hundred years ago, many people lived only short lives. If we would have told them that one day most humans might live up to 100, they would have said we were crazy.

Thats all big-picture stuff, so lets dive down to a more personal level. Assuming that you cant change your genetics or your life up until the point that youre currently at, what can you personally do to live longer?

Heres the list: Dont smoke. Exercise your body and mind on a daily basis. Eat foods rich in whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and unsaturated fat. Dont drink too much alcohol. Get your blood pressure checked. Chop out sources of stress and anxiety in your life. Travel by train. Stay in school. Think positive. Cultivate a strong social group. Dont sit for long periods of time. Make sure you get enough calcium and vitamin D. Keep your weight at a healthy level. And dont go to hospital if you can help it hospitals are dangerous places.

All of those things have been correlated with increased lifespan in scientific studies. And theyre all pretty easy and cheap to do. If you want to maximise your longevity, then thats your to-do list. But there are also strategies that have a little less scientific merit. The ones that people with too much money pursue when they realise they havent been following any of the above for most of their life.

Inside the Cryonics Institute.

Cryonics is probably the most popular. First proposed in the 1960s by US academic Robert Ettinger in his book The Prospect of Immortality, it involves freezing the body as soon as possible after death in a tube kept at -196C, along with detailed notes of what they died of. The idea is that when medicine has invented a cure for that ailment, the corpse can be thawed and reanimated.

Calling someone dead is merely medicines way of excusing itself from resuscitation problems it cannot fix today, reads the website of top cryogenics firm Alcor.

The problem is the brain. First, its so dense and well-protected that its extremely difficult for the cryonics chemicals to penetrate it. Its almost impossible that it doesnt get damaged in the freezing process.

The 21,000,000,000 neurons and ~1,000,000,000,000,000 synapses in the human brain means that itll be a while until we have the computational resources to map it.

Secondly, your neurons die quickly even if youre immersed within minutes of death, youre still likely to suffer substantial brain damage. To which cryonics proponents argue: What do I have to lose? If the choice is between probably never waking up again and never waking up again, and its your money to spend, then why not give it a shot?

An alternative to deep freeze is storing your brain in a computer. Not literally a lump of grey matter, but a database detailing in full all of the connections between the neurons in your brain that make you you (known as your connectome). Future doctors could then either rewire a real or artificial brain to match that data, resurrecting you in a new body (or perhaps even as an artificial intelligence).

A close look at a slice of mouse brain. Credit: Robert Cudmore

So far, weve only managed to map the full connectome of one animal the roundworm C. elegans. Despite the worms mere 302 neurons and 7,500 or so synapses, the resulting data is about 12GB in size you can download it in full at the Open Connectome Project, and even install it in a robot, which will then act like a worm.

Unfortunately the human brain is a somewhat larger undertaking. The Human Connectome Project is making a start, and AI is helping, but the 21,000,000,000 neurons and ~1,000,000,000,000,000 synapses in the human brain means that itll be a while until we have the computational resources to get it done. Its worth noting that this isnt an unassailable goal, especially if we can somehow figure out which bits are actually important to our personality and who we are as individuals and which bits are just used to remember the lyrics of Spice Girls songs.

For now, though, my recommendation would be to stick to the list of simple life extension strategies above. Its probable that in time well have new ways of augmenting our bodies that will extend our lifespans (weve already started with cyborg technology just look at pacemakers and artificial hips).

But if you want to be at the front of the waiting list then youll need to arrive at that point with as youthful a body as possible.

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Top critical review

2 people found this helpful

3.0 out of 5 starsThe book is subtitled “A NUTS and BOLTS Approach to Management” so I maybe coming to hard on it.

ByShalom in Karison October 7, 2016

I’ve only started reading the book and my initial impression is a 3.5/5. The book maybe dated, with the most recent references listed as 2012, and the majority before 2007. The book is subtitled “A NUTS and BOLTS Approach to Management” so I maybe coming to hard on it. I was hoping the book would be comprehensive in discussing the causes for suboptimal hormone levels. True to the title of the book – it focuses on optimization or treatment. An example is the thyroid chapter, where 5 sentences are devoted to the discussion factors affecting T4-T3 conversion. I wish there was more discussion on autoimmune and nutritional components to suboptimal thyroid. Another example would be in the testosterone chapter, where there is mention of aromatization affecting levels, but wish there was more discussion on causes for hypogonadism – ie. stress/cortisol, bpa, heavy metals, opiates, etc. The amount of references listed in the book can be viewed positively or negatively depending on whether the references are important to you.Ch3 Thyroid page 14- 51// total pages 37 // 27 pages are literature citationsCh4 Testosterone page 52-134 // total pages 82// 61 pages are literature citationsCh5 Estrogen/Progesterone p 135-182// total pages 47// 27 pages are literature citationsCh6 DHEA/Cortisol p 183-216// total pages 33// 22 pages are literature citationsCh7 Pregnenolone p 217-228// total pages 11// 8 pages are literature citationsCh8 Melatonin p 229-248// total pages 19// 14 are literature citationsCh9 HGH p249-327// total pages 78// 61 are literature citations

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My Affinity Med Spa | Home

Affinity Med Spa is a brand new, state-of-the-art medical spa located in the Waterford Lakes Town Center. Although were in a new space and have a new name, our team has been successfully serving the area for over seventeen years as Affinity Health and Wellness Center.

Whether you are looking for non-toxic skin care, anti-aging or clarifying facials, peels, indulgent massages, botox/dermal fillers, hormone optimization, chiropractic care, or weight-loss solutions, the experts at Affinity Med Spa are here to help. We believe in taking a holistic approach to help you look and feel your best. This means that our experts will put together a treatment protocol to address your condition both internally and externally.

From our skin care products to our laundry detergent, were committed to using safe, all-natural products that are free from toxins, so you can rest assured your health is our number one priority. Because healthy is beautiful, and true beauty comes from the inside out.

We cant wait to share the Affinity Med Spa experience with you!

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy | Titan Men’s Health

League City & Friendswood Testosterone Therapy

Welcome to Titan T-Center & Weight Loss, League City and Friendswood, Texas finest testosterone replacement therapy clinic. Our clinic is outfitted with the latest technologies to provide our patients with efficient,safe and accurate results. In addition to our modern equipment, the medical professionals at our facilityare some of the most skilled and knowledgeable individuals in the industry. To all of us here, providing premier testosterone therapy requires more than just basic medical treatment. Our staff believes in building relationships and improving the lives of each and every individual that walks through our door.

Low testosterone, or hypogonadism, is a condition in which the bodys natural production of the hormone is below normal levels. By the age of 30, it is very common for men to begin seeing a decline in testosterone. Men may see a variety of symptoms, including but not limited to, a decrease in sex drive. Although age plays a factor in the production of testosterone, diabetes and excessive weight, have been associated with the condition as well.

Although testosterone supplements may be available in several forms, testosterone injections are believed to be safer and more effective than a pill. Oral testosterone is available, however, it is believed that testosterone taken orally may damage the liver. Furthermore, testosterone injections go directlyinto thebloodstream, making each treatment more effective.

Titan T-Center & Weight Loss is here to help you determine whether or not youmay be in need of therapy to lift your testosterone levels. We encourage you to look through the rest of our website to learn more about low t and its impact on your day-to-day life. Should you have any questions or if you would like to come in for a visit, contact us your convenience. Titan T-Center serves patients residing all over the League City and Friendswood areas.

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Sermorelin Is Life Transforming. It Can Change You. | AAI …

Sermorelin is a growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog that functions as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. This means that it stimulates the production and secretion of endogenous GH from the hypothalamus in the same way as endogenous GHRH.

Sermorelin is a peptide comprised of the first 29 amino acids of endogenous GH; the sequence is the same as endogenous GHRH. As we age, our body produces less and less of our vital hormones, including GH. Studies have revealed that sermorelin can restore GH RNA concentrations to youthful levels, which subsequently stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).

How Will the Sermorelin My Physician Describes Arrive?

Depending on how your physician designs your protocol, your sermorelin will come in a multi-dose injectable vial. Each vial contains a powder disc that contains sermorelin acetate. The amount of drug in the disc will determine the potency of the dose, which will vary according to your physicians recommendations for an effective and safe therapy. The vial is vacuum-sealed by the pharmacy for your protection and to preserve the hormone peptide. You will also receive a bottle of bacteriostatic water for each vial of sermorelin Injections, which you will use to reconstitute the drug before injection. Sermorelin therapy is also available in an oral preparation. Of course, all administration and storage instructions will be provided with your prescription. We also offer sermorelin/ipamorelin combination treatments. Ipamorelin is a peptide that activates the GH secretagogue receptor and function as a GH secretagogue.

Sermorelin at AAI Rejuvenation Clinic

The specialty pharmacies that we partner with allow us to offer our patients the convenience of being prescribed medication that does not need to be refrigerated. Sermorelin needs to be administered every day and, depending on the protocol, sometimes several times a day. This can be complicated for many patients, who are always on the go. Our sermorelin and combination sermorelin/ipamorelin products never require refrigeration, which makes it easy and convenient for you.

How Do I Take Sermorelin?

Sermorelin is injected subcutaneously into the body fat using a very small needle, similar to what a diabetic may use to inject insulin. Injections are initially prescribed daily and are then decreased in frequency over time.

There is no specific time of day that you should administer your therapy. Some patients find it beneficial to take it at bedtime because both sermorelin and GHRH can induce deep, restful sleep, which is linked to the increased pulsatile secretion of GH from the pituitary in the brain. However, other patients find that the increased GH release stimulates mental activity and thereby reduces sleep quality. Therefore, you should administer the drug when it works best for you.

How Do You Measure the Effectiveness of Sermorelin?

Due to the pulsatile nature of endogenous hGH secretion, a single blood draw is not sufficient to accurately measure its concentrations. In contrast, IGF-1 levels remain stable throughout the day; therefore, IGF-1 is considered a more stable and accurate measure of GH production. The physicians at AAI Rejuvenation Clinic specialize in assisting patients to understand how they are affected by and benefit from their treatment program. Aside from measuring the effectiveness of therapy by changes in the symptoms and physical appearance and measurements, frequent blood analyses are the most accurate way to ensure that your treatment protocol remains safe and effective.

Several things should be expected from a properly administered program. Remember that sermorelin is another form of GH therapy; therefore, the list of benefits and side effects is the same as what youd expect from hGH therapy.

Initially, patients on GHRH therapy could expect the following:

If you are interested in learning more or have any questions, you are welcome to fill out our contact form and someone will get to you within 24 business hours.

Sermorelin Injection Curious about Benefits of Sermorelin Therapy? Read more about what you can expect from this treatment and contact us for more information (866) 224-5698

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Elevating the Human Condition – Humanity+ What does it mean …

What does it mean to be human in a technologically enhanced world? Humanity+ is a 501(c)3 international nonprofit membership organization that advocates the ethical use of technology, such as artificial intelligence, to expand human capacities. In other words, we want people to be better than well. This is the goal of transhumanism.

Humannity+ Advocates for Safe and Ethical Use: Technologies that intervene with human physiology for curing disease and repairing injury have accelerated to a point in which they also can increase human performance outside the realms of what is considered to be normal for humans. These technologies are referred to as emerging and speculative and include artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, biotechnology, genetic engineering, stem cell cloning, and transgenesis, for example. Other technologies that could extend and expand human capabilities outside physiology include artificial intelligence, artificial general intelligence, robotics, and brain-computer integration, which form the domain of bionics, uploading, and could be used for developing whole body prosthetics. Because these technologies, and their respective sciences and strategic models, such as blockchain, would take the human beyond the normal state of existence, society, including bioethicists and others who advocate the safe use of technology, have shown concern and uncertainties about the downside of these technologies and possible problematic and dangerous outcomes for our species.

CURRENT PROJECTS: Humanity+ @ Beijing Conference; Blockchain Prize; Humanity+ @ The Assemblage New York City; TransVision 2018 Madrid, Spain.

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H+/-: Transhumanism and Its Critics: Gregory R. Hansell …

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What is Nanomedicine? : Center for Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is defined as the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine can include a wide range of applications, including biosensors, tissue engineering, diagnostic devices, and many others. In the Center for Nanomedicine at Johns Hopkins, we focus on harnessing nanotechnology to more effectively diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases. Our entire bodies are exposed to the medicines that we take, which can lead to unpleasant side effects and minimize the amount of medicine that reaches the places where it is needed. Medications can be more efficiently delivered to the site of action using nanotechnology, resulting in improved outcomes with less medication.

For example, treating cancer with current chemotherapy delivery techniques is like spraying an entire rose garden with poison in order to kill a single weed. It would be far more effective to spray a small amount of poison, directly on the weed, and save the roses. In this analogy, a cancer patients hair follicles, immune cells, and epithelia are the roses being poisoned by the chemotherapy. Using nanotechnology, we can direct the chemotherapy to the tumor and minimize exposure to the rest of the body. In addition, our nanotechnologies are more capable of bypassing internal barriers (see Technologies), further improving upon conventional nanotechnologies. Not only is our approach more effective at eradicating tumors (see Cancer under Research), but it also results in much higher quality of life for the patient.

Nanotechnology can also reduce the frequency with which we have to take our medications. Typically, the human body can very quickly and effectively remove medications, reducing the duration of action. For example, the current treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) requires monthly injections into the eye in a clinical setting. However, if the medication is slowly released from the inside of a nanoparticle, the frequency of injection can be reduced to once every 6 months (see Eye under Research). The nanoparticle itself also slowly biodegrades into components that naturally occur in the body, which are also removed from the body after the medication has done its job. This exciting technology is currently being commercialized and moved toward clinical trials (see Commercialization).

Nanomedicine will lead to many more exciting medical breakthroughs. Please explore our various nanotechnology platforms and the numerous areas in which we are pursuing nanomedicine-based medical solutions.

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What is Nanomedicine? : Center for Nanomedicine

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Nanomedicine | medicine |

Nanomedicine, branch of medicine that seeks to apply nanotechnologythat is, the manipulation and manufacture of materials and devices that are smaller than 1 nanometre [0.0000001 cm] in sizeto the prevention of disease and to imaging, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, repair, and regeneration of biological systems.

Although nanomedicine remains in its early stages, a number of nanomedical applications have been developed. Research thus far has focused on the development of biosensors to aid in diagnostics and vehicles to administer vaccines, medications, and genetic therapy, including the development of nanocapsules to aid in cancer treatment.

An offshoot of nanotechnology, nanomedicine is an emerging field and had garnered interest as a site for global research and development, which gives the field academic and commercial legitimacy. Funding for nanomedicine research comes both from public and private sources, and the leading investors are the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan. In terms of the volume of nanomedicine research, these countries are joined by China, France, India, Brazil, Russia, and India.

Working at the molecular-size scale, nanomedicine is animated with promises of the seamless integration of biology and technology, the eradication of disease through personalized medicine, targeted drug delivery, regenerative medicine, as well as nanomachinery that can substitute portions of cells. Although many of these visions may not come to fruition, some nanomedicine applications have become reality, with the potential to radically transform the practice of medicine, as well as current understandings of the health, disease, and biologyissues that are of vital importance for contemporary societies. The fields global market share totalled some $78 billion dollars in 2012, driven by technological advancements. By the end of the decade, the market is expected to grow to nearly $200 billion.

Nanomedicine derives much of its rhetorical, technological, and scientific strength from the scale on which it operates (1 to 100 nanometers), the size of molecules and biochemical functions. The term nanomedicine emerged in 1999, the year when American scientist Robert A. Freitas Jr. published Nanomedicine: Basic Capabilities, the first of two volumes he dedicated to the subject.

Extending American scientist K. Eric Drexlers vision of molecular assemblers with respect to nanotechnology, nanomedicine was depicted as facilitating the creation of nanobot devices (nanoscale-sized automatons) that would navigate the human body searching for and clearing disease. Although much of this compelling imagery still remains unrealized, it underscores the underlying vision of doctors being able to search and destroy diseased cells, or of nanomachines that substitute biological parts, which still drives portrayals of the field. Such illustrations remain integral to the field, being used by scientists, funding agencies, and the media alike.

Attesting to the fields actuality are numerous dedicated scientific and industry-oriented conferences, peer-reviewed scientific journals, professional societies, and a growing number of companies. However, nanomedicines identity, scope, and goals are a matter of controversy. In 2006, for instance, the prestigious journal Nature Materials discussed the ongoing struggle of policy makers to understand if nanomedicine is a rhetorical issue or a solution to a real problem. This ambivalence is reflected in the numerous definitions of nanomedicine that can be found in scientific literature, that range from complicated drugs to the above mentioned nanobots. Despite the lack of a shared definition, there is a general agreement that nanomedicine entails the application of nanotechnology in medicine and that it will profoundly impact medical practice.

A further topic of debate is nanomedicines genealogy, in particular its connections to molecular medicine and nanotechnology. The case of nanotechnology is exemplary: on one hand, its potentialin terms of science but also in regard to funding and recognitionis often mobilized by nanomedicine proponents; on the other, there is an attempt to distance nanomedicine from nanotechnology, for fear of being damaged by the perceived hype that surrounds it. The push is then for nanomedicine to emerge not as a subdiscipline of nanotechnology but as a parallel field.

Although nanomedicine research and development is actively pursued in numerous countries, the United States, the EU (particularly Germany), and Japan have made significant contributions from the fields outset. This is reflected both in the number of articles published and in that of patents filed, both of which have grown exponentially since 2004. By 2012, however, nanomedicine research in China grew with respect to publications in the field, and the country ranked second only to the United States in the number of research articles published.

In 2004, two U.S. funding agenciesthe National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Instituteidentified nanomedicine as a priority research area allocating $144 million and $80 million, respectively, to its study. In the EU meanwhile, public granting institutions did not formally recognize nanomedicine as a field, providing instead funding for research that falls under the headers of nanotechnology and health. Such lack of coordination had been the target of critiques by the European Science Foundation (ESF), warning that it would result in lost medical benefits. In spite of this, the EU ranked first in number of nanomedicine articles published and in 2007 the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) allocated 250 million to nanomedicine research. Such work has also been heavily funded by the private sector. A study led by the European Science and Technology Observatory found that over 200 European companies were researching and developing nanomedicine applications, many of which were coordinating their efforts.

Much of nanomedicine research is application oriented, emphasizing methods to transfer it from the laboratory to the bedside. In 2005 the ESF pointed to four main subfields in nanomedicine research: analytical tools and nanoimaging, nanomaterials and nanodevices, novel therapeutics and drug delivery systems, and clinical, regulatory, and toxicological issues. Research in analytical tools and nanoimaging seeks to develop noninvasive, reliable, cheap, and highly sensitive tools for in vivo diagnosis and visualization. The ultimate goal is to create fully functional mobile sensors that can be remotely controlled to conduct in vivo, real-time analysis. Research on nanomaterials and nanodevices aims to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of biomaterials used in medicine, so as to create safer implants, substitute damaged cell parts, or stimulate cell growth for tissue engineering and regeneration, to name a few. Work in novel therapeutics and drug delivery systems strives to develop and design nanoparticles and nanostructures that are noninvasive and can target specific diseases, as well as cross biological barriers. Allied with very precise means for diagnosis, these drug delivery systems would enable equally precise site-specific therapeutics and fewer side effects. The area of drug delivery accounts for a large portion of nanomedicines scientific publications.

Finally, the subfield of clinical, regulatory, and toxicological issues lumps together research that examines the field as a whole. Questions of safety and toxicology are prevalent, an issue that is all the more important given that nanomedicine entails introducing newly engineered nanoscale particles, materials, and devices into the human body. Regulatory issues revolve around the management of this newness, with some defending the need for new regulation, and others the ability of systems to deal with it. This subfield should also include other research by social scientists and humanists, namely on the ethics of nanomedicine.

Combined, these subfields build a case for preventive medicine and personalized medicine. Building upon genomics, personalized medicine envisions the possibility of individually tailored diagnostics and therapeutics. Preventive medicine takes this notion further, conjuring the possibility of treating a disease before it manifests itself. If realized, such shifts would have radical impacts on understandings of health, embodiment, and personhood. Questions remain concerning the cost and accessibility of nanomedicine and also about the consequences of diagnostics based on risk propensity or that lack a cure.

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Nanomedicine | medicine |

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