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Testosterone Replacement | Discounted Labs

TESTOSTERONE Total and Free (Regular)

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Special Price $30.45 was $75.60

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Free and weakly bound testosterone (FWBT), also referred to as bioavailable testosterone, is thought to reflect an individual’s biologically active, circulating testosterone. FWBT includes free testosterone and testosterone that is bound to albumin. FWBT does not include sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone. The SHBG-bound fraction is biologically inactive because of the high binding affinity of SHBG for testosterone. The rapid dissociation of weakly bound testosterone from albumin results in the availability of essentially all albumin-bound testosterone for steroid-receptor interaction.


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This panel includes two estradiol tests (total and free-unbound) measured by the most accurate hormone testing method: Liquid chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry. Buying these two tests separately would cost $143, so you save $32 by ordering them together in this panel.


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The most complete of all blood test panels for men that include: Total and Free Testosterone, Sensitive Estradiol, IGF-1, Prolactin, DHT, DHEA-S, PSA, SHBG, Lipids, CBC, CMP, and Thyroid Function.


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This panel includes hormones that have been implicated in gynecomastia by several studies. Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast resulting from a growth of the glandular tissue of the breast. Since it causes anxiety, psychosocial discomfort and fear of breast cancer, early diagnostic evaluation is important, and patients usually seek medical attention. Causes include hormone imbalance and genetic predisposition.


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This blood test panel includes: CBC, CMP, Lipids, Testosterone (T & F), Sensitive Estradiol, TSH, Free T3, PSA, and SHBG


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There are several ways to determine if the dose/frequency of HCG while on TRT is effective: Performing a sperm count/quality test and/or measuring an upstream hormone to testosterone called 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OH-P). TRT decreases 17OH-P and other upstream hormones due to the shut down of LH (LH is needed to activate the production of these hormones- See figure below). When using HCG plus TRT, upstream hormones like 17OH-P can be normalized. Several studies have found that 17OH-P blood level is correlated to ITT, so testing for this hormone could not only save time while optimizing HCG dose/frequency but also eliminate the need to perform testicular aspirations, a very difficult procedure to do. A 17OH-P level over 6.5 nmol/L (or 215 ng/dL) was found to normalize ITT while using HCG doses of 500 IU every other day plus testosterone enanthate injections given at 200 mg/week.


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Renin is also called angiotensinogenase; its an enzyme produced by the kidneys to control aldosterone production. Its also essential in the reninangiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) which maintains your bodys fluid balance and blood pressure. Aldosterone is the primary of several endogenous members of the class of mineralocorticoids in humans. Aldosterone tends to promote Na+ and water retention, and lower plasma K+ concentration.


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Aldosterone (ALD) is one of a group of connected hormones. They form the reninangiotensinaldosterone system; this system is activated when there is a decrease in blood flow to your kidneys following a drop in blood volume or blood pressure


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Lipoprotein(a) has been called a powerful predictor of premature atherosclerotic vascular disease. As an independent risk factor for premature coronary artery disease, excess Lp(a) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiac death in patients with acute coronary syndromes and with restenosis after angioplasty (PTCA) and coronary bypass procedures. In general, concentrations greater than or equal to 75 nmol/L of Lp(a) in serum are associated with a two- to sixfold increase in risk, depending on the presence of other risk factors.


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PSA circulates through the body in two ways; bound to other proteins or by itself. Unbound PSA is called free PSA. A free-PSA test will measure the percentage of unbound PSA while a PSA test is used to measure the total of free and bound PSA in the blood. The free PSA is a defective variant of normal PSA that can no longer bind to other proteins and so circulates in the blood in the free form. Although the reason why this is the case is poorly understood – patients with prostate cancer may have lower free PSA levels than those with a benign prostate condition.

Special Price $68.25 was $85.00

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ED Panel Includes Main Hormones Involved with Erectile Function: Prolactin, Total and Free Testosterone, Sensitive Estradiol, DHT, TSH, Free T3 and Free T4.


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This panel is popular among men who are on testosterone therapy since it offers substantial savings over ordering each of these tests separately : Complete Blood Count (CBC) ,Comprehensive Metabolic Profile ( includes eGFR ), Estradiol Sensitive, Testosterone, Total and Free, LC/MS-MS ( Accurate for all testosterone levels, uncapped), Prolactin, Lipids, and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)

Special Price $206.85 was $275.00

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This test provides a more accurate measurement when total testosterone concentrations are very low (under 150 ng/dL, adequate for T testing in women) or very high (over 1500 ng/dL).

Special Price $87.10 was $120.75

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Special Price $43.50 was $73.50

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Special Price $312.90 was $348.00

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Special Price $189.00 was $276.00

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This panel includes: Total and Free Testosterone (ECLIA method), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) at substantial savings that buying each test separately.

Special Price $88.20 was $112.00

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Includes liver and kidney function, glucose and electrolytes


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Includes Hematocrit


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Lipid Profile: Evaluates the risk for developing atherosclerosis (arterial plaque) and coronary heart disease. This test includes: Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides ,HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio


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Special Price $261.45 was $417.00

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A prolactin blood test is used by doctors to evaluate sexual dysfunction of unknown cause in both men and women.


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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It is also made in the brain. DHEA leads to the production of androgens and estrogens (male and female sex hormones). DHEA levels in the body begin to decrease after age 30. Lower DHEA levels are found in people with hormonal disorders, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, depression, diabetes, inflammation, immune disorders, and osteoporosis. Corticosteroids, birth control taken by mouth, and agents that treat psychiatric disorders may reduce DHEA levels.


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This test measures the amount of dehydrotestosterone (DHT) in the blood. Low DHT has been associated with low libido and high DHT has been linked to acne, hair loss and benigh prostatic inflammation in a minority of men.

Special Price $50.00 was $126.00

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This is a very economical panel that includes: 1- Hematocrit: Portion of total blood volume made up of red blood cells. Testosterone replacement therapy can increase hematocrit. Hematocrit over 52 may increase blood thickness and cardiovascular risks. 2- Total and Free Testosterone (For expected total testosterone blood levels under 1500 ng/dL) by Equilibrium Analysis.

Special Price $37.49 was $71.40

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Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is produced exclusively by cells of the prostate gland. Used in conjunction with the digital rectal examination, PSA is a useful screening test for benign prostate enlargement, prostatitis and prostate cancer development.


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SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) binds to testosterone and estradiol. High SHBG may decrease free testosterone and free estradiol.


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FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland to control the production of sex hormones including testosterone and estrogen, and sperm and egg cells. They are both important in diagnosing primary or secondary hypogonadism, infertility, or potential pituitary adenomas.


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Testosterone Replacement | Discounted Labs

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market is Anticipated to …

Apr 09, 2019 (Heraldkeeper via COMTEX) — New York, April 09, 2019: Global Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market is expected to exceed more than US$ 1.0 billion by 2024 at CAGR of 4% in the given forecast period.

The scope of the report includes a detailed study of global and regional markets of Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market. The reasons given for variations in the growth of the industry in certain regions.

Testosterone is responsible for the improvement of male sexual characteristics and this hormone formed by the testicles. It is also important to maintain various functions such as sexual function, bone growth, adequate levels of red blood cells, and a sense of well being and muscle bulk. Insufficient production of testosterone causes erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction occurs due to decreased testosterone production to overcome this testosterone replacement therapy is used to improve the problem. Testosterone replacement therapy occurs in various forms containing its own set of advantages and hazards such as subdemal pellets, transdemal patches and injections. Testosterone replacement therapy also helps to recover symptoms of low testosterone. Low testosterone is caused due to age growth it generally lowers down after the mid 30′s and further decreases accordingly to the age factor.

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The major driving factors of testosterone replacement therapy market are as follows:

Rise in incidence of testosterone deficiency. Increase in geriatric populace with high risk of testosterone deficiency. Increasing awareness about testosterone substitute therapy.

The restraining factors of testosterone replacement therapy market are as follows:

High possibility of side effects associated to testosterone replacement therapy. Patent expiry of key drugs and entry of generics.

The report covers detailed competitive outlook including the market share and company profiles of the key participants operating in the global market. Key players profiled in the report include AbbVie, Inc., Allergan plc, Bayer AG, Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Kyowa Kirin International plc, Mylan N.V., Novartis AG, and Pfizer, Inc. Company profile includes assign such as company summary, financial summary, business strategy and planning, SWOT analysis and current developments.

The Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market has been segmented as below:

The Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market is Segmented on the lines of Product Type Analysis, Ingredient Type Analysis and Regional Analysis. By Product Type Analysis this market is segmented on the basis of Oral, Implants, Gums/Buccal Adhesives, Injections, Patches and Creams/Gels.

By Ingredient Type Analysis this market is segmented on the basis of Testosterone, Testosterone Cypionate, Testosterone Enanthate, Testosterone Undecanoate and Methyl Testosterone. By Regional Analysis this market is segmented on the basis of North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, MEA and Rest of the World.

This report provides:

1) An overview of the global market for testosterone replacement therapy and related technologies.

2) Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016 and 2017, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2024.

3) Identifications of new market opportunities and targeted promotional plans for testosterone replacement therapy.

4) Discussion of research and development, and the demand for new products and new applications.

5) Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry.

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Table of Contents


2 Executive Summary

3 Global Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market – Industry Analysis

4 North America Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis

5 Europe Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis

6 Asia Pacific Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis

7 Middle East and Africa (MEA) Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis

8 Latin America Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis

9 Global Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market, Country Snippets

9.1. Global Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, by Country, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.2. U.S. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.3. Japan Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.4. Germany Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.5. U.K. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.6. Canada Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.7. China Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.8. Brazil Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.9. Mexico Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024 9.10. United Arab Emirates (UAE) Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Revenue, (US$ Mn), 2014-2024

10 Company Profiles

10.1. AbbVie, Inc.

10.2. Allergan plc

10.3. Bayer AG

10.4. Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

10.5. Eli Lilly and Company

10.6. Kyowa Kirin International plc

10.7. Mylan N.V.

10.8. Novartis AG

10.9. Pfizer, Inc.

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Contact Person: John Bay


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Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market is Anticipated to …

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

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About – Testosterone Replacement Therapy

A few years ago I started getting depressed, losing muscle, gaining fat, getting injured easier, losing my sex drive and losing motivation at work. In short, my life was falling down around me for, apparently, no reason. I wondered What the hell is wrong with me! and when I couldnt take it anymore I went to see a doctor. The general family doctor was convinced it was depression and wanted to put me on antidepressants. Having never been the depressed type, I was convinced otherwise. I researched my symptoms online and discovered that they all matched that of low testosterone. I went back to the doctor for tests and indeed my testosterone levels were that of a 65 year old man. I was 31 at the time. He referred me to an endocrinologist who ran more tests.

These further tests revealed that my testes / testicles were fine, and an MRI revealed that my pituitary was fine. Apparently the third cog in that HPTA (Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Testicular Axis) was not producing the two hormones (LSH / FSH) that would instruct the pituitary to create the hormone (GnRH), which would would instruct the testes to create the hormone testosterone in adequate levels for someone of my age.

Why my hypothalamus decided to stop working full time, Ill never know. But I do know that within days of starting testosterone replacement therapy treatment all of my problems began to disappear. It was like magic.

However well it worked for me, I always try to remember that HRT for men has its own set of problems. Among them are an increased risk of prostate cancer and heart disease. More importantly, I dont like the idea of being dependent on a drug for my manhood. It bothers me. I think this is something a lot of male HRT / TRT patients experience, but I cant be sure since I dont really know any others personally. Maybe Ill meet some after starting this website

Another thing that scares me is that one day I wont be able to get my prescription filled for one reason or another. Maybe it will be for lack of health insurance (I live in the US and Im sure youve heard about our insurance woes here), or maybe every doctor in my area will be afraid of the boogeyman steroids because theyve watched too many after-school dramas and ESPN scandals. This dependance bothers me more than anything, because I know Ill lapse into severe depression, fat gain, lethargy, and generally just be miserable if Im not taking my testosterone.

Heres something else that troubles me: My testes are fine or they were, at least. But when you introduce external sources of testosterone into the male body all natural production ceases completely as the body seeks to reach homeostasis. In the process the testes stop working, and this is why bodybuilders have grapenuts so to speak. I have secondary hypogonadism. But the treatment for this is the same as primary hypogonadism. The treatment, testosterone replacement therapy, CAUSES primary hypogonadism in men with secondary hypogonadism. Are you telling me there arent any treatments for low FSH/LH without having to mess around with other parts of my HTPA?

Dont worry if you dont know what the hell Im talking about you soon will. Just keep reading my blog and all will be revealed. Im sort of a research junkie when it comes to what Im putting in my body.

Soooo, the longer Im on this stuff, the less chance I have of recovering. But I spent three years miserable, tired, angry, depressed, with a deteriorating body before finally going on HRT, which practically got rid of all of my syptoms overnight. Ive felt like a million bucks ever since. So the idea of going back to low testosterone scares the sh*t out of me.

On the other hand, I could stay on HRT for the rest of my life, which if I live to be of average age would be even long than Ive been alive so far. Thats a long time for someone to be on HRT, and at that point I wonder what the risks would be. Has it even been studied for such a long period of time? The good news is Id have the testosterone of a 35 year old into my 60s, which would be pretty sweet if my wife doesnt get too fat (just kidding sort of). Of course, that doesnt do me much good if Im dying of prostate cancer or have a heart attack.

So this is my journey and judging by how many patients my endo says he sees everyday, I am sure Im not alone. Call it a blog, an information resource, a support center, a launching pad, whatever But Im glad you stopped by, and if youre on HRT or thinking about going on HRT I hope this site can provide some value.

About – Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

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Top Nano Conferences|Drug Delivery Meetings| Nanomedicine …

About conference

Hear Explore and Learn the Latest Research. Present before distinguished global audience. Collaborate, build partnerships and experience Auckland, New Zealand. Join the Global Nanomedicine Community

ConferenceSeries Ltdinvites the contributors across the globe to participate in the premier 19thInternational Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Health Care (Nanomedicine 2019) (CPD Accredited), to discuss the theme:”Potent impact of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in future medicine and treatment.The conference will be held atAuckland,New ZealandduringApril 04-06, 2019.

Conference Series Llcorganizes aconference seriesof 1000+ Global Events inclusive of 300+ Conferences, 500+ Upcoming and Previous Symposiums and Workshops in USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and publishes 700+ Open access journals which contains over 30000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members

19thInternational Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Health Care(Nanomedicine 2019) (CPD Accredited) aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of Nanomedicine in Healthcare. It also provides the premier interdisciplinary forum for researchers, practitioners and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns, practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted in the field of Nanomedicine. The conference program will cover a wide variety of topics relevant to the Nanomedicine, including: Nanomedicine in drug discover and delivery, Nano diagnostics, theranostics, applications of Nanomedicine in healthcare applications and disease treatments.

Why to attend?

19th International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Healthcare 2019 (CPD Accredited) which will be the greatest gathering devoted to Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology.

Professionals giving a chief specialized gathering to detailing and finding out about the most recent new era advancements created over the span of time alongside examining their applications.

Events incorporate intriguing issues introductions from everywhere throughout the world and expert systems administration with enterprises, driving working gatherings and boards.

Meet Your Objective Business area with people from and around the world focused on getting some answers concerning Pharmaceutics and Nanomedicine, this is the most obvious opportunity to accomplish the greatest accumulation of individuals from wherever all through the World.

Conduct appears, scatter information, meet with current, make a sprinkle with another item offering, and get name affirmation at this event. Generally acclaimed speakers, the most recent techniques, methodologies, and the most breakthrough updates in Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology are indications of this meeting.

Target Audience:

Nanomedicine Academia Professors , Medical professionals, Nanomedicine Department heads, Nanomedicine researchers, Nanomedicine CTOs, Nanomedicine product managers, business development managers, Entrepreneurs, Industry analysts, Investors, Students, Media representatives and decision makers from all corners of Nanoscience research area around the globe.

We therefore encourage all colleagues from all over the world to participate and help us to make this an unforgettable important and enjoyable meeting.

We look forward to seeing you in Auckland, New Zealand !!!

ConferenceSeries Ltdinvites all the participants from all over the world to attend 19thInternational Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Health Care duringApril 04-06, 2019at Auckland, New Zealand.It will include presentations and discussions to help attendees address the current trends and research on the applications of Nanomedicine and nanotechnology in healthcare. The theme of the conference is”Potent impact of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in future medicine and treatment.”

Nanomedicineis innovating the healthcare industry and impacting our society, but is still in its infancy in clinical performance and applications. The aim of thisNanomedicine 2019conference is to bring together leading academic, clinical and industrial experts to discuss development of innovative cutting-edge Nanomedicine and challenges in Nanomedicine clinical translation.

Track 1:Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

Nano medicinecan be defined as medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications ofnanomaterialand biological devices, Nano electronic devices & biosensors and possible future applications ofmolecular nanotechnology. Nanomaterials can be functionalised to interface withbiological molecules& structures as the size of nanomaterials is comparable to most biological molecules and structures. Nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitrobiomedical researchand applications and integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of advanced diagnostic devices,physical therapy applications, analytical tools, contrast agents and drug delivery vehicles. Nanomedicine strives for delivering valuable set of research tools & clinically useful devices and its industry sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with an average of $3.8 billion investment innanotechnologyR&D every year and increase of 45% per year global funding for emerging nanotechnology.

Track 2:Nanotechnology in Healthcare

Nano medicineaffects almost all the aspects ofhealthcare. Nano medicine helps to engineer novel and advanced tools for the treatment of various diseases and the improvement of human bio systems usingmolecular Nanotechnology. Cardiovascular diseases,Neurodegenerative disorders, Cancer, Diabetes, Infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS are the maindiseaseswhose treatment can be benefitted by using Nano medicine.

Track 3:Nano medicine and Nano pharmaceuticals

Nano pharmaceuticalssuch asliposomes, quantum dots,dendrites,carbon nanotubesandpolymeric nanoparticleshave brought considerable changes in drug delivery and themedical system. Nano pharmaceuticals offer a great benefit for the patients in comparison with the conventional drugs. There are several advantages of these drugs such as enhanced oralbioavailability, improved dose proportionality, enhanced solubility and dissolution rate, suitability for administration and reducedfood effects.

Track 4:Applications of Nanotechnology in Health Care

Nanotechnology has the potential to completely revolutionise all the three key aspects ofhealthcare sectordiagnosis, prevention andTreatment. It can completely change the healthcare sector for the next generation. Nanotechnology will help medical professionals in today’s most excruciating medical issues, such as repairing of damaged organs,diagnosisand treatment ofcancer cells, removal of obstruction in brain and it can help in betterdrug delivery system.

Track 5:Nanotechnology for Environment and Nano safety

Nanotechnology in vitality frameworkscienceand designing have been looking to grow better than ever sorts of vitality advancements that have the capacity of enhancing life everywhere throughout the world. With a specific end goal to make the following jump forward from the present era of geothermalinnovation,researchersand engineers have been creating vitality uses of nanotechnology. BCC Research assesses the aggregate vitality related business sector inPhotovoltaic gadgetsfor Batteries andgeothermal nanotechnologiesand Nano materials at about $8.8 billion in 2012 and $15 billion. There are 26 colleges and 15 new inquires about is been going onElectrochemistry. The examination includes in atomic responses and Fuel cells.

Track 6:Nanomedicine in Drug Delivery Systems

Nanoparticle technology was recently shown to hold great promise fordrug delivery applicationsin nanomedicine due to its beneficial properties, such as better encapsulation, bioavailability, control release, and lower toxic effect. Despite the great progress in nanomedicine, there remain many limitations for clinical applications onNano carriers. To overcome these limitations, advanced nanoparticles for drug delivery have been developed to enable the spatially and temporally controlled release of drugs in response to specific stimuli at disease sites. Furthermore, the controlled self-assembly of organic and inorganic materials may enable their use intheranostic applications. This review presents an overview of a recent advancednanoparticulate systemthat can be used as a potentialdrug delivery carrierand focuses on the potential applications of nanoparticles in various biomedical fields for human health care. A novel process for synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles for use in drug delivery applicationsusing theelectro spraying technique. The technologyis standardized for synthesis of natural polymer based nanoparticles such as chitosan-gelatin based nanoparticles.

Track 7:Nano in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

A standout amongst the most encouraging nanotechnology fields isNano pharmaceuticals. Since nanomaterials might enter the body throughdermal presentation, inward breath, ingestion, orvisual contact, they loan themselves to inventive medication conveyance frameworks. Pharmaceutical examination,toxicologythinks about, definition, and assembling of pharmaceutical items requirematerial portrayalto guarantee reliable medication security and viabilityNano scale pharmaceuticalprocedures in medication revelation andadvancementoutline and improvement ofNano formulationsand Nano scale drug conveyance frameworks, administrative viewpoints and approaches identified with Nano pharmaceuticals.

Track 8:Graphene modification and functionalization

Chemical functionalization ofgrapheneenables the material to be processed by solvent assisted techniques, such as layer by layer assembly, spin coating andfiltration. Hexagonal boron nitride iselectrical insulating, combined with graphene and other 2D materials to make heterostructure devices. The two dimensional graphene sheet structures for field emission of electrons due to thecarrier mobilityandelectron mass. The filed emitter by using multi layered graphene nanostructure, the graphitic structure ofpristinegraphene and carbon nanotube is thedriving forceof their interaction .The combination of graphene with carbon nanotubes to producedhybridsincreased electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and high surface area.

Track 9:Advanced Characterization of Nanomaterials

Advances in nanotechnology have opened up a new era ofdiagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases andtraumatic injuries. Nanomaterials, including those with potential for clinical applications possess novelphysicochemical propertiesthat have an impact on their physiological interactions, from the molecular level to thesystemic level. There is a lack of standardized methodologies or regulatory protocols for detection or characterization ofnanomaterial. This review summarizes the techniques that are commonly used to study the size, shape,surface properties,composition, purity andstability of nanomaterials, along with their advantages and disadvantages. At present there are no FDA guidelines that have been developed specifically for nanomaterial based formulations for diagnostic or therapeutic use. There is an urgent need forstandardized protocolsand procedures for thecharacterizationof nanoparticles, especially those that are intended for use as theranostics.

Track 10:Nano Composites and Multiscale Nano materials

In the large field of nanotechnology,polymer matrixbasedNano compositeshave become a prominent area of current research and development. Exfoliated clay basedNano compositeshave dominated the polymerliteraturebut there are a large number of other significant areas of current and emerging interest. PolymernanotubeNano composite conductselectricity.

Track 11:Nano materials and Nanotechnology

Nanotechnologyis the handling of matter on an atomic,molecular, andsupramolecular scale. The interesting aspect about nanotechnology is that the properties of many materials alter when the size scale of theirdimensionsapproachesnanometres. Materials scientists andengineerswork to understand those property changes and utilize them in the processing and manufacture of materials at theNano scale level. The field of materials science covers thediscovery, characterization, properties, and use ofNano scale materials.

Track 12:Biomaterials and Medical Devices

Biomaterialsfrom healthcare viewpoint can be defined as materials those possess some novel properties that make them appropriate to come in immediate association with theliving tissuewithout eliciting anyadverse immune rejection reactions. Biomaterials are in the service ofmankindthrough ancient times but subsequent evolution has made them moreversatileand has increased their usage.

Track 13:Nanotechnologies and commercial viability

Nano scienceandMolecular Nanotechnologyis thenew outskirtsof science and innovation in Europe and around the globe, working at the size of individual particles. Top researchers and in addition policymakers overall acclaim theadvantagesit would convey to the whole society and economy: a large portion of them demand the key part research would play in the quality creation procedure to createexploitablearrangement of innovations by theEuropean businessprompting a decision of remarkable applications, items, markets and productive income sources.

Related Conferences:

Related Societies:

Global Pharma Universities:

Global PharmaAssociations

Pharma Companies/Hospitals:

Global Pharma Research Institutes:

Nanomedicine 2018

We gratefully thank all our wonderful Speakers, Conference Attendees, Students, Media Partners, Associations and Sponsors for making Nanomedicine 2018 Conference a success

The 18th International Conference on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Health Care, hosted by the Conferenceseries LLC LTD was held during October 08-09 2018 at Osaka, Japan based on the theme Embarking Next Generation Delivery Vehicles for Affordable Healthcare”. Benevolent response and active participation was received from the Organizing Committee Members along with Scientists, Researchers, Students and leaders from various fields of Medicine, Nanotechnology, pharmacy, who made this event a grand success.

The meeting reflected various sessions, in which discussions were held on the following major scientific tracks:

Conference Series LLC LTD also took privilege to felicitate the Keynote Speakers, Organizing Committee Members, Chairs and sponsors who supported this event

With the success of Nano Medicine 2018, Conference Series LLC LTD is proud to announce the “19th International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology in Healthcare” to be held during April 04-06,2019 Auckland, New Zealand.

For More details visit:

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Top Nano Conferences|Drug Delivery Meetings| Nanomedicine …

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Transhumanism: Will This Be How Humanity Destroys Itself …

Transhumanism is promising eternity, but it may be the way humanity destroys itself by sacrificing everything that makes us human.

is the intentional merging of man with machine. It the movement to augment or enhance humanity by meldingsynthetic, machine-like parts to the human body. It is driven to make man more precise, logical, analytic and knowledgeable by making man more robotic. Transhumanism is a highly dangerous movement that reminds me of a little kid playing with fire. We have no idea where this is going to take us, yet we race blindly on, believing that if we can, we must. Thats themaxim of misguided science: if we can do it, we will do it, no matter what. No matter if millions of people die from an atomic bomb. Many authors, film directors, artists and visionaries have foreseen and warned about the danger of an AI (Artificial Intelligence) system that becomes self-aware, decides it doesnt want humans to live and kills them all. So we need to ask ourselves: will transhumanism be how humanity destroys itself?

Transhumanism is selling the idea that you can plug yourself into a supercomputer and become all-powerful, all-knowing, immortal a god. Its promoting the idea that humanity can have a future without death.

The situation reminds me of the Garden of Eden. Now, I am not a Christian (I think almost all religions contain some truth but have gotten bogged down in a ton of dogma), howeverI do think the Garden of Eden is a highly symbolicstory. Traditional Christianity interprets the story as proof of mans sinful nature, and to some extent uses it to justify judgement and punishment of those who are curious and seek knowledge. However I think a more profound understanding is that the ejection of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden symbolizes mankinds fall into a lower state of consciousness. We used to live in a time where we felt and experienced our divine nature more, where we felt more connected to each other, to Nature and to the Earth, but we have descended into more separation. And, deep down, all of us feelthetremendous pain and suffering in that separation.

What makes transhumanism so scary is that it is like trying to take a second bite of the apple.It is trying desperately to return to that state of higher consciousness, to make up for the disconnection, but in doing so, it is pushing us further away from Who We Really Are.People are trying to overcome the primal pain of disconnection by voluntarily chipping themselves, as though that would restore connection, but all its doing is denying our own humanity and making us more robotic.

To believe Heaven and Hell are literal places you go to after you die, full of milk and honey or fire and brimstone, is a very shallow and limited way of understanding those concepts. Adeeper way to comprehend them is to realize they are states of being. They are states of consciousness. They are something you feel and experience in this lifetime on this planet. We can have Heaven on Earth or Hell on Earth depending upon how we use our powers of creation here.

The best way to describe Hell is when you get trapped in a creation of your own making which isexactly what iscoming down the pipes when blindly enthusiastic transhumanists suggest we create virtual or digital worlds, create avatars in which to navigate these worlds, and then transfer our consciousness to these avatars and become gods. The point is tolive forever in a digital world as an omnipotentimmortal. The reality, I suggest, could be very different; we would lose all our sovereignty and individuality andbecome mindless drones, just another digital brick in the wall or electronic cog in the giant machine. This is exactly the kind of situation that the megalomaniac Controllers already running our world want: one where it is would literally be impossible to think differently to how the hive-mind or the State wants you to think.

Firstly, transhumanismisrooted in a lack of self-knowledge. We already are immortal. Every human being is a unique soul or consciousness, a spiritual being on a human journey. Theres nothing we need to do to become immortal. Why are we chasing the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow instead of looking inside of ourselves? Why are we constantly looking outside for solutions rather than getting in touch with our true essence?

Secondly, transhumanism is steeped in the denial of death. It tries topatch up the body with metallic and plastic parts to avoid the body breaking down, decaying and dying as it naturallydoes. Transhumanism is a mentality which is so focused on creating an augmented bio-vessel whichnever wears out that it fails to accept the natural cycle of birth and rebirth, of living and dying, that surrounds us in Nature. A healthy acceptance of deathcan be a powerful teacher to help you get more out of life and cut through petty grievances. Many spiritual traditions teach that living in constant knowledge of ones impending death is the best motivator there is to be the best you can be.

In conclusion, transhumanism is a dangerously misguided philosophy.It is so appealing to those who love technology or who have not fully accepted the reality of death as a part of life. Yet, if we collectively go down the transhumanistic road, we risk sacrificing everything about ourselves that makes us great our emotions andfeelings, our unique thoughts and perspectives, our passion in exchange for a fake immortality and emotionless subsistence.


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Makia Freeman is the editor ofThe Freedom Articlesand senior researcher, writing on many aspects of truth and freedom, from exposing aspects of the global conspiracy to suggesting solutions forhow humanity can create a new system of peace and abundance.

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Transhumanism: Will This Be How Humanity Destroys Itself …

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Transhumanism: A Grimoire of Alchemical Agendas

The modern Victor Frankenstein holds a high political office, carries diplomatic immunity, and is most likely funded by the largest corporations worldwide. His method is ancient: alchemy. His fraternities are well known and their secrets are well kept, but his goal of times past and present is the same; he dares to become as god, genetically manipulating the seeds of the earth, the beasts on the fields, and to claim legal ownership over humanity by re-creating it in his own image. This is no fairy tale, science fiction, or conspiracy theory it simply is!

Transhumanism, a Grimoire of Alchemical Agendas by Dr.’s. Joseph P. Farrell and Scott D. de Hart lifts the veil from the macabre transhumanistic monster being assembled and exposes the hidden history and agenda that has set humanity on a collision course for the Apocalypse.

Joseph P. Farrell, PhD, is the author of the best-selling Genes, Giants, Monsters, and Men: The Surviving Elites of the Cosmic War and Their Hidden Agenda.

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Transhumanism: A Grimoire of Alchemical Agendas

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Nanoscopy for nanomedicine Institute for Bioengineering …

The main goal of our group is to use Super Resolution Microscopy (nanoscopy) to visualize and track in living cells and tissues self-assembled nanomaterials with therapeutic potential (nanomedicine).

TEM image of novel self-assembled nanofibers synthesized in the group.

The understanding of materials-cell interactions is the key towards the development of novel nanotechnology-based therapies for treatment of cancer and infectious diseases.Our group aims to use a multidisciplinary approach, at the interface of chemistry, physics and biology, to develop novel nanomaterials for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases.

We aim at the development of novel nanocarriers for drug delivery based on self-assembly, i.e. able to build themselves. Molecular self-organization is ubiquitous in the biological world and represents for us a source of inspiration for the design of nanostructures with biomedical potential. In particular we focus on the development of self-assembled nanoparticles and nanofibers able to selectively target diseased cells and deliver locally therapeutic moieties such as drugs and genetic material (e.g. DNA, siRNA, mRNA).

A key point towards the development of novel nanotechnology-based therapies is the understanding of the behavior of nanomaterials in the complex biological environment. Here we use super resolution microscopy to track nanomaterials during their voyage in the biological environment and to visualize the interactions with blood components, immune system and target cells. We make use of a variety of super resolution techniques based on single molecule detection such a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (PAINT), and single particle tracking (SPT). These methods allow to achieve a resolution down to few nanometers and are therefore ideal to visualize nanosized synthetic objects in the biological environment. Super resolution microscopy provides a molecular picture of structure-activity relations and represent a guide towards the design of innovative materials for nanomedicine.

Eight IBECers were in the Netherlands on 13th and 14th September for the first ever IBEC-ICMS Symposium, NanoSens&Med.

Two IBEC groups have clubbed together to combine their expertise and reveal new knowledge that could advance the design of micro- and nanomotors for applications in health.

Three of IBECs women researchers have been successful in BISTs recent To the Mothers of Science call.

The Nanoscopy for Nanomedicine group has studied Single-Chain Polymeric Nanoparticles (SCPNs) mimicking enzymes as possible drug activators in biological environments, like the living cell.

An article by BIOCAT profiles the three winners in Catalonia of the last round of ERC Starting Grants, including IBECs Lorenzo Albertazzi.

A paper published in Small last month by Lorenzo Albertazzis group is featured in Advanced Science News, Wiley publishing companys in-house news website. This platform presents advances in various fields of research for a general audience.

The Nanoscopy for Nanomedicine junior group leader was successful in the European Research Councils 2017 call for Starting Grants, of which just 17 out of the total of 406 have been awarded to scientists working in Spain.

IBEC junior group leader Lorenzo Albertazzi is a contributor to the 2017 edition of ChemComm Emerging Investigators, which is published annually by the UKs Royal Society of Chemistry.

The AXA Research Fund, the international scientific philanthropy initiative of global insurer AXA, officially announced last week that it will devote 15.6m in 2016 to 44 new research projects with leading academic institutions in 16 countries.

New IBEC junior group leader Lorenzo Albertazzi and his former colleagues at the Eindhoven University of Technology, working together with industry partner Novartis, have made a leap in drug delivery vectors by developing a new type of carrier with some groundbreaking improvements.

Lorenzo Albertazzis research project funded by AXA, Novel approaches for Pandemic Virus Targeting Using Adaptive Polymers, is featured on the Granted Projects section of their website.

New IBEC junior group leader Lorenzo Albertazzi is profiled in El Mundos Personajes nicos section this week.

Dr Lorenzo Albertazzi, a nanoscientist whose research focuses on creating smart self-assembling materials for therapeutic applications, is joining IBEC this September.

(See full publication list in ORCID)

Liu, Yiliu, Pujals, Slvia, Stals, Patrick J. M., Paulhrl, Thomas, Presolski, Stanislav I., Meijer, E. W., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Palmans, Anja R. A., (2018). Catalytically active single-chain polymeric nanoparticles: Exploring their functions in complex biological media Journal of the American Chemical Society 140, (9), 3423-3433

Dynamic single-chain polymeric nanoparticles (SCPNs) are intriguing, bioinspired architectures that result from the collapse or folding of an individual polymer chain into a nanometer-sized particle. Here we present a detailed biophysical study on the behavior of dynamic SCPNs in living cells and an evaluation of their catalytic functionality in such a complex medium. We first developed a number of delivery strategies that allowed the selective localization of SCPNs in different cellular compartments. Live/dead tests showed that the SCPNs were not toxic to cells while spectral imaging revealed that SCPNs provide a structural shielding and reduced the influence from the outer biological media. The ability of SCPNs to act as catalysts in biological media was first assessed by investigating their potential for reactive oxygen species generation. With porphyrins covalently attached to the SCPNs, singlet oxygen was generated upon irradiation with light, inducing spatially controlled cell death. In addition, Cu(I)- and Pd(II)-based SCPNs were prepared and these catalysts were screened in vitro and studied in cellular environments for the carbamate cleavage reaction of rhodamine-based substrates. This is a model reaction for the uncaging of bioactive compounds such as cytotoxic drugs for catalysis-based cancer therapy. We observed that the rate of the deprotection depends on both the organometallic catalysts and the nature of the protective group. The rate reduces from in vitro to the biological environment, indicating a strong influence of biomolecules on catalyst performance. The Cu(I)-based SCPNs in combination with the dimethylpropargyloxycarbonyl protective group showed the best performances both in vitro and in biological environment, making this group promising in biomedical applications.

Patio, Tania, Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Arqu, Xavier, Miguel-Lpez, Albert, Jannasch, Anita, Stumpp, Tom, Schffer, Erik, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Snchez, Samuel, (2018). Influence of enzyme quantity and distribution on the self-propulsion of non-Janus urease-powered micromotors Journal of the American Chemical Society 140, (25), 7896-7903

The use of enzyme catalysis to power micro- and nanomachines offers unique features such as biocompatibility, versatility, and fuel bioavailability. Yet, the key parameters underlying the motion behavior of enzyme-powered motors are not completely understood. Here, we investigate the role of enzyme distribution and quantity on the generation of active motion. Two different micromotor architectures based on either polystyrene (PS) or polystyrene coated with a rough silicon dioxide shell (PS@SiO2) were explored. A directional propulsion with higher speed was observed for PS@SiO2 motors when compared to their PS counterparts. We made use of stochastically optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to precisely detect single urease molecules conjugated to the micromotors surface with a high spatial resolution. An asymmetric distribution of enzymes around the micromotor surface was observed for both PS and PS@SiO2 architectures, indicating that the enzyme distribution was not the only parameter affecting the motion behavior. We quantified the number of enzymes present on the micromotor surface and observed a 10-fold increase in the number of urease molecules for PS@SiO2 motors compared to PS-based micromotors. To further investigate the number of enzymes required to generate a self-propulsion, PS@SiO2 particles were functionalized with varying amounts of urease molecules and the resulting speed and propulsive force were measured by optical tracking and optical tweezers, respectively. Surprisingly, both speed and force depended in a nonlinear fashion on the enzyme coverage. To break symmetry for active propulsion, we found that a certain threshold number of enzymes molecules per micromotor was necessary, indicating that activity may be due to a critical phenomenon. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the design features of micro/nanomotors to ensure an efficient development.

Delcanale, Pietro, Miret-Ontiveros, Bernat, Arista-Romero, Maria, Pujals, Silvia, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2018). Nanoscale mapping functional sites on nanoparticles by Points Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (PAINT) ACS Nano 12, (8), 7629-7637

The ability of nanoparticles to selectively recognize a molecular target constitutes the key toward nanomedicine applications such as drug delivery and diagnostics. The activity of such devices is mediated by the presence of multiple copies of functional molecules on the nanostructure surface. Therefore, understanding the number and the distribution of nanoparticle functional groups is of utmost importance for the rational design of effective materials. Analytical methods are available, but to obtain quantitative information at the level of single particles and single functional sites, i.e., going beyond the ensemble, remains highly challenging. Here we introduce the use of an optical nanoscopy technique, DNA points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (DNA-PAINT), to address this issue. Combining subdiffraction spatial resolution with molecular selectivity and sensitivity, DNA-PAINT provides both geometrical and functional information at the level of a single nanostructure. We show how DNA-PAINT can be used to image and quantify relevant functional proteins such as antibodies and streptavidin on nanoparticles and microparticles with nanometric accuracy in 3D and multiple colors. The generality and the applicability of our method without the need for fluorescent labeling hold great promise for the robust quantitative nanocharacterization of functional nanomaterials.

Ardizzone, Antonio, Kurhuzenkau, Siarhei, Illa-Tuset, Slvia, Faraudo, Jordi, Bondar, Mykhailo, Hagan, David, Van Stryland, Eric W., Painelli, Anna, Sissa, Cristina, Feiner, Natalia, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Veciana, Jaume, Ventosa, Nora, (2018). Nanostructuring lipophilic dyes in water using stable vesicles, quatsomes, as scaffolds and their use as probes for bioimaging Small , 14, (16), 1703851

Abstract A new kind of fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) is obtained using quatsomes (QSs), a family of nanovesicles proposed as scaffolds for the nanostructuration of commercial lipophilic carbocyanines (1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-indodicarbocyanine perchlorate (DiD), and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-indotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR)) in aqueous media. The obtained FONs, prepared by a CO2-based technology, show excellent colloidal- and photostability, outperforming other nanoformulations of the dyes, and improve the optical properties of the fluorophores in water. Molecular dynamics simulations provide an atomistic picture of the disposition of the dyes within the membrane. The potential of QSs for biological imaging is demonstrated by performing superresolution microscopy of the DiI-loaded vesicles in vitro and in cells. Therefore, fluorescent QSs constitute an appealing nanomaterial for bioimaging applications.

Krivitsky, Adva, Polyak, Dina, Scomparin, Anna, Eliyahu, Shay, Ofek, Paula, Tiram, Galia, Kalinski, Hagar, Avkin-Nachum, Sharon, Feiner Gracia, N., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit, (2018). Amphiphilic poly()glutamate polymeric micelles for systemic administration of siRNA to tumors Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine , 14, (2), 303-315

RNAi therapeutics carried a great promise to the area of personalized medicine: the ability to target undruggable oncogenic pathways. Nevertheless, their efficient tumor targeting via systemic administration had not been resolved yet. Amphiphilic alkylated poly()glutamate amine (APA) can serve as a cationic carrier to the negatively-charged oligonucleotides. APA polymers complexed with siRNA to form round-shaped, homogenous and reproducible nano-sized polyplexes bearing ~50 nm size and slightly negative charge. In addition, APA:siRNA polyplexes were shown to be potent gene regulators in vitro. In light of these preferred physico-chemical characteristics, their performance as systemically-administered siRNA nanocarriers was investigated. Intravenously-injected APA:siRNA polyplexes accumulated selectively in tumors and did not accumulate in the lungs, heart, liver or spleen. Nevertheless, the polyplexes failed to induce specific mRNA degradation, hence neither reduction in tumor volume nor prolonged mice survival was seen.

Casellas, Nicolas M., Pujals, Slvia, Bochicchio, Davide, Pavan, Giovanni M., Torres, Toms, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Garca-Iglesias, Miguel, (2018). From isodesmic to highly cooperative: Reverting the supramolecular polymerization mechanism in water by fine monomer design Chemical Communications 54, (33), 4112-4115

Two structurally-similar discotic molecules able to self-assemble in water, forming supramolecular fibers, are reported. While both self-assembled polymers are indistinguishable from a morphological point-of-view, a dramatic change in their polymerization mechanism is observed (i.e., one self-assemble via an isodesmic mechanism, while the other shows one of the highest cooperativity values).

van Elsland, Daphne M., Pujals, Slvia, Bakkum, Thomas, Bos, Erik, Oikonomeas-Koppasis, Nikolaos, Berlin, Ilana, Neefjes, Jacques, Meijer, Annemarie H., Koster, Abraham J., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, van Kasteren, Sander I., (2018). Ultrastructural imaging of salmonella-host interactions using super-resolution correlative light-electron microscopy of bioorthogonal pathogens ChemBioChem , 19, (16), 1766-1770

The imaging of intracellular pathogens inside host cells is complicated by the low resolution and sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy and by the lack of ultrastructural information to visualize the pathogens. Herein, we present a new method to visualize these pathogens during infection that circumvents these problems: by using a metabolic hijacking approach to bioorthogonally label the intracellular pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium and by using these bioorthogonal groups to introduce fluorophores compatible with stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and placing this in a correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) workflow, the pathogen can be imaged within its host cell context Typhimurium with a resolution of 20nm. This STORM-CLEM approach thus presents a new approach to understand these pathogens during infection.

Oria, Roger, Wiegand, Tina, Escribano, Jorge, Elosegui-Artola, Alberto, Uriarte, Juan Jose, Moreno-Pulido, Cristian, Platzman, Ilia, Delcanale, Pietro, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Navajas, Daniel, Trepat, Xavier, Garca-Aznar, Jos Manuel, Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada, Roca-Cusachs, Pere, (2017). Force loading explains spatial sensing of ligands by cells Nature 552, 219-224

Cells can sense the density and distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules by means of individual integrin proteins and larger, integrin-containing adhesion complexes within the cell membrane. This spatial sensing drives cellular activity in a variety of normal and pathological contexts1,2. Previous studies of cells on rigid glass surfaces have shown that spatial sensing of ECM ligands takes place at the nanometre scale, with integrin clustering and subsequent formation of focal adhesions impaired when single integrinligand bonds are separated by more than a few tens of nanometres3,4,5,6. It has thus been suggested that a crosslinking adaptor protein of this size might connect integrins to the actin cytoskeleton, acting as a molecular ruler that senses ligand spacing directly3,7,8,9. Here, we develop gels whose rigidity and nanometre-scale distribution of ECM ligands can be controlled and altered. We find that increasing the spacing between ligands promotes the growth of focal adhesions on low-rigidity substrates, but leads to adhesion collapse on more-rigid substrates. Furthermore, disordering the ligand distribution drastically increases adhesion growth, but reduces the rigidity threshold for adhesion collapse. The growth and collapse of focal adhesions are mirrored by, respectively, the nuclear or cytosolic localization of the transcriptional regulator protein YAP. We explain these findings not through direct sensing of ligand spacing, but by using an expanded computational molecular-clutch model10,11, in which individual integrinECM bondsthe molecular clutchesrespond to force loading by recruiting extra integrins, up to a maximum value. This generates more clutches, redistributing the overall force among them, and reducing the force loading per clutch. At high rigidity and high ligand spacing, maximum recruitment is reached, preventing further force redistribution and leading to adhesion collapse. Measurements of cellular traction forces and actin flow speeds support our model. Our results provide a general framework for how cells sense spatial and physical information at the nanoscale, precisely tuning the range of conditions at which they form adhesions and activate transcriptional regulation.

Duro-Castano, Aroa, Nebot, Vicent J., Nio-Pariente, Amaya, Armin, Ana, Arroyo-Crespo, Juan J., Paul, Alison, Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Vicent, Mara J., (2017). Capturing extraordinary soft-assembled charge-like polypeptides as a strategy for nanocarrier design Advanced Materials , 29, (39), 1702888

The rational design of nanomedicines is a challenging task given the complex architectures required for the construction of nanosized carriers with embedded therapeutic properties and the complex interface of these materials with the biological environment. Herein, an unexpected charge-like attraction mechanism of self-assembly for star-shaped polyglutamates in nonsalty aqueous solutions is identified, which matches the ubiquitous ordinaryextraordinary phenomenon previously described by physicists. For the first time, a bottom-up methodology for the stabilization of these nanosized soft-assembled star-shaped polyglutamates is also described, enabling the translation of theoretical research into nanomaterials with applicability within the drug-delivery field. Covalent capture of these labile assemblies provides access to unprecedented architectures to be used as nanocarriers. The enhanced in vitro and in vivo properties of these novel nanoconstructs as drug-delivery systems highlight the potential of this approach for tumor-localized as well as lymphotropic delivery.

Keywords: Charge-like, Drug delivery, Polymer therapeutics, Polypeptides, Self-assembly

Labernadie, A., Kato, T., Brugus, A., Serra-Picamal, X., Derzsi, S., Arwert, E., Weston, A., Gonzlez-Tarrag, V., Elosegui-Artola, A., Albertazzi, L., Alcaraz, J., Roca-Cusachs, P., Sahai, E., Trepat, X., (2017). A mechanically active heterotypic E-cadherin/N-cadherin adhesion enables fibroblasts to drive cancer cell invasion Nature Cell Biology , 19, (3), 224-237

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumour invasion and metastasis. We show that CAFs exert a physical force on cancer cells that enables their collective invasion. Force transmission is mediated by a heterophilic adhesion involving N-cadherin at the CAF membrane and E-cadherin at the cancer cell membrane. This adhesion is mechanically active; when subjected to force it triggers -catenin recruitment and adhesion reinforcement dependent on -catenin/vinculin interaction. Impairment of E-cadherin/N-cadherin adhesion abrogates the ability of CAFs to guide collective cell migration and blocks cancer cell invasion. N-cadherin also mediates repolarization of the CAFs away from the cancer cells. In parallel, nectins and afadin are recruited to the cancer cell/CAF interface and CAF repolarization is afadin dependent. Heterotypic junctions between CAFs and cancer cells are observed in patient-derived material. Together, our findings show that a mechanically active heterophilic adhesion between CAFs and cancer cells enables cooperative tumour invasion.

Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Buzhor, Marina, Fuentes, Edgar, Pujals, S., Amir, Roey J., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2017). Micellar stability in biological media dictates internalization in living cells Journal of the American Chemical Society 139, (46), 16677-16687

The dynamic nature of polymeric assemblies makes their stability in biological media a crucial parameter for their potential use as drug delivery systems in vivo. Therefore, it is essential to study and understand the behavior of self-assembled nanocarriers under conditions that will be encountered in vivo such as extreme dilutions and interactions with blood proteins and cells. Herein, using a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy, we studied four amphiphilic PEGdendron hybrids and their self-assembled micelles in order to determine their structurestability relations. The high molecular precision of the dendritic block enabled us to systematically tune the hydrophobicity and stability of the assembled micelles. Using micelles that change their fluorescent properties upon disassembly, we observed that serum proteins bind to and interact with the polymeric amphiphiles in both their assembled and monomeric states. These interactions strongly affected the stability and enzymatic degradation of the micelles. Finally, using spectrally resolved confocal imaging, we determined the relations between the stability of the polymeric assemblies in biological media and their cell entry. Our results highlight the important interplay between molecular structure, micellar stability, and cell internalization pathways, pinpointing the high sensitivity of stabilityactivity relations to minor structural changes and the crucial role that these relations play in designing effective polymeric nanostructures for biomedical applications.

Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Beck, Michaela, Pujals, Slvia, Tosi, Sbastien, Mandal, Tamoghna, Buske, Christian, Linden, Mika, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2017). Super-resolution microscopy unveils dynamic heterogeneities in nanoparticle protein corona Small , 13, (41), 1701631

The adsorption of serum proteins, leading to the formation of a biomolecular corona, is a key determinant of the biological identity of nanoparticles in vivo. Therefore, gaining knowledge on the formation, composition, and temporal evolution of the corona is of utmost importance for the development of nanoparticle-based therapies. Here, it is shown that the use of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the imaging of the protein corona on mesoporous silica nanoparticles with single protein sensitivity. Particle-by-particle quantification reveals a significant heterogeneity in protein absorption under native conditions. Moreover, the diversity of the corona evolves over time depending on the surface chemistry and degradability of the particles. This paper investigates the consequences of protein adsorption for specific cell targeting by antibody-functionalized nanoparticles providing a detailed understanding of corona-activity relations. The methodology is widely applicable to a variety of nanostructures and complements the existing ensemble approaches for protein corona study.

Keywords: Heterogeneity, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Protein corona, Super-resolution imaging, Targeting

Van Onzen, A. H. A. M., Albertazzi, L., Schenning, A. P. H. J., Milroy, L. G., Brunsveld, L., (2017). Hydrophobicity determines the fate of self-assembled fluorescent nanoparticles in cells Chemical Communications 53, (10), 1626-1629

The fate of small molecule nanoparticles (SMNPs) composed of self-assembling intrinsically fluorescent -conjugated oligomers was studied in cells as a function of side-chain hydrophobicity. While the hydrophobic SMNPs remained intact upon cellular uptake, the more hydrophilic SMNPs disassembled and dispersed throughout the cytosol.

Pujals, S., Tao, K., Terradellas, A., Gazit, E., Albertazzi, L., (2017). Studying structure and dynamics of self-Assembled peptide nanostructures using fluorescence and super resolution microscopy Chemical Communications 53, (53), 7294-7297

Understanding the formation and properties of self-Assembled peptide nanostructures is the basis for the design of new architectures for various applications. Here we show the potential of fluorescence and super resolution imaging to unveil the structural and dynamic features of peptide nanofibers with high spatiotemporal resolution.

Caballero, David, Blackburn, Sophie M., de Pablo, Mar, Samitier, Josep, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2017). Tumour-vessel-on-a-chip models for drug delivery Lab on a Chip , 17, 3760-3771

Nanocarriers for drug delivery have great potential to revolutionize cancer treatment, due to their enhanced selectivity and efficacy. Despite this great promise, researchers have had limited success in the clinical translation of this approach. One of the main causes of these difficulties is that standard in vitro models, typically used to understand nanocarriers’ behaviour and screen their efficiency, do not provide the complexity typically encountered in living systems. In contrast, in vivo models, despite being highly physiological, display serious bottlenecks which threaten the relevancy of the obtained data. Microfluidics and nanofabrication can dramatically contribute to solving this issue, providing 3D high-throughput models with improved resemblance to in vivo systems. In particular, microfluidic models of tumour blood vessels can be used to better elucidate how new nanocarriers behave in the microcirculation of healthy and cancerous tissues. Several key steps of the drug delivery process such as extravasation, immune response and endothelial targeting happen under flow in capillaries and can be accurately modelled using microfluidics. In this review, we will present how tumour-vessel-on-a-chip systems can be used to investigate targeted drug delivery and which key factors need to be considered for the rational design of these materials. Future applications of this approach and its role in driving forward the next generation of targeted drug delivery methods will be discussed.

Bakker, Maarten H., Lee, Cameron C., Meijer, E. W., Dankers, Patricia Y. W., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2016). Multicomponent supramolecular polymers as a modular platform for intracellular delivery ACS Nano 10, (2), 1845-1852

Supramolecular polymers are an emerging family of nanosized structures with potential use in materials chemistry and medicine. Surprisingly, application of supramolecular polymers in the field of drug delivery has received only limited attention. Here, we explore the potential of PEGylated 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (BTA) supramolecular polymers for intracellular delivery. Exploiting the unique modular approach of supramolecular chemistry, we can coassemble neutral and cationic BTAs and control the overall properties of the polymer by simple monomer mixing. Moreover, this platform offers a versatile approach toward functionalization. The core can be efficiently loaded with a hydrophobic guest molecule, while the exterior can be electrostatically complexed with siRNA. It is demonstrated that both compounds can be delivered in living cells, and that they can be combined to enable a dual delivery strategy. These results show the advantages of employing a modular system and pave the way for application of supramolecular polymers in intracellular delivery.

Beun, L. H., Albertazzi, L., Van Der Zwaag, D., De Vries, R., Cohen Stuart, M. A., (2016). Unidirectional living growth of self-assembled protein nanofibrils revealed by super-resolution microscopy ACS Nano 10, (5), 4973-4980

Protein-based nanofibrils are emerging as a promising class of materials that provide unique properties for applications such as biomedical and food engineering. Here, we use atomic force microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy imaging to elucidate the growth dynamics, exchange kinetics, and polymerization mechanism for fibrils composed of a de novo designed recombinant triblock protein polymer. This macromolecule features a silk-inspired self-assembling central block composed of GAGAGAGH repeats, which are known to fold into a roll with turns at each histidine and, once folded, to stack, forming a long, ribbon-like structure. We find several properties that allow the growth of patterned protein nanofibrils: the self-assembly takes place on only one side of the growing fibrils by the essentially irreversible addition of protein polymer subunits, and these fibril ends remain reactive indefinitely in the absence of monomer (“living ends”). Exploiting these characteristics, we can grow stable diblock protein nanofibrils by the sequential addition of differently labeled proteins. We establish control over the block length ratio by simply varying monomer feed conditions. Our results demonstrate the use of engineered protein polymers in creating precisely patterned protein nanofibrils and open perspectives for the hierarchical self-assembly of functional biomaterials.

Keywords: Nanofibrils, Protein polymers, Self-assembly, STORM microscopy

Garzoni, M., Baker, M. B., Leenders, C. M. A., Voets, I. K., Albertazzi, L., Palmans, A. R. A., Meijer, E. W., Pavan, G. M., (2016). Effect of H-bonding on order amplification in the growth of a supramolecular polymer in water Journal of the American Chemical Society 138, (42), 13985-13995

While a great deal of knowledge on the roles of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity in proteins has resulted in the creation of rationally designed and functional peptidic structures, the roles of these forces on purely synthetic supramolecular architectures in water have proven difficult to ascertain. Focusing on a 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (BTA)-based supramolecular polymer, we have designed a molecular modeling strategy to dissect the energetic contributions involved in the self-assembly (electrostatic, hydrophobic, etc.) upon growth of both ordered BTA stacks and random BTA aggregates. Utilizing this set of simulations, we have unraveled the cooperative mechanism for polymer growth, where a critical size must be reached in the aggregates before emergence and amplification of order into the experimentally observed fibers. Furthermore, we have found that the formation of ordered fibers is favored over disordered aggregates solely on the basis of electrostatic interactions. Detailed analysis of the simulation data suggests that H-bonding is a major source of this stabilization energy. Experimental and computational comparison with a newly synthesized 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxyester (BTE) derivative, lacking the ability to form the H-bonding network, demonstrated that this BTE variant is also capable of fiber formation, albeit at a reduced persistence length. This work provides unambiguous evidence for the key 1D driving force of hydrogen bonding in enhancing the persistency of monomer stacking and amplifying the level of order into the growing supramolecular polymer in water. Our computational approach provides an important relationship directly linking the structure of the monomer to the structure and properties of the supramolecular polymer.

Aloi, Antonio, Vargas Jentzsch, Andreas, Vilanova, Neus, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Meijer, E. W., Voets, Ilja K., (2016). Imaging nanostructures by single-molecule localization microscopy in organic solvents Journal of the American Chemical Society 138, (9), 2953-2956

The introduction of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRM) opened an unprecedented vista into nanoscopic length scales, unveiling a new degree of complexity in biological systems in aqueous environments. Regrettably, supramolecular chemistry and material science benefited far less from these recent developments. Here we expand the scope of SRM to photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) imaging of synthetic nanostructures that are highly dynamic in organic solvents. Furthermore, we characterize the photophysical properties of commonly used photoactivatable dyes in a wide range of solvents, which is made possible by the addition of a tiny amount of an alcohol. As proof-of-principle, we use PALM to image silica beads with radii close to Abbes diffraction limit. Individual nanoparticles are readily identified and reliably sized in multicolor mixtures of large and small beads. We further use SRM to visualize nm-thin yet m-long dynamic, supramolecular polymers, which are among the most challenging molecular systems to image.

da Silva, Ricardo M. P., van der Zwaag, Daan, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Lee, Sungsoo S., Meijer, E. W., Stupp, Samuel I., (2016). Super-resolution microscopy reveals structural diversity in molecular exchange among peptide amphiphile nanofibres Nature Communications 7, 11561

The dynamic behaviour of supramolecular systems is an important dimension of their potential functions. Here, we report on the use of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to study the molecular exchange of peptide amphiphile nanofibres, supramolecular systems known to have important biomedical functions. Solutions of nanofibres labelled with different dyes (Cy3 and Cy5) were mixed, and the distribution of dyes inserting into initially single-colour nanofibres was quantified using correlative image analysis. Our observations are consistent with an exchange mechanism involving monomers or small clusters of molecules inserting randomly into a fibre. Different exchange rates are observed within the same fibre, suggesting that local cohesive structures exist on the basis of [beta]-sheet discontinuous domains. The results reported here show that peptide amphiphile supramolecular systems can be dynamic and that their intermolecular interactions affect exchange patterns. This information can be used to generate useful aggregate morphologies for improved biomedical function.

DeKoker, Stefaan, Cui, Jiwei, Vanparijs, Nane, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Grooten, Johan, Caruso, Frank, DeGeest, Bruno G., (2016). Engineering polymer hydrogel nanoparticles for lymph node-targeted delivery Angewandte Chemie – International Edition , 55, (4), 1334-1339

The induction of antigen-specific adaptive immunity exclusively occurs in lymphoid organs. As a consequence, the efficacy by which vaccines reach these tissues strongly affects the efficacy of the vaccine. Here, we report the design of polymer hydrogel nanoparticles that efficiently target multiple immune cell subsets in the draining lymph nodes. Nanoparticles are fabricated by infiltrating mesoporous silica particles (ca. 200nm) with poly(methacrylic acid) followed by disulfide-based crosslinking and template removal. PEGylation of these nanoparticles does not affect their cellular association invitro, but dramatically improves their lymphatic drainage invivo. The functional relevance of these observations is further illustrated by the increased priming of antigen-specific Tcells. Our findings highlight the potential of engineered hydrogel nanoparticles for the lymphatic delivery of antigens and immune-modulating compounds.

Keywords: Dendritic cells, Disulfides, Hydrogels, Nanoparticles, Vaccines

Li, Hui, Fierens, Kaat, Zhang, Zhiyue, Vanparijs, Nane, Schuijs, Martijn J., Van Steendam, Katleen, Feiner Gracia, Natlia, De Rycke, Riet, De Beer, Thomas, De Beuckelaer, Ans, De Koker, Stefaan, Deforce, Dieter, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Grooten, Johan, Lambrecht, Bart N., De Geest, Bruno G., (2016). Spontaneous protein adsorption on graphene oxide nanosheets allowing efficient intracellular vaccine protein delivery ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces , 8, (2), 1147-1155

Nanomaterials hold potential of altering the interaction between therapeutic molecules and target cells or tissues. High aspect ratio nanomaterials in particular have been reported to possess unprecedented properties and are intensively investigated for their interaction with biological systems. Graphene oxide (GOx) is a water-soluble graphene derivative that combines high aspect ratio dimension with functional groups that can be exploited for bioconjugation. Here, we demonstrate that GOx nanosheets can spontaneously adsorb proteins by a combination of interactions. This property is then explored for intracellular protein vaccine delivery, in view of the potential of GOx nanosheets to destabilize lipid membranes such as those of intracellular vesicles. Using a series of in vitro experiments, we show that GOx nanosheet adsorbed proteins are efficiently internalized by dendritic cells (DCs: the most potent class of antigen presenting cells of the immune system) and promote antigen cross-presentation to CD8 T cells. The latter is a hallmark in the induction of potent cellular antigen-specific immune responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer.Nanomaterials hold potential of altering the interaction between therapeutic molecules and target cells or tissues. High aspect ratio nanomaterials in particular have been reported to possess unprecedented properties and are intensively investigated for their interaction with biological systems. Graphene oxide (GOx) is a water-soluble graphene derivative that combines high aspect ratio dimension with functional groups that can be exploited for bioconjugation. Here, we demonstrate that GOx nanosheets can spontaneously adsorb proteins by a combination of interactions. This property is then explored for intracellular protein vaccine delivery, in view of the potential of GOx nanosheets to destabilize lipid membranes such as those of intracellular vesicles. Using a series of in vitro experiments, we show that GOx nanosheet adsorbed proteins are efficiently internalized by dendritic cells (DCs: the most potent class of antigen presenting cells of the immune system) and promote antigen cross-presentation to CD8 T cells. The latter is a hallmark in the induction of potent cellular antigen-specific immune responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer.

van der Zwaag, Daan, Vanparijs, Nane, Wijnands, Sjors, De Rycke, Riet, De Geest, Bruno G., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2016). Super resolution imaging of nanoparticles cellular uptake and trafficking ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces , 8, (10), 6391-6399

Understanding the interaction between synthetic nanostructures and living cells is of crucial importance for the development of nanotechnology-based intracellular delivery systems. Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most widespread tools owing to its ability to image multiple colors in native conditions. However, due to the limited resolution, it is unsuitable to address individual diffraction-limited objects. Here we introduce a combination of super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule data analysis to unveil the behavior of nanoparticles during their entry into mammalian cells. Two-color Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) addresses the size and positioning of nanoparticles inside cells and probes their interaction with the cellular machineries at nanoscale resolution. Moreover, we develop image analysis tools to extract quantitative information about internalized particles from STORM images. To demonstrate the potential of our methodology, we extract previously inaccessible information by the direct visualization of the nanoparticle uptake mechanism and the intracellular tracking of nanoparticulate model antigens by dendritic cells. Finally, a direct comparison between STORM, confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy is presented, showing that STORM can provide novel and complementary information on nanoparticle cellular uptake.Understanding the interaction between synthetic nanostructures and living cells is of crucial importance for the development of nanotechnology-based intracellular delivery systems. Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most widespread tools owing to its ability to image multiple colors in native conditions. However, due to the limited resolution, it is unsuitable to address individual diffraction-limited objects. Here we introduce a combination of super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule data analysis to unveil the behavior of nanoparticles during their entry into mammalian cells. Two-color Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) addresses the size and positioning of nanoparticles inside cells and probes their interaction with the cellular machineries at nanoscale resolution. Moreover, we develop image analysis tools to extract quantitative information about internalized particles from STORM images. To demonstrate the potential of our methodology, we extract previously inaccessible information by the direct visualization of the nanoparticle uptake mechanism and the intracellular tracking of nanoparticulate model antigens by dendritic cells. Finally, a direct comparison between STORM, confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy is presented, showing that STORM can provide novel and complementary information on nanoparticle cellular uptake.

Beuwer, Michael A., Knopper, M. F., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, van der Zwaag, Daan, Ellenbroek, Wouter G., Meijer, E. W., Prins, Menno W. J., Zijlstra, Peter, (2016). Mechanical properties of single supramolecular polymers from correlative AFM and fluorescence microscopy Polymer Chemistry , 7, (47), 7260-7268

We characterize the structure and mechanical properties of 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (BTA) supramolecular polymers using correlative AFM and fluorescence imaging. AFM allows for nanoscale structural investigation but we found that statistical analysis is difficult because these structures are easily disrupted by the AFM tip. We therefore correlate AFM and fluorescence microscopy to couple nanoscale morphological information to far-field optical images. A fraction of the immobilized polymers are in a clustered or entangled state, which we identify based on diffraction limited fluorescence images. We find that clustered and entangled polymers exhibit a significantly longer persistence length that is broader distributed than single unentangled polymers. By comparison with numerical simulations we find significant heterogeneity in the persistence length of single unentangled polymers, which we attribute to polymer-substrate interactions and the presence of structural diversity within the polymer.

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A New Generation of Transhumanists Is Emerging | HuffPost

A new generation of transhumanists is emerging. You can feel it in handshakes at transhumanist meet-ups. You can see it when checking in to transhumanist groups in social media. You can read it in the hundreds of transhumanist-themed blogs. This is not the same bunch of older, mostly male academics that have slowly moved the movement forward during the last few decades. This is a dynamic group of younger people from varying backgrounds: Asians, Blacks, Middle Easterners, Caucasians, and Latinos. Many are females, some are LGBT, and others have disabilities. Many are atheist, while others are spiritual or even formally religious. Their politics run the gamut, from liberals to conservatives to anarchists. Their professions vary widely, from artists to physical laborers to programmers. Whatever their background, preferences, or professions, they have recently tripled the population of transhumanists in just the last 12 months.

“Three years ago, we had only around 400 members, but today we have over 10,000 members,” says Amanda Stoel, co-founder and chief administrator of Facebook group Singularity Network, one of the largest of hundreds of transhumanist-themed groups on the web.

Transhumanism is becoming so popular that even the comic strip Dilbert, which appears online and in 2000 newspapers, recently made jokes about it.

Despite its growing popularity, many people around the world still don’t know what “transhuman” means. Transhuman literally means beyond human. Transhumanists consist of life extensionists, techno-optimists, Singularitarians, biohackers, roboticists, AI proponents, and futurists who embrace radical science and technology to improve the human condition. The most important aim for many transhumanists is to overcome human mortality, a goal some believe is achievable by 2045.

Transhumanism has been around for nearly 30 years and was first heavily influenced by science fiction. Today, transhumanism is increasingly being influenced by actual science and technological innovation, much of it being created by people under the age of 40. It’s also become a very international movement, with many formal groups in dozens of countries.

Despite the movement’s growth, its potential is being challenged by some older transhumanists who snub the younger generation and their ideas. These old-school futurists dismiss activist philosophies and radicalism, and even prefer some younger writers and speakers not have their voices heard. Additionally, transhumanism’s Wikipedia page — the most viewed online document of the movement — is protected by a vigilant posse, deleting additions or changes that don’t support a bland academic view of transhumanism.

Inevitably, this Wikipedia page misses the vibrancy and happenings of the burgeoning movement. The real status and information of transhumanism and its philosophies can be found in public transhumanist gatherings and festivities, in popular student groups like the Stanford University Transhumanist Association, and in social media where tens of thousands of scientists and technologists hang out and discuss the transhuman future.

Jet-setting personality Maria Konovalenko, a 29-year-old Russian molecular biophysicist whose public demonstrations supporting radical life extension have made international news, is a prime example.

“We must do more for transhumanism and life extension,” says Konovalenko, who serves as vice president of Moscow-based Science for Life Extension Foundation. “This is our lives and our futures we’re talking about. To sit back and and just watch the 21st Century roll by will not accomplish our goals. We must take our message to the people in the streets and strive to make real change.”

Transhumanist celebrities like Konovalenko are changing the way the movement gets its message across to the public. Gauging by the rapidly increasing number of transhumanists, it’s working.

A primary goal of many transhumanists is to convince the public that embracing radical technology and science is in the species’ best interest. In a mostly religious world where much of society still believes in heavenly afterlives, some people are skeptical about whether significantly extending human lifespans is philosophically and morally correct. Transhumanists believe the more people that support transhumanism, the more private and government resources will end up in the hands of organizations and companies that aim to improve human lives and bring mortality to an end.

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Transhumanism | Future | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Transhumanism (sometimes abbreviated >H or H+) is an international intellectual and cultural movement supporting the use of new sciences and technologies to enhance human cognitive and physical abilities and ameliorate what it regards as undesirable and unnecessary aspects of the human condition, such as disease, aging, and death. Transhumanist thinkers study the possibilities and consequences of developing and using human enhancement techniques and other emerging technologies for these purposes. Possible dangers, as well as benefits, of powerful new technologies that might radically change the conditions of human life are also of concern to the transhumanist movement.

Although the first known use of the term “transhumanism” dates from 1957, the contemporary meaning is a product of the 1980s, when a group of scientists, artists, and futurists based in the United States began to organize what has since grown into the transhumanist movement. Transhumanist thinkers postulate that human beings will eventually be transformed into beings with such greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label “posthuman”.

The transhumanist vision of a profoundly transformed future humanity has attracted many supporters as well as critics from a wide range of perspectives. Transhumanism has been described by a proponent as the “movement that epitomizes the most daring, courageous, imaginative, and idealistic aspirations of humanity,” while according to a prominent critic, it is the world’s most dangerous idea.

In his 2005 article A History of Transhumanist Thought, philosopher Nick Bostrom locates transhumanism’s roots in Renaissance humanism and the Enlightenment. The Marquis de Condorcet, an eighteenth century French philosopher, is the first thinker whom he identifies as speculating about the use of medical science to extend the human life span. In the twentieth century, a direct and influential precursor to transhumanist concepts was J.B.S. Haldane’s 1923 essay Daedalus: Science and the Future, which predicted that great benefits would come from applications of genetics and other advanced sciences to human biology.

Biologist Julian Huxley, brother of author Aldous Huxley (a childhood friend of Haldane’s), appears to have been the first to use the actual word “transhumanism”. Writing in 1957, he defined transhumanism as “man remaining man, but transcending himself, by realizing new possibilities of and for his human nature”. This definition differs substantially from the one commonly in use since the 1980s.

The coalescence of an identifiable transhumanist movement began in the last decades of the twentieth century. In 1966, FM-2030 (formerly F.M. Esfandiary), a futurist who taught “new concepts of the Human” at The New School for Social Research in New York City, began to identify people who adopt technologies, lifestyles and world views transitional to “posthumanity” as “transhuman” (short for “transitory human”). In 1972, Robert Ettinger contributed to the popularization of the concept of “transhumanity” in his book Man into Superman. FM-2030 published the Upwingers Manifesto in 1973 to stimulate transhumanly conscious activism.

The first self-described transhumanists met formally in the early 1980s at the University of California, Los Angeles, which became the main center of transhumanist thought. Here, FM-2030 lectured on his “third way” futurist ideology. At the EZTV Media venue frequented by transhumanists and other futurists, Natasha Vita-More presented Breaking Away, her 1980 experimental film with the theme of humans breaking away from their biological limitations and the earth’s gravity as they head into space. FM-2030 and Vita-More soon began holding gatherings for transhumanists in Los Angeles, which included students from FM-2030′s courses and audiences from Vita-More’s artistic productions. In 1982, Vita-More authored the Transhumanist Arts Statement, and, six years later, produced the cable TV show TransCentury Update on transhumanity, a program which reached over 100,000 viewers.

In 1988, philosopher Max More founded the Extropy Institute and was the main contributor to a formal transhumanist doctrine, which took the form of the Principles of Extropy in 1990.[ In 1990, he laid the foundation of modern transhumanism by giving it a new definition:

“Transhumanism is a class of philosophies that seek to guide us towards a posthuman condition. Transhumanism shares many elements of humanism, including a respect for reason and science, a commitment to progress, and a valuing of human (or transhuman) existence in this life. [] Transhumanism differs from humanism in recognizing and anticipating the radical alterations in the nature and possibilities of our lives resulting from various sciences and technologies [].” In 1998, philosophers Nick Bostrom and David Pearce founded the World Transhumanist Association (WTA), an organization with a liberal democratic perspective. In 1999, the WTA drafted and adopted The Transhumanist Declaration. The Transhumanist FAQ, prepared by the WTA, gave two formal definitions for transhumanism:

The intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally improving the human condition through applied reason, especially by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. The study of the ramifications, promises, and potential dangers of technologies that will enable us to overcome fundamental human limitations, and the related study of the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies. A number of similar definitions have been collected by Anders Sandberg, an academic with a high profile in the transhumanist movement.

In 2006, the board of directors of the Extropy Institute made a decision to cease operations of the organization, stating that its mission was “essentially completed”. This left the World Transhumanist Association as the leading international transhumanist organization.

For a list of notable individuals who have identified themselves, or been identified by others, as advocates of transhumanism, see the list of transhumanists.

While many transhumanist theorists and advocates seek to apply reason, science and technology for the purposes of reducing poverty, disease, disability and malnutrition around the globe, transhumanism is distinctive in its particular focus on the applications of technologies to the improvement of human bodies at the individual level. Many transhumanists actively assess the potential for future technologies and innovative social systems to improve the quality of all life, while seeking to make the material reality of the human condition fulfill the promise of legal and political equality by eliminating congenital mental and physical barriers.

Transhumanist philosophers argue that there not only exists an ethical imperative for humans to strive for progress and improvement of the human condition but that it is possible and desirable for humanity to enter a post-Darwinian phase of existence, in which humans are in control of their own evolution. In such a phase, natural evolution would be replaced with deliberate change. To this end, transhumanists engage in interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and evaluating possibilities for overcoming biological limitations. They draw on futures studies and various fields or subfields of science, philosophy, economics, history, and sociology. Unlike philosophers, social critics and activists who place a moral value on preservation of natural systems, transhumanists see the very concept of the “natural” as an obstacle to progress. In keeping with this, many prominent transhumanist advocates refer to transhumanism’s critics on the political right and left jointly as “bioconservatives” or “bioluddites”, the latter term alluding to the nineteenth century anti-industrialisation social movement that opposed the replacement of manual labor by machines.

Converging Technologies, a 2002 report exploring the potential for synergy among nano-, bio-, informational and cognitive technologies (NBIC) for enhancing human performance.While some transhumanists take a relatively abstract and theoretical approach to the perceived benefits of emerging technologies, others have offered specific proposals for modifications to the human body, including inheritable ones. Transhumanists are often concerned with methods of enhancing the human nervous system. Though some propose modification of the peripheral nervous system, the brain is considered the common denominator of personhood and is thus a primary focus of transhumanist ambitions. More generally, transhumanists support the convergence of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science (NBIC), and hypothetical future technologies such as simulated reality, artificial intelligence, mind uploading, and cryonics. Transhumanists believe that humans can and should use these technologies to become more than human. Transhumanists therefore support the recognition or protection of cognitive liberty, morphological freedom and procreative liberty as civil liberties, so as to guarantee individuals the choice of enhancing themselves and progressively become posthuman, which they see as the next significant evolutionary steps for the human species. Some speculate that human enhancement techniques and other emerging technologies may facilitate such a transformation by the midpoint of the twenty first century.

A 2002 report, Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, commissioned by the U.S. National Science Foundation and Department of Commerce, contains descriptions and commentaries on the state of NBIC science and technology by major contributors to these fields. The report discusses potential uses of these technologies in implementing transhumanist goals of enhanced performance and health, and ongoing work on planned applications of human enhancement technologies in the military and in the rationalization of the human-machine interface in industry.

Some theorists, such as Raymond Kurzweil, believe that the pace of technological evolution is accelerating and that the next fifty years may yield not only radical technological advances but possibly a technological singularity, which may fundamentally change the nature of human beings. Transhumanists who foresee this massive technological change generally maintain that it is desirable. However, they also explore the possible dangers of extremely rapid technological change, and frequently propose options for ensuring that advanced technology is used responsibly. For example, Bostrom has written extensively on existential risks to humanity’s future welfare, including risks that could be created by emerging technologies.

On a more practical level, as proponents of personal development and body modification, transhumanists tend to use existing technologies and techniques that supposedly improve cognitive and physical performance, while engaging in routines and lifestyles designed to improve health and longevity. Depending on their age, some transhumanists express concern that they will not live to reap the benefits of future technologies. However, many have a great interest in life extension practices, and funding research in cryonics in order to make the latter a viable option of last resort rather than remaining an unproven method. Regional and global transhumanist networks and communities with a range of objectives exist to provide support and forums for discussion and collaborative projects.

There is a variety of opinion within transhumanist thought. Many of the leading transhumanist thinkers hold complex and subtle views that are under constant revision and development. Some distinctive currents of transhumanism are identified and listed here in alphabetical order:

Although some transhumanists report a very strong sense of spirituality, they are for the most part secular. In fact, many transhumanists are either agnostics or atheists. A minority, however, follow liberal forms of Eastern philosophical traditions or, as with Mormon transhumanists, have merged their beliefs with established religions.

Despite the prevailing secular attitude, some transhumanists pursue hopes traditionally espoused by religions, such as immortality albeit a physical one. Several belief systems, termed new religious movements, originating in the late twentieth century, share with transhumanism the goals of transcending the human condition by applying technology to the alteration of the body (Ralism) and mind (Scientology). While most thinkers associated with the transhumanist movement focus on the practical goals of using technology to help achieve longer and healthier lives, some speculate that future understanding of neurotheology will enable humans to achieve control of altered states of consciousness and thus “spiritual” experiences. A continuing dialogue between transhumanism and faith was the focus of an academic seminar held at the University of Toronto in 2004.

The majority of transhumanists are materialists who do not believe in a transcendent human soul. Transhumanist personhood theory also argues against the unique identification of moral actors and subjects with biological humans, judging as speciesist the exclusion of nonhuman and part-human animals, and sophisticated machines, from ethical consideration. Many believe in the compatibility of human minds with computer hardware, with the theoretical implication that human consciousness may someday be transferred to alternative media.

One extreme formulation of this idea is Frank Tipler’s proposal of the Omega Point. Drawing upon ideas in physics, computer science and physical cosmology, Tipler advanced the notion that the collapse of the Universe billions of years hence could create the conditions for the perpetuation of humanity as a simulation within a megacomputer. Cosmologist George Ellis has called Tipler’s book “a masterpiece of pseudoscience”, and Michael Shermer devoted a chapter of Why People Believe Weird Things to enumerating perceived flaws in Tipler’s thesis.

For more details on this topic, see Transhumanism in fiction. Transhumanist themes have become increasingly prominent in various literary forms during the period in which the movement itself has emerged. Contemporary science fiction often contains positive renditions of technologically enhanced human life, set in utopian (especially techno-utopian) societies. However, science fiction’s depictions of technologically enhanced humans or other posthuman beings frequently come with a cautionary twist. The more pessimistic scenarios include many horrific or dystopian tales of human bioengineering gone wrong.

The cyberpunk genre, exemplified by William Gibson’s Neuromancer (1984) and Bruce Sterling’s Schismatrix (1985), has particularly been concerned with the modification of human bodies. Other novels dealing with transhumanist themes that have stimulated broad discussion of these issues include Blood Music (1985) by Greg Bear, The Xenogenesis Trilogy (19871989) by Octavia Butler; the “Culture” novels (19872000) of Iain Banks; The Beggar’s Trilogy (199094) by Nancy Kress; much of Greg Egan’s work since the early 1990s, such as Permutation City (1994) and Diaspora (1997); The Bohr Maker (1995) by Linda Nagata; Extensa (2002) and Perfekcyjna niedoskonao (2003) by Jacek Dukaj; Oryx and Crake (2003) by Margaret Atwood; Altered Carbon by Richard Morgan (2002); and The Possibility of an Island (Eng. trans. 2006) by Michel Houellebecq.

Fictional transhumanist scenarios have also become popular in other media during the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries. Such treatments are found in films (Star Trek: The Motion Picture, 1979; Blade Runner, 1982; Gattaca, 1997), television series (the Ancients of Stargate SG-1, the Borg of Star Trek, the Nietzscheans of Andromeda), manga and anime (Ghost in the Shell), role-playing games (Transhuman Space) and computer games (Deus Ex, Half-Life 2, Command & Conquer). The fictional universe of the table top war game Warhammer 40,000 also makes use of genetic and cybernetic augmentation. Human characters of the Imperium often employ cybernetic devices, while the Space Marines are indeed posthuman. Many of these works are considered part of the cyberpunk genre or its postcyberpunk offshoot.

In addition to the work of Natasha Vita-More, mentioned above, transhumanism has been represented in the visual and performing arts by Carnal Art, a form of sculpture originated by the French artist Orlan that uses the body as its medium and plastic surgery as its method. The American performer Michael Jackson used technologies such as plastic surgery, skin-lightening drugs and hyperbaric oxygen treatment over the course of his career, with the effect of transforming his artistic persona so as to blur identifiers of gender, race and age. The work of the Australian artist Stelarc centers on the alteration of his body by robotic prostheses and tissue engineering. Other artists whose work coincided with the emergence and flourishing of transhumanism and who explored themes related to the transformation of the body are the Yugoslavian performance artist Marina Abramovic and the American media artist Matthew Barney. A 2005 show, Becoming Animal, at the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, presented exhibits by twelve artists whose work concerns the effects of technology in erasing boundaries between the human and non-human.

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