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Category : Nanomedicine

Top Nano Conferences|Drug Delivery Meetings| Nanomedicine …

About conference

Hear Explore and Learn the Latest Research. Present before distinguished global audience. Collaborate, build partnerships and experience Auckland, New Zealand. Join the Global Nanomedicine Community

ConferenceSeries Ltdinvites the contributors across the globe to participate in the premier 19thInternational Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Health Care (Nanomedicine 2019) (CPD Accredited), to discuss the theme:”Potent impact of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in future medicine and treatment.The conference will be held atAuckland,New ZealandduringApril 04-06, 2019.

Conference Series Llcorganizes aconference seriesof 1000+ Global Events inclusive of 300+ Conferences, 500+ Upcoming and Previous Symposiums and Workshops in USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and publishes 700+ Open access journals which contains over 30000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members

19thInternational Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Health Care(Nanomedicine 2019) (CPD Accredited) aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of Nanomedicine in Healthcare. It also provides the premier interdisciplinary forum for researchers, practitioners and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns, practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted in the field of Nanomedicine. The conference program will cover a wide variety of topics relevant to the Nanomedicine, including: Nanomedicine in drug discover and delivery, Nano diagnostics, theranostics, applications of Nanomedicine in healthcare applications and disease treatments.

Why to attend?

19th International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Healthcare 2019 (CPD Accredited) which will be the greatest gathering devoted to Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology.

Professionals giving a chief specialized gathering to detailing and finding out about the most recent new era advancements created over the span of time alongside examining their applications.

Events incorporate intriguing issues introductions from everywhere throughout the world and expert systems administration with enterprises, driving working gatherings and boards.

Meet Your Objective Business area with people from and around the world focused on getting some answers concerning Pharmaceutics and Nanomedicine, this is the most obvious opportunity to accomplish the greatest accumulation of individuals from wherever all through the World.

Conduct appears, scatter information, meet with current, make a sprinkle with another item offering, and get name affirmation at this event. Generally acclaimed speakers, the most recent techniques, methodologies, and the most breakthrough updates in Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology are indications of this meeting.

Target Audience:

Nanomedicine Academia Professors , Medical professionals, Nanomedicine Department heads, Nanomedicine researchers, Nanomedicine CTOs, Nanomedicine product managers, business development managers, Entrepreneurs, Industry analysts, Investors, Students, Media representatives and decision makers from all corners of Nanoscience research area around the globe.

We therefore encourage all colleagues from all over the world to participate and help us to make this an unforgettable important and enjoyable meeting.

We look forward to seeing you in Auckland, New Zealand !!!

ConferenceSeries Ltdinvites all the participants from all over the world to attend 19thInternational Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Health Care duringApril 04-06, 2019at Auckland, New Zealand.It will include presentations and discussions to help attendees address the current trends and research on the applications of Nanomedicine and nanotechnology in healthcare. The theme of the conference is”Potent impact of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in future medicine and treatment.”

Nanomedicineis innovating the healthcare industry and impacting our society, but is still in its infancy in clinical performance and applications. The aim of thisNanomedicine 2019conference is to bring together leading academic, clinical and industrial experts to discuss development of innovative cutting-edge Nanomedicine and challenges in Nanomedicine clinical translation.

Track 1:Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

Nano medicinecan be defined as medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications ofnanomaterialand biological devices, Nano electronic devices & biosensors and possible future applications ofmolecular nanotechnology. Nanomaterials can be functionalised to interface withbiological molecules& structures as the size of nanomaterials is comparable to most biological molecules and structures. Nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitrobiomedical researchand applications and integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of advanced diagnostic devices,physical therapy applications, analytical tools, contrast agents and drug delivery vehicles. Nanomedicine strives for delivering valuable set of research tools & clinically useful devices and its industry sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with an average of $3.8 billion investment innanotechnologyR&D every year and increase of 45% per year global funding for emerging nanotechnology.

Track 2:Nanotechnology in Healthcare

Nano medicineaffects almost all the aspects ofhealthcare. Nano medicine helps to engineer novel and advanced tools for the treatment of various diseases and the improvement of human bio systems usingmolecular Nanotechnology. Cardiovascular diseases,Neurodegenerative disorders, Cancer, Diabetes, Infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS are the maindiseaseswhose treatment can be benefitted by using Nano medicine.

Track 3:Nano medicine and Nano pharmaceuticals

Nano pharmaceuticalssuch asliposomes, quantum dots,dendrites,carbon nanotubesandpolymeric nanoparticleshave brought considerable changes in drug delivery and themedical system. Nano pharmaceuticals offer a great benefit for the patients in comparison with the conventional drugs. There are several advantages of these drugs such as enhanced oralbioavailability, improved dose proportionality, enhanced solubility and dissolution rate, suitability for administration and reducedfood effects.

Track 4:Applications of Nanotechnology in Health Care

Nanotechnology has the potential to completely revolutionise all the three key aspects ofhealthcare sectordiagnosis, prevention andTreatment. It can completely change the healthcare sector for the next generation. Nanotechnology will help medical professionals in today’s most excruciating medical issues, such as repairing of damaged organs,diagnosisand treatment ofcancer cells, removal of obstruction in brain and it can help in betterdrug delivery system.

Track 5:Nanotechnology for Environment and Nano safety

Nanotechnology in vitality frameworkscienceand designing have been looking to grow better than ever sorts of vitality advancements that have the capacity of enhancing life everywhere throughout the world. With a specific end goal to make the following jump forward from the present era of geothermalinnovation,researchersand engineers have been creating vitality uses of nanotechnology. BCC Research assesses the aggregate vitality related business sector inPhotovoltaic gadgetsfor Batteries andgeothermal nanotechnologiesand Nano materials at about $8.8 billion in 2012 and $15 billion. There are 26 colleges and 15 new inquires about is been going onElectrochemistry. The examination includes in atomic responses and Fuel cells.

Track 6:Nanomedicine in Drug Delivery Systems

Nanoparticle technology was recently shown to hold great promise fordrug delivery applicationsin nanomedicine due to its beneficial properties, such as better encapsulation, bioavailability, control release, and lower toxic effect. Despite the great progress in nanomedicine, there remain many limitations for clinical applications onNano carriers. To overcome these limitations, advanced nanoparticles for drug delivery have been developed to enable the spatially and temporally controlled release of drugs in response to specific stimuli at disease sites. Furthermore, the controlled self-assembly of organic and inorganic materials may enable their use intheranostic applications. This review presents an overview of a recent advancednanoparticulate systemthat can be used as a potentialdrug delivery carrierand focuses on the potential applications of nanoparticles in various biomedical fields for human health care. A novel process for synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles for use in drug delivery applicationsusing theelectro spraying technique. The technologyis standardized for synthesis of natural polymer based nanoparticles such as chitosan-gelatin based nanoparticles.

Track 7:Nano in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

A standout amongst the most encouraging nanotechnology fields isNano pharmaceuticals. Since nanomaterials might enter the body throughdermal presentation, inward breath, ingestion, orvisual contact, they loan themselves to inventive medication conveyance frameworks. Pharmaceutical examination,toxicologythinks about, definition, and assembling of pharmaceutical items requirematerial portrayalto guarantee reliable medication security and viabilityNano scale pharmaceuticalprocedures in medication revelation andadvancementoutline and improvement ofNano formulationsand Nano scale drug conveyance frameworks, administrative viewpoints and approaches identified with Nano pharmaceuticals.

Track 8:Graphene modification and functionalization

Chemical functionalization ofgrapheneenables the material to be processed by solvent assisted techniques, such as layer by layer assembly, spin coating andfiltration. Hexagonal boron nitride iselectrical insulating, combined with graphene and other 2D materials to make heterostructure devices. The two dimensional graphene sheet structures for field emission of electrons due to thecarrier mobilityandelectron mass. The filed emitter by using multi layered graphene nanostructure, the graphitic structure ofpristinegraphene and carbon nanotube is thedriving forceof their interaction .The combination of graphene with carbon nanotubes to producedhybridsincreased electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and high surface area.

Track 9:Advanced Characterization of Nanomaterials

Advances in nanotechnology have opened up a new era ofdiagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases andtraumatic injuries. Nanomaterials, including those with potential for clinical applications possess novelphysicochemical propertiesthat have an impact on their physiological interactions, from the molecular level to thesystemic level. There is a lack of standardized methodologies or regulatory protocols for detection or characterization ofnanomaterial. This review summarizes the techniques that are commonly used to study the size, shape,surface properties,composition, purity andstability of nanomaterials, along with their advantages and disadvantages. At present there are no FDA guidelines that have been developed specifically for nanomaterial based formulations for diagnostic or therapeutic use. There is an urgent need forstandardized protocolsand procedures for thecharacterizationof nanoparticles, especially those that are intended for use as theranostics.

Track 10:Nano Composites and Multiscale Nano materials

In the large field of nanotechnology,polymer matrixbasedNano compositeshave become a prominent area of current research and development. Exfoliated clay basedNano compositeshave dominated the polymerliteraturebut there are a large number of other significant areas of current and emerging interest. PolymernanotubeNano composite conductselectricity.

Track 11:Nano materials and Nanotechnology

Nanotechnologyis the handling of matter on an atomic,molecular, andsupramolecular scale. The interesting aspect about nanotechnology is that the properties of many materials alter when the size scale of theirdimensionsapproachesnanometres. Materials scientists andengineerswork to understand those property changes and utilize them in the processing and manufacture of materials at theNano scale level. The field of materials science covers thediscovery, characterization, properties, and use ofNano scale materials.

Track 12:Biomaterials and Medical Devices

Biomaterialsfrom healthcare viewpoint can be defined as materials those possess some novel properties that make them appropriate to come in immediate association with theliving tissuewithout eliciting anyadverse immune rejection reactions. Biomaterials are in the service ofmankindthrough ancient times but subsequent evolution has made them moreversatileand has increased their usage.

Track 13:Nanotechnologies and commercial viability

Nano scienceandMolecular Nanotechnologyis thenew outskirtsof science and innovation in Europe and around the globe, working at the size of individual particles. Top researchers and in addition policymakers overall acclaim theadvantagesit would convey to the whole society and economy: a large portion of them demand the key part research would play in the quality creation procedure to createexploitablearrangement of innovations by theEuropean businessprompting a decision of remarkable applications, items, markets and productive income sources.

Related Conferences:

Related Societies:

Global Pharma Universities:

Global PharmaAssociations

Pharma Companies/Hospitals:

Global Pharma Research Institutes:

Nanomedicine 2018

We gratefully thank all our wonderful Speakers, Conference Attendees, Students, Media Partners, Associations and Sponsors for making Nanomedicine 2018 Conference a success

The 18th International Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Health Care, hosted by the Conferenceseries LLC LTD was held during October 08-09 2018 at Osaka, Japan based on the theme Embarking Next Generation Delivery Vehicles for Affordable Healthcare”. Benevolent response and active participation was received from the Organizing Committee Members along with Scientists, Researchers, Students and leaders from various fields of Medicine, Nanotechnology, pharmacy, who made this event a grand success.

The meeting reflected various sessions, in which discussions were held on the following major scientific tracks:

Conference Series LLC LTD also took privilege to felicitate the Keynote Speakers, Organizing Committee Members, Chairs and sponsors who supported this event

With the success of Nano Medicine 2018, Conference Series LLC LTD is proud to announce the “19th International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Healthcare” to be held during April 04-06,2019 Auckland, New Zealand.

For More details visit:https://nanomedicine.conferenceseries.com/

See more here:
Top Nano Conferences|Drug Delivery Meetings| Nanomedicine …

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

Nanoscopy for nanomedicine Institute for Bioengineering …

The main goal of our group is to use Super Resolution Microscopy (nanoscopy) to visualize and track in living cells and tissues self-assembled nanomaterials with therapeutic potential (nanomedicine).

TEM image of novel self-assembled nanofibers synthesized in the group.

The understanding of materials-cell interactions is the key towards the development of novel nanotechnology-based therapies for treatment of cancer and infectious diseases.Our group aims to use a multidisciplinary approach, at the interface of chemistry, physics and biology, to develop novel nanomaterials for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases.

We aim at the development of novel nanocarriers for drug delivery based on self-assembly, i.e. able to build themselves. Molecular self-organization is ubiquitous in the biological world and represents for us a source of inspiration for the design of nanostructures with biomedical potential. In particular we focus on the development of self-assembled nanoparticles and nanofibers able to selectively target diseased cells and deliver locally therapeutic moieties such as drugs and genetic material (e.g. DNA, siRNA, mRNA).

A key point towards the development of novel nanotechnology-based therapies is the understanding of the behavior of nanomaterials in the complex biological environment. Here we use super resolution microscopy to track nanomaterials during their voyage in the biological environment and to visualize the interactions with blood components, immune system and target cells. We make use of a variety of super resolution techniques based on single molecule detection such a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (PAINT), and single particle tracking (SPT). These methods allow to achieve a resolution down to few nanometers and are therefore ideal to visualize nanosized synthetic objects in the biological environment. Super resolution microscopy provides a molecular picture of structure-activity relations and represent a guide towards the design of innovative materials for nanomedicine.

Eight IBECers were in the Netherlands on 13th and 14th September for the first ever IBEC-ICMS Symposium, NanoSens&Med.

Two IBEC groups have clubbed together to combine their expertise and reveal new knowledge that could advance the design of micro- and nanomotors for applications in health.

Three of IBECs women researchers have been successful in BISTs recent To the Mothers of Science call.

The Nanoscopy for Nanomedicine group has studied Single-Chain Polymeric Nanoparticles (SCPNs) mimicking enzymes as possible drug activators in biological environments, like the living cell.

An article by BIOCAT profiles the three winners in Catalonia of the last round of ERC Starting Grants, including IBECs Lorenzo Albertazzi.

A paper published in Small last month by Lorenzo Albertazzis group is featured in Advanced Science News, Wiley publishing companys in-house news website. This platform presents advances in various fields of research for a general audience.

The Nanoscopy for Nanomedicine junior group leader was successful in the European Research Councils 2017 call for Starting Grants, of which just 17 out of the total of 406 have been awarded to scientists working in Spain.

IBEC junior group leader Lorenzo Albertazzi is a contributor to the 2017 edition of ChemComm Emerging Investigators, which is published annually by the UKs Royal Society of Chemistry.

The AXA Research Fund, the international scientific philanthropy initiative of global insurer AXA, officially announced last week that it will devote 15.6m in 2016 to 44 new research projects with leading academic institutions in 16 countries.

New IBEC junior group leader Lorenzo Albertazzi and his former colleagues at the Eindhoven University of Technology, working together with industry partner Novartis, have made a leap in drug delivery vectors by developing a new type of carrier with some groundbreaking improvements.

Lorenzo Albertazzis research project funded by AXA, Novel approaches for Pandemic Virus Targeting Using Adaptive Polymers, is featured on the Granted Projects section of their website.

New IBEC junior group leader Lorenzo Albertazzi is profiled in El Mundos Personajes nicos section this week.

Dr Lorenzo Albertazzi, a nanoscientist whose research focuses on creating smart self-assembling materials for therapeutic applications, is joining IBEC this September.

(See full publication list in ORCID)

Liu, Yiliu, Pujals, Slvia, Stals, Patrick J. M., Paulhrl, Thomas, Presolski, Stanislav I., Meijer, E. W., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Palmans, Anja R. A., (2018). Catalytically active single-chain polymeric nanoparticles: Exploring their functions in complex biological media Journal of the American Chemical Society 140, (9), 3423-3433

Dynamic single-chain polymeric nanoparticles (SCPNs) are intriguing, bioinspired architectures that result from the collapse or folding of an individual polymer chain into a nanometer-sized particle. Here we present a detailed biophysical study on the behavior of dynamic SCPNs in living cells and an evaluation of their catalytic functionality in such a complex medium. We first developed a number of delivery strategies that allowed the selective localization of SCPNs in different cellular compartments. Live/dead tests showed that the SCPNs were not toxic to cells while spectral imaging revealed that SCPNs provide a structural shielding and reduced the influence from the outer biological media. The ability of SCPNs to act as catalysts in biological media was first assessed by investigating their potential for reactive oxygen species generation. With porphyrins covalently attached to the SCPNs, singlet oxygen was generated upon irradiation with light, inducing spatially controlled cell death. In addition, Cu(I)- and Pd(II)-based SCPNs were prepared and these catalysts were screened in vitro and studied in cellular environments for the carbamate cleavage reaction of rhodamine-based substrates. This is a model reaction for the uncaging of bioactive compounds such as cytotoxic drugs for catalysis-based cancer therapy. We observed that the rate of the deprotection depends on both the organometallic catalysts and the nature of the protective group. The rate reduces from in vitro to the biological environment, indicating a strong influence of biomolecules on catalyst performance. The Cu(I)-based SCPNs in combination with the dimethylpropargyloxycarbonyl protective group showed the best performances both in vitro and in biological environment, making this group promising in biomedical applications.

Patio, Tania, Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Arqu, Xavier, Miguel-Lpez, Albert, Jannasch, Anita, Stumpp, Tom, Schffer, Erik, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Snchez, Samuel, (2018). Influence of enzyme quantity and distribution on the self-propulsion of non-Janus urease-powered micromotors Journal of the American Chemical Society 140, (25), 7896-7903

The use of enzyme catalysis to power micro- and nanomachines offers unique features such as biocompatibility, versatility, and fuel bioavailability. Yet, the key parameters underlying the motion behavior of enzyme-powered motors are not completely understood. Here, we investigate the role of enzyme distribution and quantity on the generation of active motion. Two different micromotor architectures based on either polystyrene (PS) or polystyrene coated with a rough silicon dioxide shell (PS@SiO2) were explored. A directional propulsion with higher speed was observed for PS@SiO2 motors when compared to their PS counterparts. We made use of stochastically optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to precisely detect single urease molecules conjugated to the micromotors surface with a high spatial resolution. An asymmetric distribution of enzymes around the micromotor surface was observed for both PS and PS@SiO2 architectures, indicating that the enzyme distribution was not the only parameter affecting the motion behavior. We quantified the number of enzymes present on the micromotor surface and observed a 10-fold increase in the number of urease molecules for PS@SiO2 motors compared to PS-based micromotors. To further investigate the number of enzymes required to generate a self-propulsion, PS@SiO2 particles were functionalized with varying amounts of urease molecules and the resulting speed and propulsive force were measured by optical tracking and optical tweezers, respectively. Surprisingly, both speed and force depended in a nonlinear fashion on the enzyme coverage. To break symmetry for active propulsion, we found that a certain threshold number of enzymes molecules per micromotor was necessary, indicating that activity may be due to a critical phenomenon. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the design features of micro/nanomotors to ensure an efficient development.

Delcanale, Pietro, Miret-Ontiveros, Bernat, Arista-Romero, Maria, Pujals, Silvia, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2018). Nanoscale mapping functional sites on nanoparticles by Points Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (PAINT) ACS Nano 12, (8), 7629-7637

The ability of nanoparticles to selectively recognize a molecular target constitutes the key toward nanomedicine applications such as drug delivery and diagnostics. The activity of such devices is mediated by the presence of multiple copies of functional molecules on the nanostructure surface. Therefore, understanding the number and the distribution of nanoparticle functional groups is of utmost importance for the rational design of effective materials. Analytical methods are available, but to obtain quantitative information at the level of single particles and single functional sites, i.e., going beyond the ensemble, remains highly challenging. Here we introduce the use of an optical nanoscopy technique, DNA points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (DNA-PAINT), to address this issue. Combining subdiffraction spatial resolution with molecular selectivity and sensitivity, DNA-PAINT provides both geometrical and functional information at the level of a single nanostructure. We show how DNA-PAINT can be used to image and quantify relevant functional proteins such as antibodies and streptavidin on nanoparticles and microparticles with nanometric accuracy in 3D and multiple colors. The generality and the applicability of our method without the need for fluorescent labeling hold great promise for the robust quantitative nanocharacterization of functional nanomaterials.

Ardizzone, Antonio, Kurhuzenkau, Siarhei, Illa-Tuset, Slvia, Faraudo, Jordi, Bondar, Mykhailo, Hagan, David, Van Stryland, Eric W., Painelli, Anna, Sissa, Cristina, Feiner, Natalia, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Veciana, Jaume, Ventosa, Nora, (2018). Nanostructuring lipophilic dyes in water using stable vesicles, quatsomes, as scaffolds and their use as probes for bioimaging Small , 14, (16), 1703851

Abstract A new kind of fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) is obtained using quatsomes (QSs), a family of nanovesicles proposed as scaffolds for the nanostructuration of commercial lipophilic carbocyanines (1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-indodicarbocyanine perchlorate (DiD), and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-indotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR)) in aqueous media. The obtained FONs, prepared by a CO2-based technology, show excellent colloidal- and photostability, outperforming other nanoformulations of the dyes, and improve the optical properties of the fluorophores in water. Molecular dynamics simulations provide an atomistic picture of the disposition of the dyes within the membrane. The potential of QSs for biological imaging is demonstrated by performing superresolution microscopy of the DiI-loaded vesicles in vitro and in cells. Therefore, fluorescent QSs constitute an appealing nanomaterial for bioimaging applications.

Krivitsky, Adva, Polyak, Dina, Scomparin, Anna, Eliyahu, Shay, Ofek, Paula, Tiram, Galia, Kalinski, Hagar, Avkin-Nachum, Sharon, Feiner Gracia, N., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit, (2018). Amphiphilic poly()glutamate polymeric micelles for systemic administration of siRNA to tumors Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine , 14, (2), 303-315

RNAi therapeutics carried a great promise to the area of personalized medicine: the ability to target undruggable oncogenic pathways. Nevertheless, their efficient tumor targeting via systemic administration had not been resolved yet. Amphiphilic alkylated poly()glutamate amine (APA) can serve as a cationic carrier to the negatively-charged oligonucleotides. APA polymers complexed with siRNA to form round-shaped, homogenous and reproducible nano-sized polyplexes bearing ~50 nm size and slightly negative charge. In addition, APA:siRNA polyplexes were shown to be potent gene regulators in vitro. In light of these preferred physico-chemical characteristics, their performance as systemically-administered siRNA nanocarriers was investigated. Intravenously-injected APA:siRNA polyplexes accumulated selectively in tumors and did not accumulate in the lungs, heart, liver or spleen. Nevertheless, the polyplexes failed to induce specific mRNA degradation, hence neither reduction in tumor volume nor prolonged mice survival was seen.

Casellas, Nicolas M., Pujals, Slvia, Bochicchio, Davide, Pavan, Giovanni M., Torres, Toms, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Garca-Iglesias, Miguel, (2018). From isodesmic to highly cooperative: Reverting the supramolecular polymerization mechanism in water by fine monomer design Chemical Communications 54, (33), 4112-4115

Two structurally-similar discotic molecules able to self-assemble in water, forming supramolecular fibers, are reported. While both self-assembled polymers are indistinguishable from a morphological point-of-view, a dramatic change in their polymerization mechanism is observed (i.e., one self-assemble via an isodesmic mechanism, while the other shows one of the highest cooperativity values).

van Elsland, Daphne M., Pujals, Slvia, Bakkum, Thomas, Bos, Erik, Oikonomeas-Koppasis, Nikolaos, Berlin, Ilana, Neefjes, Jacques, Meijer, Annemarie H., Koster, Abraham J., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, van Kasteren, Sander I., (2018). Ultrastructural imaging of salmonella-host interactions using super-resolution correlative light-electron microscopy of bioorthogonal pathogens ChemBioChem , 19, (16), 1766-1770

The imaging of intracellular pathogens inside host cells is complicated by the low resolution and sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy and by the lack of ultrastructural information to visualize the pathogens. Herein, we present a new method to visualize these pathogens during infection that circumvents these problems: by using a metabolic hijacking approach to bioorthogonally label the intracellular pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium and by using these bioorthogonal groups to introduce fluorophores compatible with stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and placing this in a correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) workflow, the pathogen can be imaged within its host cell context Typhimurium with a resolution of 20nm. This STORM-CLEM approach thus presents a new approach to understand these pathogens during infection.

Oria, Roger, Wiegand, Tina, Escribano, Jorge, Elosegui-Artola, Alberto, Uriarte, Juan Jose, Moreno-Pulido, Cristian, Platzman, Ilia, Delcanale, Pietro, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Navajas, Daniel, Trepat, Xavier, Garca-Aznar, Jos Manuel, Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada, Roca-Cusachs, Pere, (2017). Force loading explains spatial sensing of ligands by cells Nature 552, 219-224

Cells can sense the density and distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules by means of individual integrin proteins and larger, integrin-containing adhesion complexes within the cell membrane. This spatial sensing drives cellular activity in a variety of normal and pathological contexts1,2. Previous studies of cells on rigid glass surfaces have shown that spatial sensing of ECM ligands takes place at the nanometre scale, with integrin clustering and subsequent formation of focal adhesions impaired when single integrinligand bonds are separated by more than a few tens of nanometres3,4,5,6. It has thus been suggested that a crosslinking adaptor protein of this size might connect integrins to the actin cytoskeleton, acting as a molecular ruler that senses ligand spacing directly3,7,8,9. Here, we develop gels whose rigidity and nanometre-scale distribution of ECM ligands can be controlled and altered. We find that increasing the spacing between ligands promotes the growth of focal adhesions on low-rigidity substrates, but leads to adhesion collapse on more-rigid substrates. Furthermore, disordering the ligand distribution drastically increases adhesion growth, but reduces the rigidity threshold for adhesion collapse. The growth and collapse of focal adhesions are mirrored by, respectively, the nuclear or cytosolic localization of the transcriptional regulator protein YAP. We explain these findings not through direct sensing of ligand spacing, but by using an expanded computational molecular-clutch model10,11, in which individual integrinECM bondsthe molecular clutchesrespond to force loading by recruiting extra integrins, up to a maximum value. This generates more clutches, redistributing the overall force among them, and reducing the force loading per clutch. At high rigidity and high ligand spacing, maximum recruitment is reached, preventing further force redistribution and leading to adhesion collapse. Measurements of cellular traction forces and actin flow speeds support our model. Our results provide a general framework for how cells sense spatial and physical information at the nanoscale, precisely tuning the range of conditions at which they form adhesions and activate transcriptional regulation.

Duro-Castano, Aroa, Nebot, Vicent J., Nio-Pariente, Amaya, Armin, Ana, Arroyo-Crespo, Juan J., Paul, Alison, Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Vicent, Mara J., (2017). Capturing extraordinary soft-assembled charge-like polypeptides as a strategy for nanocarrier design Advanced Materials , 29, (39), 1702888

The rational design of nanomedicines is a challenging task given the complex architectures required for the construction of nanosized carriers with embedded therapeutic properties and the complex interface of these materials with the biological environment. Herein, an unexpected charge-like attraction mechanism of self-assembly for star-shaped polyglutamates in nonsalty aqueous solutions is identified, which matches the ubiquitous ordinaryextraordinary phenomenon previously described by physicists. For the first time, a bottom-up methodology for the stabilization of these nanosized soft-assembled star-shaped polyglutamates is also described, enabling the translation of theoretical research into nanomaterials with applicability within the drug-delivery field. Covalent capture of these labile assemblies provides access to unprecedented architectures to be used as nanocarriers. The enhanced in vitro and in vivo properties of these novel nanoconstructs as drug-delivery systems highlight the potential of this approach for tumor-localized as well as lymphotropic delivery.

Keywords: Charge-like, Drug delivery, Polymer therapeutics, Polypeptides, Self-assembly

Labernadie, A., Kato, T., Brugus, A., Serra-Picamal, X., Derzsi, S., Arwert, E., Weston, A., Gonzlez-Tarrag, V., Elosegui-Artola, A., Albertazzi, L., Alcaraz, J., Roca-Cusachs, P., Sahai, E., Trepat, X., (2017). A mechanically active heterotypic E-cadherin/N-cadherin adhesion enables fibroblasts to drive cancer cell invasion Nature Cell Biology , 19, (3), 224-237

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumour invasion and metastasis. We show that CAFs exert a physical force on cancer cells that enables their collective invasion. Force transmission is mediated by a heterophilic adhesion involving N-cadherin at the CAF membrane and E-cadherin at the cancer cell membrane. This adhesion is mechanically active; when subjected to force it triggers -catenin recruitment and adhesion reinforcement dependent on -catenin/vinculin interaction. Impairment of E-cadherin/N-cadherin adhesion abrogates the ability of CAFs to guide collective cell migration and blocks cancer cell invasion. N-cadherin also mediates repolarization of the CAFs away from the cancer cells. In parallel, nectins and afadin are recruited to the cancer cell/CAF interface and CAF repolarization is afadin dependent. Heterotypic junctions between CAFs and cancer cells are observed in patient-derived material. Together, our findings show that a mechanically active heterophilic adhesion between CAFs and cancer cells enables cooperative tumour invasion.

Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Buzhor, Marina, Fuentes, Edgar, Pujals, S., Amir, Roey J., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2017). Micellar stability in biological media dictates internalization in living cells Journal of the American Chemical Society 139, (46), 16677-16687

The dynamic nature of polymeric assemblies makes their stability in biological media a crucial parameter for their potential use as drug delivery systems in vivo. Therefore, it is essential to study and understand the behavior of self-assembled nanocarriers under conditions that will be encountered in vivo such as extreme dilutions and interactions with blood proteins and cells. Herein, using a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy, we studied four amphiphilic PEGdendron hybrids and their self-assembled micelles in order to determine their structurestability relations. The high molecular precision of the dendritic block enabled us to systematically tune the hydrophobicity and stability of the assembled micelles. Using micelles that change their fluorescent properties upon disassembly, we observed that serum proteins bind to and interact with the polymeric amphiphiles in both their assembled and monomeric states. These interactions strongly affected the stability and enzymatic degradation of the micelles. Finally, using spectrally resolved confocal imaging, we determined the relations between the stability of the polymeric assemblies in biological media and their cell entry. Our results highlight the important interplay between molecular structure, micellar stability, and cell internalization pathways, pinpointing the high sensitivity of stabilityactivity relations to minor structural changes and the crucial role that these relations play in designing effective polymeric nanostructures for biomedical applications.

Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Beck, Michaela, Pujals, Slvia, Tosi, Sbastien, Mandal, Tamoghna, Buske, Christian, Linden, Mika, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2017). Super-resolution microscopy unveils dynamic heterogeneities in nanoparticle protein corona Small , 13, (41), 1701631

The adsorption of serum proteins, leading to the formation of a biomolecular corona, is a key determinant of the biological identity of nanoparticles in vivo. Therefore, gaining knowledge on the formation, composition, and temporal evolution of the corona is of utmost importance for the development of nanoparticle-based therapies. Here, it is shown that the use of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the imaging of the protein corona on mesoporous silica nanoparticles with single protein sensitivity. Particle-by-particle quantification reveals a significant heterogeneity in protein absorption under native conditions. Moreover, the diversity of the corona evolves over time depending on the surface chemistry and degradability of the particles. This paper investigates the consequences of protein adsorption for specific cell targeting by antibody-functionalized nanoparticles providing a detailed understanding of corona-activity relations. The methodology is widely applicable to a variety of nanostructures and complements the existing ensemble approaches for protein corona study.

Keywords: Heterogeneity, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Protein corona, Super-resolution imaging, Targeting

Van Onzen, A. H. A. M., Albertazzi, L., Schenning, A. P. H. J., Milroy, L. G., Brunsveld, L., (2017). Hydrophobicity determines the fate of self-assembled fluorescent nanoparticles in cells Chemical Communications 53, (10), 1626-1629

The fate of small molecule nanoparticles (SMNPs) composed of self-assembling intrinsically fluorescent -conjugated oligomers was studied in cells as a function of side-chain hydrophobicity. While the hydrophobic SMNPs remained intact upon cellular uptake, the more hydrophilic SMNPs disassembled and dispersed throughout the cytosol.

Pujals, S., Tao, K., Terradellas, A., Gazit, E., Albertazzi, L., (2017). Studying structure and dynamics of self-Assembled peptide nanostructures using fluorescence and super resolution microscopy Chemical Communications 53, (53), 7294-7297

Understanding the formation and properties of self-Assembled peptide nanostructures is the basis for the design of new architectures for various applications. Here we show the potential of fluorescence and super resolution imaging to unveil the structural and dynamic features of peptide nanofibers with high spatiotemporal resolution.

Caballero, David, Blackburn, Sophie M., de Pablo, Mar, Samitier, Josep, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2017). Tumour-vessel-on-a-chip models for drug delivery Lab on a Chip , 17, 3760-3771

Nanocarriers for drug delivery have great potential to revolutionize cancer treatment, due to their enhanced selectivity and efficacy. Despite this great promise, researchers have had limited success in the clinical translation of this approach. One of the main causes of these difficulties is that standard in vitro models, typically used to understand nanocarriers’ behaviour and screen their efficiency, do not provide the complexity typically encountered in living systems. In contrast, in vivo models, despite being highly physiological, display serious bottlenecks which threaten the relevancy of the obtained data. Microfluidics and nanofabrication can dramatically contribute to solving this issue, providing 3D high-throughput models with improved resemblance to in vivo systems. In particular, microfluidic models of tumour blood vessels can be used to better elucidate how new nanocarriers behave in the microcirculation of healthy and cancerous tissues. Several key steps of the drug delivery process such as extravasation, immune response and endothelial targeting happen under flow in capillaries and can be accurately modelled using microfluidics. In this review, we will present how tumour-vessel-on-a-chip systems can be used to investigate targeted drug delivery and which key factors need to be considered for the rational design of these materials. Future applications of this approach and its role in driving forward the next generation of targeted drug delivery methods will be discussed.

Bakker, Maarten H., Lee, Cameron C., Meijer, E. W., Dankers, Patricia Y. W., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2016). Multicomponent supramolecular polymers as a modular platform for intracellular delivery ACS Nano 10, (2), 1845-1852

Supramolecular polymers are an emerging family of nanosized structures with potential use in materials chemistry and medicine. Surprisingly, application of supramolecular polymers in the field of drug delivery has received only limited attention. Here, we explore the potential of PEGylated 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (BTA) supramolecular polymers for intracellular delivery. Exploiting the unique modular approach of supramolecular chemistry, we can coassemble neutral and cationic BTAs and control the overall properties of the polymer by simple monomer mixing. Moreover, this platform offers a versatile approach toward functionalization. The core can be efficiently loaded with a hydrophobic guest molecule, while the exterior can be electrostatically complexed with siRNA. It is demonstrated that both compounds can be delivered in living cells, and that they can be combined to enable a dual delivery strategy. These results show the advantages of employing a modular system and pave the way for application of supramolecular polymers in intracellular delivery.

Beun, L. H., Albertazzi, L., Van Der Zwaag, D., De Vries, R., Cohen Stuart, M. A., (2016). Unidirectional living growth of self-assembled protein nanofibrils revealed by super-resolution microscopy ACS Nano 10, (5), 4973-4980

Protein-based nanofibrils are emerging as a promising class of materials that provide unique properties for applications such as biomedical and food engineering. Here, we use atomic force microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy imaging to elucidate the growth dynamics, exchange kinetics, and polymerization mechanism for fibrils composed of a de novo designed recombinant triblock protein polymer. This macromolecule features a silk-inspired self-assembling central block composed of GAGAGAGH repeats, which are known to fold into a roll with turns at each histidine and, once folded, to stack, forming a long, ribbon-like structure. We find several properties that allow the growth of patterned protein nanofibrils: the self-assembly takes place on only one side of the growing fibrils by the essentially irreversible addition of protein polymer subunits, and these fibril ends remain reactive indefinitely in the absence of monomer (“living ends”). Exploiting these characteristics, we can grow stable diblock protein nanofibrils by the sequential addition of differently labeled proteins. We establish control over the block length ratio by simply varying monomer feed conditions. Our results demonstrate the use of engineered protein polymers in creating precisely patterned protein nanofibrils and open perspectives for the hierarchical self-assembly of functional biomaterials.

Keywords: Nanofibrils, Protein polymers, Self-assembly, STORM microscopy

Garzoni, M., Baker, M. B., Leenders, C. M. A., Voets, I. K., Albertazzi, L., Palmans, A. R. A., Meijer, E. W., Pavan, G. M., (2016). Effect of H-bonding on order amplification in the growth of a supramolecular polymer in water Journal of the American Chemical Society 138, (42), 13985-13995

While a great deal of knowledge on the roles of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity in proteins has resulted in the creation of rationally designed and functional peptidic structures, the roles of these forces on purely synthetic supramolecular architectures in water have proven difficult to ascertain. Focusing on a 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (BTA)-based supramolecular polymer, we have designed a molecular modeling strategy to dissect the energetic contributions involved in the self-assembly (electrostatic, hydrophobic, etc.) upon growth of both ordered BTA stacks and random BTA aggregates. Utilizing this set of simulations, we have unraveled the cooperative mechanism for polymer growth, where a critical size must be reached in the aggregates before emergence and amplification of order into the experimentally observed fibers. Furthermore, we have found that the formation of ordered fibers is favored over disordered aggregates solely on the basis of electrostatic interactions. Detailed analysis of the simulation data suggests that H-bonding is a major source of this stabilization energy. Experimental and computational comparison with a newly synthesized 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxyester (BTE) derivative, lacking the ability to form the H-bonding network, demonstrated that this BTE variant is also capable of fiber formation, albeit at a reduced persistence length. This work provides unambiguous evidence for the key 1D driving force of hydrogen bonding in enhancing the persistency of monomer stacking and amplifying the level of order into the growing supramolecular polymer in water. Our computational approach provides an important relationship directly linking the structure of the monomer to the structure and properties of the supramolecular polymer.

Aloi, Antonio, Vargas Jentzsch, Andreas, Vilanova, Neus, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Meijer, E. W., Voets, Ilja K., (2016). Imaging nanostructures by single-molecule localization microscopy in organic solvents Journal of the American Chemical Society 138, (9), 2953-2956

The introduction of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRM) opened an unprecedented vista into nanoscopic length scales, unveiling a new degree of complexity in biological systems in aqueous environments. Regrettably, supramolecular chemistry and material science benefited far less from these recent developments. Here we expand the scope of SRM to photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) imaging of synthetic nanostructures that are highly dynamic in organic solvents. Furthermore, we characterize the photophysical properties of commonly used photoactivatable dyes in a wide range of solvents, which is made possible by the addition of a tiny amount of an alcohol. As proof-of-principle, we use PALM to image silica beads with radii close to Abbes diffraction limit. Individual nanoparticles are readily identified and reliably sized in multicolor mixtures of large and small beads. We further use SRM to visualize nm-thin yet m-long dynamic, supramolecular polymers, which are among the most challenging molecular systems to image.

da Silva, Ricardo M. P., van der Zwaag, Daan, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Lee, Sungsoo S., Meijer, E. W., Stupp, Samuel I., (2016). Super-resolution microscopy reveals structural diversity in molecular exchange among peptide amphiphile nanofibres Nature Communications 7, 11561

The dynamic behaviour of supramolecular systems is an important dimension of their potential functions. Here, we report on the use of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to study the molecular exchange of peptide amphiphile nanofibres, supramolecular systems known to have important biomedical functions. Solutions of nanofibres labelled with different dyes (Cy3 and Cy5) were mixed, and the distribution of dyes inserting into initially single-colour nanofibres was quantified using correlative image analysis. Our observations are consistent with an exchange mechanism involving monomers or small clusters of molecules inserting randomly into a fibre. Different exchange rates are observed within the same fibre, suggesting that local cohesive structures exist on the basis of [beta]-sheet discontinuous domains. The results reported here show that peptide amphiphile supramolecular systems can be dynamic and that their intermolecular interactions affect exchange patterns. This information can be used to generate useful aggregate morphologies for improved biomedical function.

DeKoker, Stefaan, Cui, Jiwei, Vanparijs, Nane, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Grooten, Johan, Caruso, Frank, DeGeest, Bruno G., (2016). Engineering polymer hydrogel nanoparticles for lymph node-targeted delivery Angewandte Chemie – International Edition , 55, (4), 1334-1339

The induction of antigen-specific adaptive immunity exclusively occurs in lymphoid organs. As a consequence, the efficacy by which vaccines reach these tissues strongly affects the efficacy of the vaccine. Here, we report the design of polymer hydrogel nanoparticles that efficiently target multiple immune cell subsets in the draining lymph nodes. Nanoparticles are fabricated by infiltrating mesoporous silica particles (ca. 200nm) with poly(methacrylic acid) followed by disulfide-based crosslinking and template removal. PEGylation of these nanoparticles does not affect their cellular association invitro, but dramatically improves their lymphatic drainage invivo. The functional relevance of these observations is further illustrated by the increased priming of antigen-specific Tcells. Our findings highlight the potential of engineered hydrogel nanoparticles for the lymphatic delivery of antigens and immune-modulating compounds.

Keywords: Dendritic cells, Disulfides, Hydrogels, Nanoparticles, Vaccines

Li, Hui, Fierens, Kaat, Zhang, Zhiyue, Vanparijs, Nane, Schuijs, Martijn J., Van Steendam, Katleen, Feiner Gracia, Natlia, De Rycke, Riet, De Beer, Thomas, De Beuckelaer, Ans, De Koker, Stefaan, Deforce, Dieter, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Grooten, Johan, Lambrecht, Bart N., De Geest, Bruno G., (2016). Spontaneous protein adsorption on graphene oxide nanosheets allowing efficient intracellular vaccine protein delivery ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces , 8, (2), 1147-1155

Nanomaterials hold potential of altering the interaction between therapeutic molecules and target cells or tissues. High aspect ratio nanomaterials in particular have been reported to possess unprecedented properties and are intensively investigated for their interaction with biological systems. Graphene oxide (GOx) is a water-soluble graphene derivative that combines high aspect ratio dimension with functional groups that can be exploited for bioconjugation. Here, we demonstrate that GOx nanosheets can spontaneously adsorb proteins by a combination of interactions. This property is then explored for intracellular protein vaccine delivery, in view of the potential of GOx nanosheets to destabilize lipid membranes such as those of intracellular vesicles. Using a series of in vitro experiments, we show that GOx nanosheet adsorbed proteins are efficiently internalized by dendritic cells (DCs: the most potent class of antigen presenting cells of the immune system) and promote antigen cross-presentation to CD8 T cells. The latter is a hallmark in the induction of potent cellular antigen-specific immune responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer.Nanomaterials hold potential of altering the interaction between therapeutic molecules and target cells or tissues. High aspect ratio nanomaterials in particular have been reported to possess unprecedented properties and are intensively investigated for their interaction with biological systems. Graphene oxide (GOx) is a water-soluble graphene derivative that combines high aspect ratio dimension with functional groups that can be exploited for bioconjugation. Here, we demonstrate that GOx nanosheets can spontaneously adsorb proteins by a combination of interactions. This property is then explored for intracellular protein vaccine delivery, in view of the potential of GOx nanosheets to destabilize lipid membranes such as those of intracellular vesicles. Using a series of in vitro experiments, we show that GOx nanosheet adsorbed proteins are efficiently internalized by dendritic cells (DCs: the most potent class of antigen presenting cells of the immune system) and promote antigen cross-presentation to CD8 T cells. The latter is a hallmark in the induction of potent cellular antigen-specific immune responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer.

van der Zwaag, Daan, Vanparijs, Nane, Wijnands, Sjors, De Rycke, Riet, De Geest, Bruno G., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2016). Super resolution imaging of nanoparticles cellular uptake and trafficking ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces , 8, (10), 6391-6399

Understanding the interaction between synthetic nanostructures and living cells is of crucial importance for the development of nanotechnology-based intracellular delivery systems. Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most widespread tools owing to its ability to image multiple colors in native conditions. However, due to the limited resolution, it is unsuitable to address individual diffraction-limited objects. Here we introduce a combination of super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule data analysis to unveil the behavior of nanoparticles during their entry into mammalian cells. Two-color Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) addresses the size and positioning of nanoparticles inside cells and probes their interaction with the cellular machineries at nanoscale resolution. Moreover, we develop image analysis tools to extract quantitative information about internalized particles from STORM images. To demonstrate the potential of our methodology, we extract previously inaccessible information by the direct visualization of the nanoparticle uptake mechanism and the intracellular tracking of nanoparticulate model antigens by dendritic cells. Finally, a direct comparison between STORM, confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy is presented, showing that STORM can provide novel and complementary information on nanoparticle cellular uptake.Understanding the interaction between synthetic nanostructures and living cells is of crucial importance for the development of nanotechnology-based intracellular delivery systems. Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most widespread tools owing to its ability to image multiple colors in native conditions. However, due to the limited resolution, it is unsuitable to address individual diffraction-limited objects. Here we introduce a combination of super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule data analysis to unveil the behavior of nanoparticles during their entry into mammalian cells. Two-color Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) addresses the size and positioning of nanoparticles inside cells and probes their interaction with the cellular machineries at nanoscale resolution. Moreover, we develop image analysis tools to extract quantitative information about internalized particles from STORM images. To demonstrate the potential of our methodology, we extract previously inaccessible information by the direct visualization of the nanoparticle uptake mechanism and the intracellular tracking of nanoparticulate model antigens by dendritic cells. Finally, a direct comparison between STORM, confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy is presented, showing that STORM can provide novel and complementary information on nanoparticle cellular uptake.

Beuwer, Michael A., Knopper, M. F., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, van der Zwaag, Daan, Ellenbroek, Wouter G., Meijer, E. W., Prins, Menno W. J., Zijlstra, Peter, (2016). Mechanical properties of single supramolecular polymers from correlative AFM and fluorescence microscopy Polymer Chemistry , 7, (47), 7260-7268

We characterize the structure and mechanical properties of 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (BTA) supramolecular polymers using correlative AFM and fluorescence imaging. AFM allows for nanoscale structural investigation but we found that statistical analysis is difficult because these structures are easily disrupted by the AFM tip. We therefore correlate AFM and fluorescence microscopy to couple nanoscale morphological information to far-field optical images. A fraction of the immobilized polymers are in a clustered or entangled state, which we identify based on diffraction limited fluorescence images. We find that clustered and entangled polymers exhibit a significantly longer persistence length that is broader distributed than single unentangled polymers. By comparison with numerical simulations we find significant heterogeneity in the persistence length of single unentangled polymers, which we attribute to polymer-substrate interactions and the presence of structural diversity within the polymer.

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Sessions/Tracks

Session 01: Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles

Nanoscale materials are defined as a set of substances where at least one dimension is less than approximately 100 nanometers. A nanometer is one millionth of a millimeter – approximately 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Nanomaterials such as silver and gold nanoparticle are of interest because at this scale unique optical, magnetic, electrical, and other properties emerge. These emergent properties have the potential for great impacts in electronics, medicine, and other fields. The production of nanophase or cluster-assembled materials is usually based upon the creation of separated small clusters which then are fused into a bulk-like material like micelles/liposomes or on their embedding into compact liquid or solid matrix materials.

Related Conference: International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology, September 17-18, 2018 at Berlin, Germany; World Nanotechnology conference, April 15-16, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; International Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery Symposium, September 21-23, 2018 at Portland, Oregon; International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, October 15-17, 2018 at Tokyo, Japan; 3rd International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanoengineering, December 03-04, 2018 at Toronto, Canada; NANO Boston Conference, April 22-24, 2019 at Boston, MA, USA; International Conference on Biomaterials, Colloids and Nanomedicine, August 20 – 21, 2019 at London, United Kingdom

Related Societies: American Chemical Society, Nanotechnology Safety Resources, American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), Converging Technologies Bar Association, Graphene Stakeholders Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), International Association of Nanotechnology (IANT), Materials Research Society

Session 02: Intelligent Biomaterials and Smart Implant

A biomaterial is any substance that has processed and engineered to connect with organic frameworks for a medicinal reason – either a helpful (treat, enlarge, repair or supplant a tissue capacity of the body) or an analytic one. As a science, biomaterials is around fifty years of age. It has encountered enduring and solid development over its history, with many organizations putting a lot of cash into the advancement of novel items. Biomaterials science incorporates components of solution, science, tissue designing and materials science. A biomaterial is unique in relation to a natural material, for example, bone, that is delivered by an organic framework.

Related Conference: International Conference on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, August 13 – 14, 2019 at Venice, Italy; Global Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 15-17, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; Nano Congress for Future Advancements, August 29-31, 2019 at London, UK; Innovate Nanomedicine 2019, February 7-9, 2019 at Hilton Americas, Houston; International Conference on Advanced Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, February 18-19, 2019 at Paris, France; International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, March 28-29, 2019 at Paris, France; International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo, April 3-5, 2019 at Philadelphia, USA.

Related Societies: Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, National Institutes of Health, Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative, American National Standards Institute Nanotechnology Panel (ANSI-NSP), National Nanotechnology Initiative

Session 03: Nanomedicine in Cancer Therapeutics

Nanomedicine science opens a new pool of opportunities for emerging new technologies in order to diagnose and treat fatal diseases, one of them being nanotechnology in cancer treatment. New nanotechnology enhanced tools are created at much smaller sizes than one of a human cell. With the help of these tools researchers and clinicians may detect the brutal disease of cancer in an earlier stage and move on with its treatment with fewer side effects; potentially cure it before it causes irreversible damage.

Related Conference: World Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 25-26, 2019 at Valencia, Spain; International Conference on Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures, August 19-20, 2019 at Barcelona, Spain; International Conference On Nano Technology and Nano Engineering, April 24-25, 2019 at Vancouver, Canada; International Conference on Theoretical and Applied Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, June 13-14, 2019 at Ottawa, Canada; International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, October 04-06, 2018 at Moscow, Russia; International Conference on Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, August 18 – 20, 2019 at Lisbon, Portugal; International Conference on Sensor and Nanotechnology, July 24-25, 2019 at Pulau Pinang, Singapore.

Related Societies: Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology, Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, Center for Nanostructure Characterization and Fabrication, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Institute for Nanoscale and Quantum Scientific and Technological Advanced Research (nanoSTAR), Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Nanofabrication Facility

Session 04: Nanofiber Based Scaffolds and Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineering represents an emerging interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of biological, chemical, and engineering sciences towards the goal of tissue regeneration. Creating platforms that copy the design of tissue at the nanoscale is one of the significant difficulties in the field of tissue building. The advancement of nanofibers has significantly improved the degree for creating frameworks that can conceivably address this difficulty. Currently, there are three techniques for the synthesis of nanofibers: electrospinning, self-assembly, and phase separation. Of these techniques, electrospinning is the most widely studied technique and has also demonstrated the most promising results in terms of tissue engineering applications. The major application of nanofiber is that it can be used in controlled drug delivery.

Related Conference: International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology, September 17-18, 2018 at Berlin, Germany; World Nanotechnology conference, April 15-16, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; International Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery Symposium, September 21-23, 2018 at Portland, Oregon; International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, October 15-17, 2018 at Tokyo, Japan; 3rd International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanoengineering, December 03-04, 2018 at Toronto, Canada; NANO Boston Conference, April 22-24, 2019 at Boston, MA, USA; International Conference on Biomaterials, Colloids and Nanomedicine, August 20 – 21, 2019 at London, United Kingdom

Related Societies: American Chemical Society, Nanotechnology Safety Resources, American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), Converging Technologies Bar Association, Graphene Stakeholders Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), International Association of Nanotechnology (IANT), Materials Research Society

Session 05: Material Science and Engineering

Materials science is vital to nanotechnology since the properties of electronic photonic and magnetic materials can change significantly when things are made to a great degree little. This perception isn’t just that we have to quantify such properties or grow new preparing apparatuses to create nanodevices, nanosensors and nanosystems. Or maybe, our vision is that the wide (and at times sudden) assortment of wonders related with nanostructured materials enable us to imagine drastically new gadgets and applications that must be made with biocompatible materials.

Related Conference: International Conference on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, August 13 – 14, 2019 at Venice, Italy; Global Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 15-17, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; Nano Congress for Future Advancements, August 29-31, 2019 at London, UK; Innovate Nanomedicine 2019, February 7-9, 2019 at Hilton Americas, Houston; International Conference on Advanced Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, February 18-19, 2019 at Paris, France; International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, March 28-29, 2019 at Paris, France; International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo, April 3-5, 2019 at Philadelphia, USA.

Related Societies: Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, National Institutes of Health, Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative, American National Standards Institute Nanotechnology Panel (ANSI-NSP), National Nanotechnology Initiative

Session 06: Nanodrug Delivery for Neurological Disorders

The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders remains a colossal test because of the restricted access of atoms over the blood brain barrier, particularly vast particles, for example, peptides and proteins. Therefore, at most, a little level of a medication that is directed foundationally will achieve the focal sensory system in its dynamic shape. Noninvasive methodologies, for example, nanostructured protein conveyance transporters and intranasal organization, appear to be the most encouraging procedures for the treatment of endless infections, which require long haul mediations. These methodologies are both target-particular and ready to quickly sidestep the blood-brain barrier by means of polymeric micelles or nanogels.

Related Conference: World Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 25-26, 2019 at Valencia, Spain; International Conference on Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures, August 19-20, 2019 at Barcelona, Spain; International Conference On Nano Technology and Nano Engineering, April 24-25, 2019 at Vancouver, Canada; International Conference on Theoretical and Applied Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, June 13-14, 2019 at Ottawa, Canada; International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, October 04-06, 2018 at Moscow, Russia; International Conference on Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, August 18 – 20, 2019 at Lisbon, Portugal; International Conference on Sensor and Nanotechnology, July 24-25, 2019 at Pulau Pinang, Singapore.

Related Societies: Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology, Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, Center for Nanostructure Characterization and Fabrication, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Institute for Nanoscale and Quantum Scientific and Technological Advanced Research (nanoSTAR), Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Nanofabrication Facility

Session 07: Nanotechnology and Surgery

There are various applications and methods where nanotechnology helps or enhances implants and surgical instrument design. Nanotechnology offers a dream for a ‘shrewd’ medication way to deal with battling tumors: the capacity of nanoparticles to find growth cells and obliterate them with single-cell accuracy. A standout amongst the most critical applications for such nanoparticulate sedate conveyance could be the conveyance of the medication payload into the cerebrum and reconstructive surgery. In any case, crossing the blood-cerebrum obstruction the brain defensive shield is an impressive test. With the assistance of extraordinary nanoparticles, this ends up plainly conceivable.

Related Conference: International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology, September 17-18, 2018 at Berlin, Germany; World Nanotechnology conference, April 15-16, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; International Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery Symposium, September 21-23, 2018 at Portland, Oregon; International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, October 15-17, 2018 at Tokyo, Japan; 3rd International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanoengineering, December 03-04, 2018 at Toronto, Canada; NANO Boston Conference, April 22-24, 2019 at Boston, MA, USA; International Conference on Biomaterials, Colloids and Nanomedicine, August 20 – 21, 2019 at London, United Kingdom.

Related Societies: American Chemical Society, Nanotechnology Safety Resources, American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), Converging Technologies Bar Association, Graphene Stakeholders Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), International Association of Nanotechnology (IANT), Materials Research Society

Session 08: Nanometrices for Cell Culture

3D cell culture, recapitulating the length scale of naturally occurring nanotopographic structures, are now being used to elucidate how physical cues can direct cell behaviour and orchestrate complex cellular processes such as stem cell differentiation and tissue organization. Advances in nanotechnology have unlocked our ability to create stimuli-responsive interfaces for spatially and temporally controlling extracellular physical and biochemical cues. Synthetic, natural and cellularised nanofiber scaffolds are used for intracellular sensing and delivery at the sub-cellular level. The field of nanoengineered cellmaterial interface is rapidly evolving, carrying with it the potential for major breakthroughs in fundamental cellular studies and regenerative medicine.

Related Conference: International Conference on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, August 13 – 14, 2019 at Venice, Italy; Global Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 15-17, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; Nano Congress for Future Advancements, August 29-31, 2019 at London, UK; Innovate Nanomedicine 2019, February 7-9, 2019 at Hilton Americas, Houston; International Conference on Advanced Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, February 18-19, 2019 at Paris, France; International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, March 28-29, 2019 at Paris, France; International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo, April 3-5, 2019 at Philadelphia, USA.

Related Societies: Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, National Institutes of Health, Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative, American National Standards Institute Nanotechnology Panel (ANSI-NSP), National Nanotechnology Initiative

Session 09: Nanoparticle Based Drug Delivery

Drug delivery systemsare engineered technologies for the targeted drug delivery and/or controlled release of therapeutic agents. Drugs have long been used to improve health and extend lives. Biomedical engineers have contributed substantially to our understanding of the physiological barriers to efficient drug delivery, such as transport in the circulatory system and drug movement through cells and tissues; they have also contributed to the development several targeting strategies of drug delivery that have entered clinical practice.

Related Conference: World Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 25-26, 2019 at Valencia, Spain; International Conference on Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures, August 19-20, 2019 at Barcelona, Spain; International Conference On Nano Technology and Nano Engineering, April 24-25, 2019 at Vancouver, Canada; International Conference on Theoretical and Applied Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, June 13-14, 2019 at Ottawa, Canada; International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, October 04-06, 2018 at Moscow, Russia; International Conference on Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, August 18 – 20, 2019 at Lisbon, Portugal; International Conference on Sensor and Nanotechnology, July 24-25, 2019 at Pulau Pinang, Singapore.

Related Societies: Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology, Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, Center for Nanostructure Characterization and Fabrication, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Institute for Nanoscale and Quantum Scientific and Technological Advanced Research (nanoSTAR), Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Nanofabrication Facility

Session 10: Advanced Nanomaterials

Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices. The pharmaceutical industry is developing new commercial applications that may include synthesis and self assembly of nanomaterials, advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and nanomaterials for Imaging and Drug Delivery. Another active and very much related area of research is the investigation of toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials, since nanomedicine must be biocompatible for clinical application.

Related Conference: International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology, September 17-18, 2018 at Berlin, Germany; World Nanotechnology conference, April 15-16, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; International Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery Symposium, September 21-23, 2018 at Portland, Oregon; International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, October 15-17, 2018 at Tokyo, Japan; 3rd International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanoengineering, December 03-04, 2018 at Toronto, Canada; NANO Boston Conference, April 22-24, 2019 at Boston, MA, USA; International Conference on Biomaterials, Colloids and Nanomedicine, August 20 – 21, 2019 at London, United Kingdom

Related Societies: American Chemical Society, Nanotechnology Safety Resources, American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), Converging Technologies Bar Association, Graphene Stakeholders Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), International Association of Nanotechnology (IANT), Materials Research Society

Session 11: Polymer Nanotechnology

Polymer nanotechnology plays an essential role in synthesizing nanoscale structures and devices. The most important advance in polymer science may be polymers that are doped with nanometre-sized particles to achieve properties superior to conventional polymers. Nanotechnology, polymer matrix based nanocomposites have become a prominent area of current research and development. Research of polymers and nanotechnology primarily focuses on efforts to design materials at a molecular level to achieve desirable properties and applications at a macroscopic level such as polymer-based biomaterials, drug carrier system, nanomedicine, nanoemulsion particles, fuel cell electrode polymer bound catalysts, layer-by-layer self-assembled polymer films, smart polymer, electrospun nanofabrication, imprint lithography, polymer blends, and variety of polymer nanocomposites.

Related Conference: International Conference on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, August 13 – 14, 2019 at Venice, Italy; Global Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 15-17, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; Nano Congress for Future Advancements, August 29-31, 2019 at London, UK; Innovate Nanomedicine 2019, February 7-9, 2019 at Hilton Americas, Houston; International Conference on Advanced Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, February 18-19, 2019 at Paris, France; International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, March 28-29, 2019 at Paris, France; International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo, April 3-5, 2019 at Philadelphia, USA.

Related Societies: Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, National Institutes of Health, Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative, American National Standards Institute Nanotechnology Panel (ANSI-NSP), National Nanotechnology Initiative

Session 12: Nanotherapeutics and Diagnosis

Nanotheranostics is a burgeoning field in recent years, which makes use of nanotechnology for diagnostics and therapy of different diseases. The advent of nanotheranostics is expected to benefit the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries in the next 5-10 years. Nanotechnology holds an immense potential to be explored as a multifunctional platform for a wide range of biological and engineering applications such as molecular sensors for disease diagnosis, therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, and a vehicle for delivering therapeutics and imaging agents for theranostic applications in cells and living animals.

Related Conference: World Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 25-26, 2019 at Valencia, Spain; International Conference on Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures, August 19-20, 2019 at Barcelona, Spain; International Conference On Nano Technology and Nano Engineering, April 24-25, 2019 at Vancouver, Canada; International Conference on Theoretical and Applied Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, June 13-14, 2019 at Ottawa, Canada; International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, October 04-06, 2018 at Moscow, Russia; International Conference on Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, August 18 – 20, 2019 at Lisbon, Portugal; International Conference on Sensor and Nanotechnology, July 24-25, 2019 at Pulau Pinang, Singapore.

Related Societies: Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology, Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, Center for Nanostructure Characterization and Fabrication, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Institute for Nanoscale and Quantum Scientific and Technological Advanced Research (nanoSTAR), Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Nanofabrication Facility

ssion 13: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology based system deals with emerging new technologies for developing customized solutions for drug delivery systems. The drug delivery system positively impacts the rate of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the drug or other related chemical substances in the body. In addition to this the drug delivery system also allows the drug to bind to its target receptor and influence that receptors signaling and activity. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology embraces applications of nanoscience to pharmacy as nanomaterials, and as devices like drug delivery, diagnostic, imaging and biosensor.

Related Conference: International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology, September 17-18, 2018 at Berlin, Germany; World Nanotechnology conference, April 15-16, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; International Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery Symposium, September 21-23, 2018 at Portland, Oregon; International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, October 15-17, 2018 at Tokyo, Japan; 3rd International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanoengineering, December 03-04, 2018 at Toronto, Canada; NANO Boston Conference, April 22-24, 2019 at Boston, MA, USA; International Conference on Biomaterials, Colloids and Nanomedicine, August 20 – 21, 2019 at London, United Kingdom

Related Societies: American Chemical Society, Nanotechnology Safety Resources, American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), Converging Technologies Bar Association, Graphene Stakeholders Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), International Association of Nanotechnology (IANT), Materials Research Society

Session 14: Medical Nanomaterials and Nanodevices

One of the simplest medical nanomaterials is a surface perforated with holes, or nanopores. These pores are large enough to allow small molecules such as oxygen, glucose, and insulin to pass but are small enough to impede the passage of much larger immune system molecules such as immunoglobulins and graft-borne virus particles. Hybrid nanodevice composed of 4.5-nm nanocrystals of biocompatible titanium dioxide semiconductor covalently attached with snippets of oligonucleotide DNA. Both single-walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes are also being investigated as biosensors; for example, to detect glucose, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, selected proteins such as immunoglobulins, and an electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensor.

Related Conference: International Conference on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, August 13 – 14, 2019 at Venice, Italy; Global Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 15-17, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; Nano Congress for Future Advancements, August 29-31, 2019 at London, UK; Innovate Nanomedicine 2019, February 7-9, 2019 at Hilton Americas, Houston; International Conference on Advanced Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, February 18-19, 2019 at Paris, France; International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, March 28-29, 2019 at Paris, France; International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo, April 3-5, 2019 at Philadelphia, USA.

Related Societies: Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, National Institutes of Health, Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative, American National Standards Institute Nanotechnology Panel (ANSI-NSP), National Nanotechnology Initiative

Session 15: Medical Nanorobotics

The advent of molecular nanotechnology will again expand enormously the effectiveness, comfort, and speed of future medical treatments while at the same time significantly reducing their risk, cost, and invasiveness. MNT will allow doctors to perform direct in vivo surgery on individual human cells. The ability to design, construct, and deploy large numbers of microscopic medical nanorobots will make this possible. Nanobearings and nanogears are perhaps the most convenient class of components to design because their structure and operation is straightforward.

Related Conference: World Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 25-26, 2019 at Valencia, Spain; International Conference on Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures, August 19-20, 2019 at Barcelona, Spain; International Conference On Nano Technology and Nano Engineering, April 24-25, 2019 at Vancouver, Canada; International Conference on Theoretical and Applied Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, June 13-14, 2019 at Ottawa, Canada; International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, October 04-06, 2018 at Moscow, Russia; International Conference on Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, August 18 – 20, 2019 at Lisbon, Portugal; International Conference on Sensor and Nanotechnology, July 24-25, 2019 at Pulau Pinang, Singapore.

Related Societies: Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology, Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, Center for Nanostructure Characterization and Fabrication, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Institute for Nanoscale and Quantum Scientific and Technological Advanced Research (nanoSTAR), Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Nanofabrication Facility

Session 16: Impact of Nanomedicine on Health Care

The use of nanotechnology to human social insurance, offers various potential pathways to enhancing therapeutic determination and treatment and even to recover tissues and organs. It can totally change the human services segment for the people to come. Nanotechnology will help medicinal experts in the present most intense therapeutic issues, for example, repairing of harmed organs, conclusion and treatment of disease cells, expulsion of obstacle in cerebrum and it can help in better medication conveyance framework. Nanotechnology can be utilized for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Nano particles can be utilized as a part of focusing on tumor cells at beginning stage. Nanotechnology can be utilized to create ”signature protein” to treat tumor.

Related Conference: International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology, September 17-18, 2018 at Berlin, Germany; World Nanotechnology conference, April 15-16, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; International Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery Symposium, September 21-23, 2018 at Portland, Oregon; International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, October 15-17, 2018 at Tokyo, Japan; 3rd International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanoengineering, December 03-04, 2018 at Toronto, Canada; NANO Boston Conference, April 22-24, 2019 at Boston, MA, USA; International Conference on Biomaterials, Colloids and Nanomedicine, August 20 – 21, 2019 at London, United Kingdom

Related Societies: American Chemical Society, Nanotechnology Safety Resources, American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), Converging Technologies Bar Association, Graphene Stakeholders Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), International Association of Nanotechnology (IANT), Materials Research Society

Session 17: Future Concepts in Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is promising remarkable things, including great advancements in the treatment of cancer. Imagine a world where there is no donor organ shortage. Where victims of spinal cord injuries can walk, where weakened hearts are replaced. This is the long-term promise of regenerative medicine, a rapidly developing field with the potential to transform the treatment of human disease through the development of innovative new therapies that offer a faster, more complete recovery with significantly fewer side effects or risk of complications.

Related Conference: International Conference on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, August 13 – 14, 2019 at Venice, Italy; Global Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 15-17, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; Nano Congress for Future Advancements, August 29-31, 2019 at London, UK; Innovate Nanomedicine 2019, February 7-9, 2019 at Hilton Americas, Houston; International Conference on Advanced Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, February 18-19, 2019 at Paris, France; International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, March 28-29, 2019 at Paris, France; International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo, April 3-5, 2019 at Philadelphia, USA.

Related Societies: Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, National Institutes of Health, Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative, American National Standards Institute Nanotechnology Panel (ANSI-NSP), National Nanotechnology Initiative

Session 18: Ethical and Social Aspects of Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine offers the possibility of new diagnostic, treatment and preventive methods that may open up promising areas of medicine. The scope of this Opinion is ethical issues raised by nanomedicine in the sense indicated by the European Science Foundation definition quoted in the introduction. Fundamental values and rights are rooted in the principle of human diginity and shed light on core Europeon values, such as integrity, autonomy, privacy, equity, fairness, pluralism and solidarity.

Related Conference: World Nanotechnology Congress and Expo, April 25-26, 2019 at Valencia, Spain; International Conference on Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures, August 19-20, 2019 at Barcelona, Spain; International Conference On Nano Technology and Nano Engineering, April 24-25, 2019 at Vancouver, Canada; International Conference on Theoretical and Applied Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, June 13-14, 2019 at Ottawa, Canada; International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, October 04-06, 2018 at Moscow, Russia; International Conference on Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, August 18 – 20, 2019 at Lisbon, Portugal; International Conference on Sensor and Nanotechnology, July 24-25, 2019 at Pulau Pinang, Singapore.

Related Societies: Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology, Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, Center for Nanostructure Characterization and Fabrication, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Institute for Nanoscale and Quantum Scientific and Technological Advanced Research (nanoSTAR), Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Nanofabrication Facility

Session 19: Applications of Nanobiotechnology to Clinical Science

Nanobiotechnology is the application of nanotechnology in biological fields. Nanobiotechnology has huge number of possibilities for propelling restorative science in this manner enhancing human services hones the world over. Numerous novel nanoparticles and nanodevices are relied upon to be utilized, with a gigantic positive effect on human wellbeing. While genuine clinical uses of nanotechnology are still for all intents and purposes inexistent, a noteworthy number of promising therapeutic undertakings are in a progressed trial organize. Usage of nanotechnology in solution and physiology implies that instruments and gadgets are so actually composed that they can communicate with sub-cell (i.e. sub-atomic) levels of the body with a high level of specificity. Subsequently remedial viability can be accomplished to most extreme with insignificant reactions by methods for the focused on cell or tissue-particular clinical mediation.

Related Conference: International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology, September 17-18, 2018 at Berlin, Germany; World Nanotechnology conference, April 15-16, 2019 at Dubai, UAE; International Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery Symposium, September 21-23, 2018 at Portland, Oregon; International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, October 15-17, 2018 at Tokyo, Japan; 3rd International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanoengineering, December 03-04, 2018 at Toronto, Canada; NANO Boston Conference, April 22-24, 2019 at Boston, MA, USA; International Conference on Biomaterials, Colloids and Nanomedicine, August 20 – 21, 2019 at London, United Kingdom

Related Societies: American Chemical Society, Nanotechnology Safety Resources, American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), Converging Technologies Bar Association, Graphene Stakeholders Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), International Association of Nanotechnology (IANT), Materials Research Society

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Nanomedicine Conferences |Nanotechnology Conferences …

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Nanomedicine | Ardena

This fast-evolving field uses nanoscale or nanostructured materials to impart unique pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects such as enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability, targeted delivery, enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity.

The control of materials in the nanometer size range requires scientifically demanding chemistry, analysis and manufacturing techniques. Our nanomedicine expertise encompasses formulation, process and analytical development, GMP manufacturing and dossier development.

We are experts in the following formulations:

Once we identify a suitable formulation, our scientists develop phase-appropriate production processes in accordance with cGMP and mitigate technology transfer issues by using the same teams for development and manufacturing.

Techniques include:

In our cGMP-compliant manufacturing facilities, we can produce volumes of a couple of millilitres to multiple litres, using batch-type and continuous-flow processes. We also work with highly-potent drug substances and can deliver nanosuspensions and nanoparticle solutions as sterile finished drug products in vials or syringes.

To support product development and to perform quality control of GMP-produced drug products, we utilise state-of-the-art analytical techniques such as:

Having advanced a wide range of nanomedicine formulations into the clinic, we are used to developing new manufacturing techniques and analytical procedures under fierce regulatory scrutiny. Our understanding of the regulatory landscape gives your nanomedicine project the greatest chance of approval.

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Nanomedicine | Ardena

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

Nanobots in medicine: the key to fighting chronic diseases …

Nanomedicine is a domain of medicine that utilises the knowledge of nanotechnology to prevent and treat severe diseases such as cancer and heart diseases. Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled doctors to use nanoscale materials, including biocompatible nanoparticles and nanobots in medicine, to sense the actuation purposes in a living organism. Moreover, further developments in the nanomedicine market can create opportunities such as the development of artificial antibodies and artificial RBCs and WBCs

Nanomedicine is a domain of medicine that utilises the knowledge of nanotechnology to prevent and treat severe diseases such as cancer and heart diseases. Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled doctors to use nanoscale materials, including biocompatible nanoparticles and nanobots, to sense the actuation purposes in a living organism.

In addition, researchers now use nanomedicines to boost immunotherapy. In recent years, ample innovations have emerged from the field of nanomedicine, which has boosted the nanomedicine market. According to Allied Market Research, the nanomedicine market was valued at $111.91bn (~95.39bn) in 2016, and is expected to reach $261.06bn by the end of 2023, registering a CAGR of 12.6% in the period of 20172023.

From improving the quality of solar panels to treating cancer, quantum dots are widely used in various sectors. However, creating quantum dots is an extremely expensive process which generates a huge amount of waste. However, scientists have recently developed a low-cost method to synthesise quantum dots using some chemicals and green leaf extracts.

A team of scientists at Wales Swansea University developed an economical and environment-friendly way to produce quantum dots from Camellia sinensis leaf extract.

This innovative method makes the procedure economical and the byproducts are non-toxic. The research proved that the quantum dots created with tea leaves can penetrate the skin and reduce the growth of cancer cells by about 80%.

However, while this study does not provide the ultimate cure for cancer, the major issues with the production of quantum dots such as high cost and toxic byproducts are solved. In addition, in-depth research can present new possibilities in treating different diseases and developing more advanced technology.

Scientists have also created fucoidan-based magnetic nanomedicines that can offer effective treatment for cancer.

Taiwans National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) and the China Medical University have successfully developed an innovative way to cure cancer by combining nanomedicines with immunotherapy. The research, titled Combination of fucoidan-based magnetic nanoparticles and immunomodulators enhances tumor-localized immunotherapy is published in the renowned journal Nature Nanotechnology.

This study is seen as a significant breakthrough to boost tumour treatment.

Immunotherapy can cause severe side-effects including stomach sickness and skin blistering as sometimes healthy cells get attacked by the immune system. Therefore, researchers combined fucoidan-based magnetic nanomedicine with immunotherapy. The results proved that such combination successfully contains the cancer cells while boosting the growth of healthy cells, which in turn reduces the side-effects and increases the efficiency of treatment.

Nanomedicines most important breakthrough can be regarded as nanobots. Nanobots serve as miniature surgeons which can be used to repair damaged cells or entirely replace intracellular structures. Moreover, they can replicate themselves to correct a genetic deficiency or replace DNA molecule to eradicate disease. Scientists claim that a fleet of nanobots can serve as antibodies or antiviral agents to treat patients with an impaired immune system. Investigating nanobots in medicine can create lucrative opportunities in healthcare such as unblocking arteries or completely replacing an organ.

Conventional water-soluble drugs can create difficulties in treatment, such as failed absorption in the diseased areas. However, nanomedicine applications such as diagnostic nanomachines provide the ability to monitor the internal chemistry of the bodys organs, providing direct access to diseased areas. Moreover, technology such as nanobots can be equipped with wireless transmitters, and this offers doctors opportunities to change the treatment method if a patients medical condition gets worse. Nanobots in medicine could also be planted into a patients nervous system to monitor pulse and brainwave activities.

According to scientists, nanobots can completely replace pacemakers by treating the hearts cell directly. Research regarding nanobots in medicine offer several opportunities such as artificial antibodies, artificial white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs), and antiviral nanobots. The major advantage that nanobots provide is that they are extremely durable. Theoretically, they can operate for years without any damage owing to their miniature size, which reduces mechanical damage.

The advantages of nanobots and nanomedicines are enormous. Therefore, several leading companies are investing in research and development in this area. Not long ago, Vancouver-based company Precision NanoSystems closed a $6m project to fund a nanomedicine manufacturing platform, NanoAssemblr. The company is recognised for its research into the genetic basis of diseases and the development of nanoparticles for drugs.

The CEO and co-founder of Precision NanoSystems said: NanoAssemblr technology will offer a solution for the discovery, development, and manufacture of nanomedicine. This additional funding will enable us to develop new products at lower costs and grow customer base.

Such strategic collaboration on the part of leading companies has boosted the growth of the nanomedicine market.

Swamini KulkarniAllied Market ResearchTweet @marketresearcht https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/

This article will appear in issue 7 of Health Europa Quarterly, which will be published in November 2018.

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Nanobots in medicine: the key to fighting chronic diseases …

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International Journal of Nanomedicine | Volume 13 – Dove Press

Silicagentamicin nanohybrids: combating antibiotic resistance, bacterial biofilms, and in vivo toxicity

Mosselhy DA, He W, Hynnen U, Meng Y, Mohammadi P, Palva A, Feng QL, Hannula SP, Nordstrm K, Linder MB

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8577-8578

Published Date: 13 December 2018

Strojny B, Sawosz E, Grodzik M, Jaworski S, Szczepaniak J, Sosnowska M, Wierzbicki M, Kutwin M, Orliska S, Chwalibog A

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8561-8575

Published Date: 13 December 2018

Belle Ebanda Kedi P, Eya’ane Meva F, Kotsedi L, Nguemfo EL, Bogning Zangueu C, Ntoumba AA, Mohamed HEA, Dongmo AB, Maaza M

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8537-8548

Published Date: 12 December 2018

Wu M, Liu J, Hu C, Li D, Yang J, Wu Z, Yang L, Chen Y, Fu S, Wu J

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8461-8472

Published Date: 11 December 2018

Perera PGT, Nguyen THP, Dekiwadia C, Wandiyanto JV, Sbarski I, Bazaka O, Bazaka K, Crawford RJ, Croft RJ, Ivanova EP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8429-8442

Published Date: 10 December 2018

Shen Y, Yu Y, Chaurasiya B, Li X, Xu Y, Webster TJ, Tu J, Sun R

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8281-8296

Published Date: 5 December 2018

Yan J, Zhang H, Cheng F, He Y, Su T, Zhang X, Zhang M, Zhu Y, Li C, Cao J, He B

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8247-8268

Published Date: 4 December 2018

Renu S, Markazi AD, Dhakal S, Lakshmanappa YS, Gourapura SR, Shanmugasundaram R, Senapati S, Narasimhan B, Selvaraj RK, Renukaradhya GJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8195-8215

Published Date: 30 November 2018

Mosselhy DA, He W, Hynnen U, Meng Y, Mohammadi P, Palva A, Feng QL, Hannula SP, Nordstrm K, Linder MB

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7939-7957

Published Date: 28 November 2018

Wang Y, Chen H, Zhang X, Gui L, Wu J, Feng Q, Peng S, Zhao M

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7835-7844

Published Date: 22 November 2018

Lu MM, Ge YR, Qiu J, Shao D, Zhang Y, Bai J, Zheng X, Chang ZM, Wang Z, Dong WF, Tang CB

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7697-7709

Published Date: 19 November 2018

Yuan Z, Yuan Y, Han L, Qiu Y, Huang X, Gao F, Fan G, Zhang Y, Tang X, He X, Xu K, Yin P

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7533-7548

Published Date: 15 November 2018

Wang B, Guo Y, Chen X, Zeng C, Hu Q, Yin W, Li W, Xie H, Zhang B, Huang X, Yu F

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7395-7408

Published Date: 12 November 2018

Li D, Zhang K, Shi C, Liu L, Yan G, Liu C, Zhou Y, Hu Y, Sun H, Yang B

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7167-7181

Published Date: 6 November 2018

Kim DH, Kim JY, Kim RM, Maharjan P, Ji YG, Jang DJ, Min KA, Koo TS, Cho KH

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7095-7106

Published Date: 5 November 2018

Horvth T, Papp A, Igaz N, Kovcs D, Kozma G, Trenka V, Tiszlavicz L, Rzga Z, Knya Z, Kiricsi M, Vezr T

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7061-7077

Published Date: 2 November 2018

Lee D, Heo DN, Nah HR, Lee SJ, Ko WK, Lee JS, Moon HJ, Bang JB, Hwang YS, Reis RL, Kwon IK

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7019-7031

Published Date: 1 November 2018

Wang W, Nie W, Liu D, Du H, Zhou X, Chen L, Wang H, Mo X, Li L, He C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7003-7018

Published Date: 1 November 2018

Lu Y, Jiang W, Wu X, Huang S, Huang Z, Shi Y, Dai Q, Chen J, Ren F, Gao S

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6913-6927

Published Date: 30 October 2018

Shi Ms, Zhao X, Zhang J, Pan S, Yang C, Wei Y, Hu H, Qiao M, Chen D, Zhao X

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6885-6902

Published Date: 26 October 2018

Nejadi Babadaei MM, Feli Moghaddam M, Solhvand S, Alizadehmollayaghoob E, Attar F, Rajabbeigi E, Akhtari K, Sari S, Falahati M

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6871-6884

Published Date: 26 October 2018

Vio V, Riveros AL, Tapia-Bustos A, Lespay-Rebolledo C, Perez-Lobos R, Muoz L, Pismante P, Morales P, Araya E, Hassan N, Herrera-Marschitz M, Kogan MJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6839-6854

Published Date: 25 October 2018

Qiu W, Chen R, Chen X, Zhang H, Song L, Cui W, Zhang J, Ye D, Zhang Y, Wang Z

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6809-6827

Published Date: 24 October 2018

Sun L, Xu J, Sun Z, Zheng F, Liu C, Wang C, Xiaoye Hu, Xia L, Liu Z, Xia R

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6769-6777

Published Date: 24 October 2018

Song Y, Ma A, Ning J, Zhong X, Zhang Q, Zhang X, Hong G, Li Y, Sasaki K, Li C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6751-6767

Published Date: 23 October 2018

Dhakal S, Cheng X, Salcido J, Renu S, Bondra K, Lakshmanappa YS, Misch C, Ghimire S, Feliciano-Ruiz N, Hogshead B, Krakowka S, Carson K, McDonough J, Lee CW, Renukaradhya GJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6699-6715

Published Date: 24 October 2018

Rodallec A, Sicard G, Giacometti S, Carr M, Pourroy B, Bouquet F, Savina A, Lacarelle B, Ciccolini J, Fanciullino R

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6677-6688

Published Date: 23 October 2018

Zhao X, Qi T, Kong C, Hao M, Wang Y, Li J, Liu B, Gao Y, Jiang J

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6413-6428

Published Date: 12 October 2018

Zhai B, Zeng Y, Zeng Z, Zhang N, Li C, Zeng Y, You Y, Wang S, Chen X, Sui X, Xie T

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6279-6296

Published Date: 10 October 2018

Zhou X, Shi G, Fan B, Cheng X, Zhang X, Wang X, Liu S, Hao Y, Wei Z, Wang L, Feng S

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6265-6277

Published Date: 10 October 2018

Hernandez-Delgadillo R, Garca-Cuellar CM, Snchez-Prez Y, Pineda-Aguilar N, Martnez-Martnez MA, Rangel-Padilla EE, Nakagoshi-Cepeda SE, Sols-Soto JM, Snchez-Njera RI, Nakagoshi-Cepeda MAA, Chellam, S, Cabral-Romero C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6089-6097

Published Date: 5 October 2018

Kuroda C, Ueda K, Haniu H, Ishida H, Okano S, Takizawa T, Sobajima A, Kamanaka T, Yoshida K, Okamoto M, Tsukahara T, Matsuda Y, Aoki K, Kato H, Saito N

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6079-6088

Published Date: 5 October 2018

Yamoah MA, Moshref M, Sharma J, Chen WC, Ledford HA, Lee JH, Chavez KS, Wang W, Lpez JE, Lieu DK, Sirish P, Zhang XD

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6073-6078

Published Date: 5 October 2018

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International Journal of Nanomedicine | Volume 13 – Dove Press

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The Promise of Nanomedicine – Laboratory Equipment

More than a decade ago, nanotechnology became an integral part of the overall scientific research world. Governments started funding programs specifically aimed at nanotechnology, research universities opened their facilities and coursework to the new discipline, and journals focusing on nano research became commonplace.And now, many researchers believe, its nanomedicines turn to do the same. Nanomedicinewhich has emerged as nanotechnologys most important sub-disciplineis the application of nanotechnology to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. It is already having an impact clinically among some of the deadliest diseases in the world.

Nanomedicine is far from the stuff of science fiction. The possibilities for nanomedicine to help us diagnose, treat and image diseases are endless. Imagine a smart nanomedicine that is able to bind to tumor cells and enhance imaging and diagnosis, at the same time as being able to deliver a gene therapy or chemotherapy agent. With the technologies available to us and our multidisciplinary teams, this will be possible in my lifetime, said Phoebe Phillips, head of the pancreatic cancer translational research group at the University of New South Wales in Sydney.

Phillips and her team have created a nanoparticle that dramatically increases its effectiveness as an anti-cancer drug for patients with pancreatic cancers, which is one of the fastest killing cancers from time of initial detection, often leaving patients with no suitable treatment options and only weeks to live.

While nanomedicine canand likely willplay a role in diagnostics, regenerative medicine, prosthetics and more, the effect the sub-discipline is currently having on the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancers is significant.

Nanomedicine for HIVThirty years ago, a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS was essentially a guarantee of a painful, protracted death. It wasnt until 1996 that researchers discovered antiretroviral drugs, and the potent combination therapy that leads to successful management of HIV/AIDS in most cases. However, not much has changed since that discovery. Those suffering from the autoimmune disease still require daily oral dosing of three to four pills, and chronic oral dosing has significant complications that can arise from the high pill burden experienced by patients, leading to non-adherence to therapies for a variety of reasons.

Ive been working in HIV for over 20 years, Andrew Owen, professor of molecular and clinical pharmacology at the University of Liverpool (UK) told Laboratory Equipment. I was trying to understand the variability in drug exposure that occurs between different individuals and the genetic basis for that. We were finding a lot of interesting things, but they werent clinically implementable. They gave us a good understanding of why drug exposure was variable, but it didnt actually help the patients in any way.

In an attempt to solve the problem rather than just characterize it, Owen turned to nanomedicine in 2009, eventually becoming part of the first team to conduct human trials of orally dosed nanomedicines for HIV. Since then, Owen and his interdisciplinary team at the Liverpool Nanomedicine Partnership have secured more than 20 million of research funding for a multitude of nanomedicine-based approaches to HIV, such low-dose oral delivery, long-acting injectable medications and targeted delivery of antiretrovirals.

Some of Owens most important research to date tackles two of the pharmaceutical industrys biggest challenges: oral delivery of potent drugs and supply and demand.

One of the major problems that has plagued drug discovery and drug development over the last 30 years has been compatibility with oral drug delivery, Owen explained. The pharmaceutical industry has wrestled with that because they can develop very potent molecules across diseases, but actually delivering those molecules orally is very challenging. As you try to design into the molecule oral bioavailabilty, you usually get further away from the potency you want.

The Liverpool team solved this problem with the creation of Solid Drug Nanoparticles. The technology consists of combining a normal drug, in its solid form, with particles on that drug that are measurable within the nanometer scale. There are other things packed into the formulation as well, such as FDA-approved stabilizers that are proven to help disperse the drug. Owen says it is all about increasing the surface area covered by the drug.

If you imagine you take a granulated form of the drug, youre going to get big chunks of drugs in the intestinal tract when dissolution happens. But if you have nanometer-sized particles within the GI tract, then you are going to get a complete coating of the inside of the intestine after you take the drug, Owen explained. What that does is it massively increases the surface area covered by the drug, which saturates all sorts of drug influx processes within the GI tract.

Since 80 percent of a humans immune system is concentrated in the gut, the Solid Drug Nanoparticles are the perfect mechanism. The immune cells in the gut instinctually move toward the particles, creating a pathway for the drugs to cross the intestines, move through the lymphatic system, and finally into the systematic circulation.

In February, Owen presented the results of two trials at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) that confirmed his Solid Drug Nanoparticles can be effective at a 50 percent dose reduction. Specifically, Owen and his team applied the nanomedicine-based approach to the formulation of two drugs: efvirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV). EFV is the current WHO-recommended regimen, with 70 percent of adult HIV patients in low- and middle-income countries taking the medication. At 50 percent of the dose, the patients in the trial were able to maintain plasma concentrations of the conventional dose.

Globally, the supply of drugs needed to treat every patient with HIV is outstripping manufacturing capabilitymeaning we, as a human species, cannot physically make enough HIV medication to treat everyone with the disease. A 50 percent reduction in dose means twice as many patients served with the existing drug supply.Owen and his team are working with multiple global partners to move the technology forward. For the drugs already formulated, the Medicines Patent Pool and Clinical Health Access are helping to scale up and take them to market. Meanwhile, USAIDs Project OPTIMIZE is applying the nanoparticle technology to the newest HIV drugs for use in low- and middle-income countries.

For their latest collaboration with Johns Hopkins University, the Liverpool team was just awarded $3 million to examine the use of implantable technologies that can deliver drugs for weeks, or even months.

The current oral drug regimens for HIV comprises three drugs in combinationone is the major driver for efficacy, and the other two are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that prevent resistance to the main drug. However, current injectable formulations are only available with the main drugnone include the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

So, our project aims to develop the first long-acting injectable nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors so that we can use them to have a fully long-acting regimen that matches the current clinical paradigm for therapy, Owen said.

The Liverpool/Hopkins team has also thought about applying their long-acting injectable technology to other chronic diseases, such as malaria and tuberculosis, as well as some cardiovascular applications.

Nanomedicine for diabetesWhen the nanoparticles he was working with as an imaging tool didnt produce the desired results, Pere Santamaria grew frustratedbut he didnt give up. Instead, the doctor and professor at the University of Calgary (Canada) changed his assumptions and pursued his experimentuntil the data came pouring in that confirmed it wasnt a failed experiment at all. Rather, it was a discovery.

The discovery of Navacims was a bit serendipitous, Santamaria told Laboratory Equipment. Thankfully I am a little OCD and I didnt let the failed experiment go.Navacims are an entirely new class of nanomedicine drugs that harness the ability to stop disease without impairing normal immunity. Santamaria has been studying Navacims for the past 17 years, ever since unintentionally developing them. He even started a spin-off company, Parvus Therapeutics, Inc., to help bring the drugs to market.

In autoimmune diseases, white blood cells, which are normally responsible for warding off foreign invaders and disease, turn on the body, attacking the good cells and causing their destruction. Each specific autoimmune disease results from an attack against thousands of individual protein fragments in the targeted organ, such as the insulin-producing pancreatic cells in the case of type 1 diabetes.

But Santamarias studies show that nanoparticles decorated with protein targets acting as bait for disease-causing white blood cells can actually be used to reprogram the cells to rightfully suppress the disease they once intended to cause.

Once the immune system recognizes the presence of a Navacim, a white blood cell is reprogrammed by epigenetic changes into a lymphocyte that no longer wants to cause tissue damage, but rather work to suppress disease. According to Santamaria, the reprogramming step is immediately followed by an expansion of that population of lymphocytesone now-good white blood cell dividing into a million.

Basically they turn the tables on the immune system, and then there is a very sophisticated series of downstream cellular events that arise from that reprogramming event that involves the recruitment of other lymphocytes and other cell types that completely suppress the inflammation in the organ that is being infected, Santamaria explained. This happens extremely efficiently and comprehensively. This is an approach that can efficiently, selectively and specifically blend a complex response without impairing basic immunity.

In addition, the design of Navacims is modular, meaning the nanomedicine can be applied to severalif not allautoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Navacims can be altered to target different diseases by simply changing a small portion of the bait molecules on the nanoparticles. Santamarias studies have shown this to work in about seven autoimmune diseases thus far.

In April, Santamarias company Parvus entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Novartis for Navacims. Under the terms of the agreement, Novartis receives exclusive worldwide rights to use Parvus Navacim technology to develop and commercialize products for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and will be responsible for clinical-stage development and commercialization. Parvus will still be responsible for conducting ongoing preclinical work in the diabetes area, with some research funding from Novartis.

Weve had such a long time to prove ourselves, that this is not a flash in the pan, that this is something serious and robust, Santamaria said. We know so much about the mechanisms of our actions, and so much granularity. I think there are no other drugs that have reached the clinic with this level of understanding. That was painful in the beginning for us, but in the end its going to be good.

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Nanomedicine | The Scientist Magazine

LAGUNA DESIGN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/CORBIS

In a 1959 lecture at Caltech famously dubbed Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom, American physicist and Nobel laureateto-be Richard Feynman discussed the idea of manipulating structures at the atomic level. Although the applications he discussed were theoretical at the time, his insights prophesied the discovery of many new properties at the nanometer scale that are not observed in materials at larger scales, paving the way for the ever-expanding field of nanomedicine. These days, the use of nanosize materials, comparable in dimension to some proteins, DNA, RNA, and oligosaccharides, is making waves in diverse biomedical fields, including biosensing, imaging, drug delivery, and even surgery.

Nanomaterials typically have high surface areato-volume ratios, generating a relatively large substrate for chemical attachment. Scientists have been able to create new surface characteristics for nanomaterials and have manipulated coating molecules to fine-tune the particles behaviors. Most nanomaterials can also penetrate living cells, providing the basis for nanocarrier delivery of biosensors or therapeutics. When systemically administered, nanomaterials are small enough that they dont clog blood vessels, but are larger than many small-molecule drugs, facilitating prolonged retention time in the circulatory system. With the ability to engineer synthetic DNA, scientists can now design and assemble nanostructures that take advantage of ?Watson-Crick base pairing to improve target detection and drug delivery.

Both the academic community and the pharmaceutical industry are making increasing investments of time and money in nanotherapeutics. Nearly 50 biomedical products incorporating nanoparticles are already on the market, and many more are moving through the pipeline, with dozens in Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials. Drugmakers are well on their way to realizing the prediction of Christopher Guiffre, chief business officer at the Cambridge, Massachusettsbased nanotherapeutics company Cerulean Pharma, who last November forecast, Five years from now every pharma will have a nano program.

Technologies that enable improved cancer detection are constantly racing against the diseases they aim to diagnose, and when survival depends on early intervention, losing this race can be fatal. While detecting cancer biomarkers is the key to early diagnosis, the number of bona fide biomarkers that reliably reveal the presence of cancerous cells is low. To overcome this challenge, researchers are developing functional nanomaterials for more sensitive detection of intracellular metabolites, tumor cellmembrane proteins, and even cancer cells that are circulating in the bloodstream. (See Fighting Cancer with Nanomedicine, The Scientist, April 2014.)

The extreme brightness, excellent photostability, and ready modulation of silica nanoparticles, along with other advantages, make them particularly useful for molecular imaging and ultrasensitive detection.

Silica nanoparticles are one promising material for detecting specific molecular targets. Dye-doped silica nanoparticles contain a large quantity of dye molecules housed inside a silica matrix, giving an intense fluorescence signal that is up to 10,000 times greater than that of a single organic fluorophore. Taking advantage of Frster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), in which a photon emitted by one fluorophore can excite another nearby fluorophore, researchers can synthesize fluorescent silica nanoparticles with emission wavelengths that span a wide spectrum by simply modulating the ratio of the different dyesthe donor chromophore and the acceptor chromophore. The extreme brightness, excellent photostability, and ready modulation of silica nanoparticles, along with other advantages, make them particularly useful for molecular imaging and ultrasensitive detection.

THE NANOMEDICINE CABINET: Scientists are engineering nanometer-size particles made of diverse materials to aid in patient care. The unique properties of these structures are making waves in biomedical analysis and targeted therapy.See full infographic: JPG | PDF TAMI TOLPAOther materials that are under investigation as nanodetectors include graphene oxide (GO), the monolayer of graphite oxide, which has unique electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties. Semiconductor-material quantum dots (QDs), now being developed by Shuming Nies group at Emory University, exhibit quantum mechanical properties when covalently coupled to biomolecules and could improve cancer imaging and molecular profiling.1 Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), in which nucleic acids are oriented in a spherical geometry, scaffolded on a nanoparticle core (which may be retained or dissolved), are also gaining traction by the pioneering work of Chad Mirkins group at Northwestern University.2 (See illustration.)

Nanoparticles are also proving their worth as probes for various types of bioimaging, including fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET). For instance, Xiaoyuan Chen, now at the National Institutes of Healths National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and Hongjie Dai of Stanford University have developed carbon nanotubes for performing PET scans in mice. When modified with the macromolecule polyethylene glycol to improve biocompatibility, the nanotubes were very stable and remained in circulation for days, far longer than the few hours typical of many molecular imaging agents.3 Further modification with a short-peptide targeting ligand called RGD caused the nanotubes to selectively accumulate in tumors that overexpressed integrin, the molecular target of RGD, enabling precise tumor imaging.

To further increase the specificity of nanodetectors, researchers can add recognition probes such as aptamersshort synthetic nucleic acid strands that bind target molecules. For example, we conjugated gold nanoparticles with aptamers that had been identified through iteratively screening DNA probes using living cancer cells.4 Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream from primary tumors and provide a potential target for early cancer diagnosis. However, CTCs are rare, with blood concentrations of typically fewer than 10 cells per milliliter of blood. Collaborating with physicians to profile samples from leukemia patients, we demonstrated that aptamers are capable of differentiating among different subtypes of leukemia, as well as among patient samples before and after chemotherapy (unpublished data). In addition to leukemia, we have selected aptamers specific to cancers of the lung, liver, ovaries, colon, brain, breast, and pancreas, as well as to bacterial cells. Other researchers have developed nanoparticles with numerous and diverse surface aptamers, enabling them to bind their targets more efficiently and securely.

NANOCAPSULES: A false-color transmission electron micrograph of liposomes, spherical particles composed of a lipid bilayer around a central cavity that can be engineered to deliver both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to specific cells in the body DAVID MCCARTHY/SCIENCE SOURCEThe prototype of targeted drug delivery can be traced back to the concept of a magic bullet, proposed by chemotherapy pioneer and 1908 Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich. Ehrlich envisioned a drug that could selectively target a disease-causing organism or diseased cells, leaving healthy tissue unharmed. A century later, researchers are developing many types of nanoscale magic bullets that can specifically deliver drugs into target cells or tissues.

Doxil, the first nanotherapeutic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is a liposome (~100 nm in diameter) containing the widely used anticancer drug doxorubicin. The therapy takes advantage of the leaky blood vasculature and poor lymphatic drainage in tumor tissues that allow the nanoparticles to squeeze from blood vessels into a tumor and stay there for hours or days. Scientists have also been developing nanotherapeutics capable of targeting specific cell types by binding to surface biomarkers on diseased cells. Targeting ligands range from macromolecules, such as antibodies and aptamers, to small molecules, such as folate, that bind to receptors overexpressed in many types of cancers.

Aptamers in particular are a popular tool for targeting specific cells. Aptamer development is efficient and cost-effective, as automated nucleic acid synthesis allows easy, affordable chemical synthesis and modification of functional moieties. Other advantages include high stability and long shelf life, rapid tissue penetration based on the relatively small molecular weights, low immunogenicity, and ease of antidote development in the case of an adverse reaction to therapy by simply administering an aptamers complementary DNA. We have demonstrated the principle of modifying aptamers on the surfaces of doxorubicin-containing liposomes, which then selectively delivered the drug to cultured cancer cells.5

Recent advances in predicting the secondary structures of a DNA fragment or interactions between multiple DNA strands, as well as in technologies to automatically synthesize predesigned DNA sequences, has opened the door to more advanced applications of aptamers and other DNA structures in nanomedicine. For instance, we have developed aptamer-tethered DNA nanotrains, assembled from multiple copies of short DNA building blocks. On one end, an aptamer moiety allows specific target cell recognition during drug delivery, and a long double-stranded DNA section on the other end forms the boxcars for drug loading. The nanotrains, which can hold a high drug payload and specifically deliver anticancer drugs into target cancer cells in culture and animal models,6 could reduce drug side effects while inhibiting tumor growth. Alternatively, Daniel Anderson of MIT engineered a tetrahedral cage of DNA, often called DNA origami, for folate-mediated targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to silence some tumor genes.7 And Mirkins SNAs can similarly transport siRNAs as guided missiles to knock out overexpressed genes in cancer cells. Mirkins group also recently demonstrated that the SNAs were able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and specifically target genes in the brains of glioblastoma animal models.2 Peng Yin of Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute and others are now building even more complex DNA nanostructures with refined functions, such as smart biomedical analysis.8

Conventional assembly of such DNA nanostructures exploits the hybridization of a DNA strand to part of its complementary strand. In addition, we have discovered that DNA nanostructures called nanoflowers because they resemble a ring of nanosize petals, can be self-assembled through liquid crystallization of DNA, which typically occurs at high concentrations of the nucleic acid.9 Importantly, these DNA nanostructures can be readily incorporated with components possessing multiple functionalities, such as aptamers for specific recognition, fluorophores for molecular imaging, and DNA therapeutics for disease therapy.

Another example of novel nanoparticles is DNA micelles, three-dimensional nanostructures that can be readily modified to include aptamers for specific cell-type recognition, or DNA antisense for gene silencing. The lipid core and sphere of projecting nucleic acids can enter cells without any transfection agents and have high resistance to nuclease digestion, making them ideal candidates for drug delivery and cancer therapy.

Researchers are developing many types of nanoscale magic bullets that can specifically deliver drugs into target cells or tissues.

Such advances in targeting are now making it possible to deliver combinations of drugs and ensure that they reach target cells simultaneously. Paula Hammond and Michael Yaffe of MIT recently reported a liposome-based combination chemotherapy delivery system that can simultaneously deliver two synergistic chemotherapeutic drugs, erlotinib and doxorubicin, for enhanced tumor killing.10 Erlotinib, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), promotes the dynamic rewiring of apoptotic pathways, which then sensitizes cancer cells to subsequent exposure to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. By incorporating erlotinib, a hydrophobic molecule, into the lipid bilayer shell while packaging the hydrophilic doxorubicin inside of the liposomes, the researchers achieved the desired time sequence of drug releasefirst erlotinib, then doxorubicinin a one-two punch against the cancer. They also demonstrated that the efficiency of drug delivery to cancer cells was enhanced by coating the liposomes with folate.

Scientists are also engineering smart nanoparticles, which activate only in the disease microenvironment. For example, George Church of Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute and colleagues invented a logic-gated DNA nanocapsule that they programmed to deliver drugs inside cells only when a specific panel of disease biomarkers is overexpressed on the cell surface.11 And Donald Ingbers group, also at Harvard Medical School and the Wyss Institute, developed microscale aggregates of thrombolytic-drug-coated nanoparticles that break apart under the abnormally high fluid shear stress of narrowed blood vessels and then bind and dissolve the problematic clot.12

With these and other nanoplatforms for targeted drug delivery being tested in animal models, medicine is now approaching the prototypic magic bullet, sparing healthy tissue while exterminating disease.

In addition to serving as mere drug carriers that deliver the toxic payload to target cells, nanomaterials can themselves function as therapeutics. For example, thermal energy is emerging as an important means of therapy, and many gold nanomaterials can convert photons into thermal energy for targeted photothermal therapy. Taking advantage of these properties, we conjugated aptamers onto the surfaces of gold-silver nanorods, which efficiently absorb near-infrared light and convert energy from photons to heat. These aptamer-conjugated nanorods were capable of selectively binding to target cells in culture and inducing dramatic cytotoxicity by converting laser light to heat.13

Magnetic nanoparticles are also attractive for their ability to mediate heat induction. Jinwoo Cheon of Yonsei University in Korea developed coreshell magnetic nanoparticles, which efficiently generated thermal energy by a magnetization-reversal process as these nanoparticles returned to their relaxed states under an external, alternating-current magnetic field.14 Using this technology, Cheon and his colleagues saw dramatic tumor regression in a mouse model.A third type of nanosize therapeutic involves cytotoxic polymers. For example, we synthesized a nucleotide-like molecule called an acrydite with an attached DNA aptamer that specifically binds to and enters target cancer cells.15 The acrydite molecules in the resultant acrydite-aptamer conjugates polymerized with each other to form an aptamer-decorated molecular string that led to cytotoxicity in target cancer cells, including those exhibiting multidrug resistance, a common challenge in cancer chemotherapy.

Many other subfields have been advanced by recent developments in nanomedicine, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, medical devices, and vaccines. We must proceed with caution until these different technologies prove safe in patients, but nanomedicine is now poised to make a tremendous impact on health care and the practice of clinical medicine.

Guizhi Zhu is a postdoctoral associate in the Department of Chemistry and at the Health Cancer Center of the University of Florida. Weihong Tan is a professor and associate director of the Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface at the University of Florida. He also serves as the director of the Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory at Hunan University in China, where Lei Mei is a graduate student.

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Nanomedicine | The Scientist Magazine

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