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International Journal of Nanomedicine | Volume 13 – Dove Press

Silicagentamicin nanohybrids: combating antibiotic resistance, bacterial biofilms, and in vivo toxicity

Mosselhy DA, He W, Hynnen U, Meng Y, Mohammadi P, Palva A, Feng QL, Hannula SP, Nordstrm K, Linder MB

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8577-8578

Published Date: 13 December 2018

Strojny B, Sawosz E, Grodzik M, Jaworski S, Szczepaniak J, Sosnowska M, Wierzbicki M, Kutwin M, Orliska S, Chwalibog A

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8561-8575

Published Date: 13 December 2018

Belle Ebanda Kedi P, Eya’ane Meva F, Kotsedi L, Nguemfo EL, Bogning Zangueu C, Ntoumba AA, Mohamed HEA, Dongmo AB, Maaza M

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8537-8548

Published Date: 12 December 2018

Wu M, Liu J, Hu C, Li D, Yang J, Wu Z, Yang L, Chen Y, Fu S, Wu J

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8461-8472

Published Date: 11 December 2018

Perera PGT, Nguyen THP, Dekiwadia C, Wandiyanto JV, Sbarski I, Bazaka O, Bazaka K, Crawford RJ, Croft RJ, Ivanova EP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8429-8442

Published Date: 10 December 2018

Shen Y, Yu Y, Chaurasiya B, Li X, Xu Y, Webster TJ, Tu J, Sun R

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8281-8296

Published Date: 5 December 2018

Yan J, Zhang H, Cheng F, He Y, Su T, Zhang X, Zhang M, Zhu Y, Li C, Cao J, He B

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8247-8268

Published Date: 4 December 2018

Renu S, Markazi AD, Dhakal S, Lakshmanappa YS, Gourapura SR, Shanmugasundaram R, Senapati S, Narasimhan B, Selvaraj RK, Renukaradhya GJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:8195-8215

Published Date: 30 November 2018

Mosselhy DA, He W, Hynnen U, Meng Y, Mohammadi P, Palva A, Feng QL, Hannula SP, Nordstrm K, Linder MB

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7939-7957

Published Date: 28 November 2018

Wang Y, Chen H, Zhang X, Gui L, Wu J, Feng Q, Peng S, Zhao M

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7835-7844

Published Date: 22 November 2018

Lu MM, Ge YR, Qiu J, Shao D, Zhang Y, Bai J, Zheng X, Chang ZM, Wang Z, Dong WF, Tang CB

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7697-7709

Published Date: 19 November 2018

Yuan Z, Yuan Y, Han L, Qiu Y, Huang X, Gao F, Fan G, Zhang Y, Tang X, He X, Xu K, Yin P

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7533-7548

Published Date: 15 November 2018

Wang B, Guo Y, Chen X, Zeng C, Hu Q, Yin W, Li W, Xie H, Zhang B, Huang X, Yu F

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7395-7408

Published Date: 12 November 2018

Li D, Zhang K, Shi C, Liu L, Yan G, Liu C, Zhou Y, Hu Y, Sun H, Yang B

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7167-7181

Published Date: 6 November 2018

Kim DH, Kim JY, Kim RM, Maharjan P, Ji YG, Jang DJ, Min KA, Koo TS, Cho KH

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7095-7106

Published Date: 5 November 2018

Horvth T, Papp A, Igaz N, Kovcs D, Kozma G, Trenka V, Tiszlavicz L, Rzga Z, Knya Z, Kiricsi M, Vezr T

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7061-7077

Published Date: 2 November 2018

Lee D, Heo DN, Nah HR, Lee SJ, Ko WK, Lee JS, Moon HJ, Bang JB, Hwang YS, Reis RL, Kwon IK

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7019-7031

Published Date: 1 November 2018

Wang W, Nie W, Liu D, Du H, Zhou X, Chen L, Wang H, Mo X, Li L, He C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:7003-7018

Published Date: 1 November 2018

Lu Y, Jiang W, Wu X, Huang S, Huang Z, Shi Y, Dai Q, Chen J, Ren F, Gao S

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6913-6927

Published Date: 30 October 2018

Shi Ms, Zhao X, Zhang J, Pan S, Yang C, Wei Y, Hu H, Qiao M, Chen D, Zhao X

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6885-6902

Published Date: 26 October 2018

Nejadi Babadaei MM, Feli Moghaddam M, Solhvand S, Alizadehmollayaghoob E, Attar F, Rajabbeigi E, Akhtari K, Sari S, Falahati M

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6871-6884

Published Date: 26 October 2018

Vio V, Riveros AL, Tapia-Bustos A, Lespay-Rebolledo C, Perez-Lobos R, Muoz L, Pismante P, Morales P, Araya E, Hassan N, Herrera-Marschitz M, Kogan MJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6839-6854

Published Date: 25 October 2018

Qiu W, Chen R, Chen X, Zhang H, Song L, Cui W, Zhang J, Ye D, Zhang Y, Wang Z

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6809-6827

Published Date: 24 October 2018

Sun L, Xu J, Sun Z, Zheng F, Liu C, Wang C, Xiaoye Hu, Xia L, Liu Z, Xia R

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6769-6777

Published Date: 24 October 2018

Song Y, Ma A, Ning J, Zhong X, Zhang Q, Zhang X, Hong G, Li Y, Sasaki K, Li C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6751-6767

Published Date: 23 October 2018

Dhakal S, Cheng X, Salcido J, Renu S, Bondra K, Lakshmanappa YS, Misch C, Ghimire S, Feliciano-Ruiz N, Hogshead B, Krakowka S, Carson K, McDonough J, Lee CW, Renukaradhya GJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6699-6715

Published Date: 24 October 2018

Rodallec A, Sicard G, Giacometti S, Carr M, Pourroy B, Bouquet F, Savina A, Lacarelle B, Ciccolini J, Fanciullino R

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6677-6688

Published Date: 23 October 2018

Zhao X, Qi T, Kong C, Hao M, Wang Y, Li J, Liu B, Gao Y, Jiang J

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6413-6428

Published Date: 12 October 2018

Zhai B, Zeng Y, Zeng Z, Zhang N, Li C, Zeng Y, You Y, Wang S, Chen X, Sui X, Xie T

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6279-6296

Published Date: 10 October 2018

Zhou X, Shi G, Fan B, Cheng X, Zhang X, Wang X, Liu S, Hao Y, Wei Z, Wang L, Feng S

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6265-6277

Published Date: 10 October 2018

Hernandez-Delgadillo R, Garca-Cuellar CM, Snchez-Prez Y, Pineda-Aguilar N, Martnez-Martnez MA, Rangel-Padilla EE, Nakagoshi-Cepeda SE, Sols-Soto JM, Snchez-Njera RI, Nakagoshi-Cepeda MAA, Chellam, S, Cabral-Romero C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6089-6097

Published Date: 5 October 2018

Kuroda C, Ueda K, Haniu H, Ishida H, Okano S, Takizawa T, Sobajima A, Kamanaka T, Yoshida K, Okamoto M, Tsukahara T, Matsuda Y, Aoki K, Kato H, Saito N

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6079-6088

Published Date: 5 October 2018

Yamoah MA, Moshref M, Sharma J, Chen WC, Ledford HA, Lee JH, Chavez KS, Wang W, Lpez JE, Lieu DK, Sirish P, Zhang XD

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2018, 13:6073-6078

Published Date: 5 October 2018

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International Journal of Nanomedicine | Volume 13 – Dove Press

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Triumph HCG – The Best HCG Diet Drops – Coupon Codes … was established in 2010. 8 years of experience and 1000s of satisfied customers have vouched for the efficacy of Triumph hcg. Though the Protocol is the same with all the brands, The service is what makes Triumph hcg stand out. Free Ebooks, Charts, Recipes and continous support makes success possible for customers. Whats more? All this comes for FREE even if you are not a customer of Triumph!

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Triumph HCG – The Best HCG Diet Drops – Coupon Codes …

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Testosterone Replacement – Medical Solution Center

What causes low testosterone?

Producing less testosterone in the body is often a natural byproduct of aging in men over 50. For those with low testosterone who are younger, hypogonadism is the most likely culprit. Testosterone production is a job of the testicles, so its also possible that injury may impair the creation of new testosterone.

Since testosterone is the chemical behind a mans sex drive, reduced drive is often the first noticeable symptom. However, low testosterone levels are linked to several other conditions affecting a mans health. While its not yet certain that low testosterone causes these conditions, there is a statistical relationship between low testosterone and the presence of:

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the most common treatment for low testosterone. Medical Solution Center not only does the lab work to diagnose low testosterone at their office, but they also offer testosterone supplements and injections.

Yes, there are several potential side effects, including:

Many of these side effects are temporary. They may end and even reverse when testosterone supplements end.

TRT therapy comes in many forms, including:

Oral testosterone isnt used for long-term replacement therapy, due to negative impact on liver health.

With topical testosterone products, care must be taken so that women or children dont come in contact with the gel. Such contact could create serious side effects in a woman or child, such as abnormal hair growth or premature puberty.

Generally, women wont benefit from testosterone, and there are no FDA-approved testosterone supplements for women. However, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) using estrogen, a female hormone, is one of the most effective treatments for many of the symptoms accompanying menopause. In some cases, adding testosterone to estrogen therapy improves overall effects of hormone supplements. This is particularly the case for women whose ovaries have been removed. Supplements for women are available at Medical Solution Center.

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Testosterone Replacement – Medical Solution Center

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The Lowdown on Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Promoters of prescription testosterone products promise that the hormone is nothing less than a fountain of youth for men of a certain age. And sales of these testosterone pills, gels, and patches have soared, nearly quadrupling in the United States between 2000 and 2011.

Many claims from drug companies and anti-aging clinics are directed at men who hope to regain their youthful vigor and improve their strength, sexual prowess, athletic performance, and appearance. Natural levels of the sex hormone normally decline with age. As they ebb, sex drive often slips into low gear, youthful energy fades, bones get thin and brittle, and physical ability sags, among other changes.

Some doctors began to surmise that testosterone replacement therapy could reverse certain age-related changes men experience, or at least hold them off for a while. But many men prescribed testosterone replacement therapy dont have an abnormally low blood level of testosteroneor havent even had the hormone measured.

Until recently, there has been little scientific evidence to support testosterone replacement, except for men whose bodies dont produce enough of the hormone, a medical condition called hypogonadism, or androgen deficiency. It differs from the natural process of decreasing testosterone that comes with normal aging, sometimes referred to as late-onset hypogonadism.

To test whether testosterone replacement offered older men any benefits, the National Institutes of Health sponsored a series of seven rigorously controlled, randomized trials, known as the Testosterone Trials, or TTrials, the largest of their kind.

Findings from four clinical trials were published in February 2017 by JAMA and JAMA Internal Medicine. Findings from the first three trials appeared in February 2016 in The New England Journal of Medicine.

The TTrials recruited 790 men ages 65 and older who had low testosterone levels and exhibited symptoms that could be related to low testosterone. Blood testosterone levels of 275 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter) or below were considered low. Their low levels were attributed to aging and not to another recognized cause, such as hypogonadism.

Some men were randomly assigned to receive hormone replacement in the form of a 1 percent prescription gel applied to the skin daily. Others received a placebo, or inactive gel. Scientists tested whether testosterone replacement therapy offered any benefit over the course of one year. Heres what they found:

Sexual function. Testosterone replacement therapy modestly boosted sex drive and improved erections in men with low testosterone enrolled in the sexual function arm of the TTrials.

But improvements tended to decline over a year, leading experts to suggest that testosterone replacement therapy isnt as effective as drugs such as tadalafil (Cialis) and sildenafil (Viagra) for treating erectile dysfunctionalthough they wont help sex drive.

Physical function. Researchers studied whether testosterone replacement therapy improved mens walking speed over six minutes. Disappointingly, there was no difference between the testosterone group and the placebo group on either measure.

Vitality. In the trial that gauged how men rated their energy and vitality, testosterone replacement therapy fell flat. Scores for both the testosterone and placebo groups remained the same.

Bone density. Among the more encouraging findings is evidence that testosterone replacement therapy can help protect against bone loss. After a year on testosterone, volunteers who had normal bone density (none had osteoporosis) had a significant increase in bone mineral density and bone strength compared with men on a placebo.

Because the trial lasted only one year, researchers cant say with certainty that the increased bone density will ultimately lower fracture risk or if the same effect would be seen in men with osteoporosis. For now, men with low bone density and at high risk of fracture should look to proven osteoporosis medication, which has been studied for long-term use and is known to help prevent fractures.

Anemia. For years, doctors have been puzzled by a form of anemia (an abnormally low number of red blood cells) that appears in some men as they age. To test whether low testosterone levels might be the culprit, researchers studied the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on a group of 126 men with known and unknown causes of anemia.

After 12 months, testosterone treatment significantly increased their hemoglobin levels by stimulating the production of red blood cells: 58 percent of the men with unexplained anemia were no longer anemic, compared with only 22 percent of the men in the placebo group. Testosterone replacement therapy also helped men who had anemia from known causes, such as iron deficiency.

Brain health. Hopes ran high that testosterone replacement therapy might help counter some age-related changes affecting memory and cognition. No such luck. The Cognition Trial included 493 men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment. Testosterone replacement therapy offered no benefits for memory or other aspects of brain function.

Heart health. Some past studies have raised red flags that testosterone might increase the risk for heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots. The new findings add to those concerns.

Using scans to measure plaque in the arteries of 170 men with heart disease risk factors, researchers found that men on testosterone replacement therapy had more plaque buildup and greater narrowing of their arteries than men in the placebo group. The findings are worrisome because plaque buildup can raise the risk of a heart attack or a stroke.

‘Low T’: Fanning Fears and Making a Fortune

Is low-T making you feel like a shadow of your former self? Chances are youve seen that pitch, featured in slick TV or magazine ads that warn about the risks of low testosterone. Here’s what you should know.

The TTrials have gone a long way in separating the hype from the real benefits testosterone replacement therapy may offer. But one important question remains unanswered: Is long-term testosterone replacement therapy use safe?

Because the TTrials were only one year long, they dont shed light much on the therapys risks. Some long-term studies have associated testosterone replacement therapy with prostate cancer, whereas others report no evidence that testosterone replacement therapy in men with low testosterone levels increases prostate cancer risk.

And concern remains about the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on cardiovascular health over time. In 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began requiring testosterone products to carry a warning about their associated risk for heart attack and stroke.

Other risks associated with testosterone replacement therapy include erythrocytosis (an abnormal increase of red blood cells) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (an enlarged prostate), or BPH.

Testosterone replacement therapy side effects include acne, breast enlargement, unwanted hair growth, and infertility. Men who have prostate or breast cancer, sleep apnea, BPH, or heart failure shouldnt use testosterone replacement therapy because it can worsen those conditions.

Most experts agree that doctors should consider testosterone replacement therapy only for men with proven low levels of testosterone who have symptoms that might improve with treatment, such as anemia, bone loss, or loss of sexual desire or function.

The only sure way to know whether your testosterone is low is to be diagnosed by a doctor, who will perform a physical exam, take your medical history, test your blood on at least two separate days, and rule out other conditions.

If youre considering testosterone replacement therapy, you might do well to start with a few healthy lifestyle changes that can offer even more benefits than hormone replacement.

Being overweight or obese is closely associated with low testosterone. Losing weight can raise hormone levels. Regular exerciseeven a brisk 30-minute walk a few times a weekcan improve vitality, strengthen muscles and bones, lower heart disease risk, and possibly even improve your sex life. Thats far more than testosterone replacement therapy can promise.

This article originally appeared in the July 2017 issue of Health After 50.

Also see Sex Boosters in a Bottle?

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The Lowdown on Testosterone Replacement Therapy

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Men’s Health Chicago: Testosterone Replacement: Schaumburg …

Do you remember when your practitioner actually knew your face and remembered your name? WE DO!

At Mens Health Chicago, we are not your typical Internal medicine/adult primary care office. Since we designed our practice with a focus on mens health, we knew we had to provide our community and patients with a facility and team that was able to follow through instead of simply referring out and forgetting. At MHC we practice what we call Head coach medicine, meaning that our practitioners will stick with you from the beginning to the end and help call the plays instead of just handing you off and forgetting about you. We now offer in-house joint manipulation, and physical therapy along with other modalities to treat musculoskeletal injuries; this way your practitioner can constantly assess your progress and modify treatment plans real time; most offices refer out to a physical therapy facility and do not see the patient again until after the treatment is completed often resulting in excessive or sometimes insufficient treatment.


Our patients tell us that one of the things they love about our office is the personal attention and follow-up we provide. Even if we do have to refer you out to a specialist, we will ensure that we stay in the loop and help you understand the often confusing process of healthcare. The primary goal is the prevention and early detection of disease. With an experienced staff of medical professionals who specialize in internal medicine, Mens Health Chicago treats a range of illnesses and disease in all patients, with a focus on mens health and wellness.

Mens Health Chicago has four convenient locations in the loop downtown Chicago, Schaumburg, Naperville, and Barrington Illinois, that provide a friendly and relaxed environment designed to make patients feel as comfortable as possible. The team at Mens Health Chicago works with each patient individually to provide the most comprehensive care possible to manage, treat, and prevent illness, allowing patients to lead happy and healthy lives.

Among the many conditions the health care providers at Mens Health Chicago treat are:

As internists, the medical professionals at Mens Health Chicago understand how a mans body works as a whole, and they can identify and treat illnesses and diseases through a broad approach. By understanding how each component of the human body works together, Mens Health Chicago provides effective and lasting medical treatments- we strive to treat the cause of your condition, not just chase/suppress the symptoms.

To take charge of your health, call one of the three offices or book an appointment online.

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Men’s Health Chicago: Testosterone Replacement: Schaumburg …

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Low T 99 – Testosterone Therapy: Bellevue, Seattle, Tacoma …

The physicians at Low T 99 understand that one of the primary symptoms of low testosterone is Erectile Dysfunction. For many patients, one of the goals of testosterone therapy is to regain full sexual capabilities. With the intent of maximizing the patient experience, Low T 99 physicians have formulated some of the most powerful and efficient oral ED medications available. If your Low T 99 physician concludes that these medications might be beneficial to your overall therapy they will be made available as a supplementary option.

Many studies have shown that testosterone levels begin to decline by about 1% per year after the age of 30. Low Testosterone levels can lead to: lack of energy, decrease in muscle, fatigue, bad mood, irritability, an increase in body fat, weak erections, low libido, poor sleep, decreased urge to exercise and more. Start treating these symptoms as soon as possible. First, with a diagnosis from a LowT99 doctor find out once and for all if you do, in fact, suffer from low testosterone. If that is the case, let LowT99 doctors get you on a personalized testosterone therapy immediately and start turning things around.

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Low T 99 – Testosterone Therapy: Bellevue, Seattle, Tacoma …

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Healthy Lifestyle Habits for Stress Relief – Verywell Mind

We all experience stress. It comes in all aspects of life, and in itself, it isn’t always a bad thing. Stress can be a motivator to hard work, it can accompany exciting events, and life wouldn’t be the same without it. Stress can even be good for us, particularly if it isn’t experienced at overwhelming levels. And, just as stress comes from many areas of life, effective stress management comes from combating stress on many different fronts.

Part of a comprehensive stress relief plan involves finding ways to calm down quickly so you can more effectively manage stress as it comeswhile avoiding the negative effects of chronic stress. Another important way to relieve stress is to maintain healthy lifestyle habits.

Healthy lifestyle habits can also help you reverse your stress response, enabling you to avoid or even reverse the negative effects of chronic stress. Learning to live a healthy lifestyle often brings additional benefits too, such as an endorphin rush, a release of frustration, or added longevity. Many of the healthy lifestyle habits discussed here can also help you to become less reactive to stress, in the long run, providing protection against stress you haven’t even experienced yet

While maintaining healthy habits is a bit more challenging than trying a stress relief method only once, the benefits you receive from maintaining a healthy lifestyle are more than worth the effort it takes to maintain it. The increases in health and wellness that you experience, as well as the reduction in stress, will make you wish you’d made these changes sooner, and can be wonderful sources of continued motivation.

Many people feel intimidated or frustrated with making healthy lifestyle changes for a few reasons, including:

Given that living a healthy lifestyle can help with stress relief, and that making healthy lifestyle changes can be challenging, the following resources can help you with both choosing new goals for healthy living and withmaking these new goals a reality byadopting new healthy habits into your lifestyle.

Here are some changes you can make to lead a healthier, less stressed lifestyle:

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Healthy Lifestyle Habits for Stress Relief – Verywell Mind

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Low T | Low testosterone | Entourage Medical

During puberty, testosterone helps build a mans muscles, deepens his voice, and boosts the size of his penis and testes. In adulthood, it keeps a mans muscles and bones strong and maintains his interest in sex. In short, its what makes a man a man (at least physically).

After age 30, most men begin to experience a gradual decline in testosterone. A decrease in sex drive sometimes accompanies the drop in testosterone, leading many men to mistakenly believe that their loss of interest in sex is simply due to aging.

Low testosterone can cause an obvious lack of male characteristics, or it can cause vague symptoms such as fatigue and diminished sex drive.

The symptoms of low testosterone (or low T) in males can vary depending on the cause of the low level and the age at which it occurs.

In male hypogonadism, a condition in which the body is unable to produce normal amounts of the hormone testosterone, symptoms may include underdeveloped genitalia, delayed puberty, and a lack of secondary sexual characteristics such as a deeper voice and facial hair.

In middle-aged or older men experiencing age-related decreases in testosterone, symptoms may include low energy, depressed mood, low sex drive, and erectile dysfunction (ED or impotence).

No matter what the cause, symptoms alone are not enough for a diagnosis of low testosterone: A blood test is needed to confirm that a mans testosterone level is, indeed, low.

Testosterone can be delivered to the body in a variety of ways:

*Patient must meet criteria for any form of Testosterone Replacement Therapy, a face to face physical examination with a licensed healthcare provider and sufficient blood work must be recorded and deemed medical necessary in order for treatment. A medical questionnaire alone is not sufficient enough for medical necessity. An in depth history should also be perform to evaluate for any type of comorbidities.

* IMPORTANT!- We are not an online pharmacy, every patient must undergo comprehensive exams and physical before a prescription is issued!

*Please note: Our providers are licensed in all states. Florida and West Virginiaremain no service states.

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The Promise of Nanomedicine – Laboratory Equipment

More than a decade ago, nanotechnology became an integral part of the overall scientific research world. Governments started funding programs specifically aimed at nanotechnology, research universities opened their facilities and coursework to the new discipline, and journals focusing on nano research became commonplace.And now, many researchers believe, its nanomedicines turn to do the same. Nanomedicinewhich has emerged as nanotechnologys most important sub-disciplineis the application of nanotechnology to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. It is already having an impact clinically among some of the deadliest diseases in the world.

Nanomedicine is far from the stuff of science fiction. The possibilities for nanomedicine to help us diagnose, treat and image diseases are endless. Imagine a smart nanomedicine that is able to bind to tumor cells and enhance imaging and diagnosis, at the same time as being able to deliver a gene therapy or chemotherapy agent. With the technologies available to us and our multidisciplinary teams, this will be possible in my lifetime, said Phoebe Phillips, head of the pancreatic cancer translational research group at the University of New South Wales in Sydney.

Phillips and her team have created a nanoparticle that dramatically increases its effectiveness as an anti-cancer drug for patients with pancreatic cancers, which is one of the fastest killing cancers from time of initial detection, often leaving patients with no suitable treatment options and only weeks to live.

While nanomedicine canand likely willplay a role in diagnostics, regenerative medicine, prosthetics and more, the effect the sub-discipline is currently having on the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancers is significant.

Nanomedicine for HIVThirty years ago, a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS was essentially a guarantee of a painful, protracted death. It wasnt until 1996 that researchers discovered antiretroviral drugs, and the potent combination therapy that leads to successful management of HIV/AIDS in most cases. However, not much has changed since that discovery. Those suffering from the autoimmune disease still require daily oral dosing of three to four pills, and chronic oral dosing has significant complications that can arise from the high pill burden experienced by patients, leading to non-adherence to therapies for a variety of reasons.

Ive been working in HIV for over 20 years, Andrew Owen, professor of molecular and clinical pharmacology at the University of Liverpool (UK) told Laboratory Equipment. I was trying to understand the variability in drug exposure that occurs between different individuals and the genetic basis for that. We were finding a lot of interesting things, but they werent clinically implementable. They gave us a good understanding of why drug exposure was variable, but it didnt actually help the patients in any way.

In an attempt to solve the problem rather than just characterize it, Owen turned to nanomedicine in 2009, eventually becoming part of the first team to conduct human trials of orally dosed nanomedicines for HIV. Since then, Owen and his interdisciplinary team at the Liverpool Nanomedicine Partnership have secured more than 20 million of research funding for a multitude of nanomedicine-based approaches to HIV, such low-dose oral delivery, long-acting injectable medications and targeted delivery of antiretrovirals.

Some of Owens most important research to date tackles two of the pharmaceutical industrys biggest challenges: oral delivery of potent drugs and supply and demand.

One of the major problems that has plagued drug discovery and drug development over the last 30 years has been compatibility with oral drug delivery, Owen explained. The pharmaceutical industry has wrestled with that because they can develop very potent molecules across diseases, but actually delivering those molecules orally is very challenging. As you try to design into the molecule oral bioavailabilty, you usually get further away from the potency you want.

The Liverpool team solved this problem with the creation of Solid Drug Nanoparticles. The technology consists of combining a normal drug, in its solid form, with particles on that drug that are measurable within the nanometer scale. There are other things packed into the formulation as well, such as FDA-approved stabilizers that are proven to help disperse the drug. Owen says it is all about increasing the surface area covered by the drug.

If you imagine you take a granulated form of the drug, youre going to get big chunks of drugs in the intestinal tract when dissolution happens. But if you have nanometer-sized particles within the GI tract, then you are going to get a complete coating of the inside of the intestine after you take the drug, Owen explained. What that does is it massively increases the surface area covered by the drug, which saturates all sorts of drug influx processes within the GI tract.

Since 80 percent of a humans immune system is concentrated in the gut, the Solid Drug Nanoparticles are the perfect mechanism. The immune cells in the gut instinctually move toward the particles, creating a pathway for the drugs to cross the intestines, move through the lymphatic system, and finally into the systematic circulation.

In February, Owen presented the results of two trials at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) that confirmed his Solid Drug Nanoparticles can be effective at a 50 percent dose reduction. Specifically, Owen and his team applied the nanomedicine-based approach to the formulation of two drugs: efvirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV). EFV is the current WHO-recommended regimen, with 70 percent of adult HIV patients in low- and middle-income countries taking the medication. At 50 percent of the dose, the patients in the trial were able to maintain plasma concentrations of the conventional dose.

Globally, the supply of drugs needed to treat every patient with HIV is outstripping manufacturing capabilitymeaning we, as a human species, cannot physically make enough HIV medication to treat everyone with the disease. A 50 percent reduction in dose means twice as many patients served with the existing drug supply.Owen and his team are working with multiple global partners to move the technology forward. For the drugs already formulated, the Medicines Patent Pool and Clinical Health Access are helping to scale up and take them to market. Meanwhile, USAIDs Project OPTIMIZE is applying the nanoparticle technology to the newest HIV drugs for use in low- and middle-income countries.

For their latest collaboration with Johns Hopkins University, the Liverpool team was just awarded $3 million to examine the use of implantable technologies that can deliver drugs for weeks, or even months.

The current oral drug regimens for HIV comprises three drugs in combinationone is the major driver for efficacy, and the other two are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that prevent resistance to the main drug. However, current injectable formulations are only available with the main drugnone include the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

So, our project aims to develop the first long-acting injectable nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors so that we can use them to have a fully long-acting regimen that matches the current clinical paradigm for therapy, Owen said.

The Liverpool/Hopkins team has also thought about applying their long-acting injectable technology to other chronic diseases, such as malaria and tuberculosis, as well as some cardiovascular applications.

Nanomedicine for diabetesWhen the nanoparticles he was working with as an imaging tool didnt produce the desired results, Pere Santamaria grew frustratedbut he didnt give up. Instead, the doctor and professor at the University of Calgary (Canada) changed his assumptions and pursued his experimentuntil the data came pouring in that confirmed it wasnt a failed experiment at all. Rather, it was a discovery.

The discovery of Navacims was a bit serendipitous, Santamaria told Laboratory Equipment. Thankfully I am a little OCD and I didnt let the failed experiment go.Navacims are an entirely new class of nanomedicine drugs that harness the ability to stop disease without impairing normal immunity. Santamaria has been studying Navacims for the past 17 years, ever since unintentionally developing them. He even started a spin-off company, Parvus Therapeutics, Inc., to help bring the drugs to market.

In autoimmune diseases, white blood cells, which are normally responsible for warding off foreign invaders and disease, turn on the body, attacking the good cells and causing their destruction. Each specific autoimmune disease results from an attack against thousands of individual protein fragments in the targeted organ, such as the insulin-producing pancreatic cells in the case of type 1 diabetes.

But Santamarias studies show that nanoparticles decorated with protein targets acting as bait for disease-causing white blood cells can actually be used to reprogram the cells to rightfully suppress the disease they once intended to cause.

Once the immune system recognizes the presence of a Navacim, a white blood cell is reprogrammed by epigenetic changes into a lymphocyte that no longer wants to cause tissue damage, but rather work to suppress disease. According to Santamaria, the reprogramming step is immediately followed by an expansion of that population of lymphocytesone now-good white blood cell dividing into a million.

Basically they turn the tables on the immune system, and then there is a very sophisticated series of downstream cellular events that arise from that reprogramming event that involves the recruitment of other lymphocytes and other cell types that completely suppress the inflammation in the organ that is being infected, Santamaria explained. This happens extremely efficiently and comprehensively. This is an approach that can efficiently, selectively and specifically blend a complex response without impairing basic immunity.

In addition, the design of Navacims is modular, meaning the nanomedicine can be applied to severalif not allautoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Navacims can be altered to target different diseases by simply changing a small portion of the bait molecules on the nanoparticles. Santamarias studies have shown this to work in about seven autoimmune diseases thus far.

In April, Santamarias company Parvus entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Novartis for Navacims. Under the terms of the agreement, Novartis receives exclusive worldwide rights to use Parvus Navacim technology to develop and commercialize products for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and will be responsible for clinical-stage development and commercialization. Parvus will still be responsible for conducting ongoing preclinical work in the diabetes area, with some research funding from Novartis.

Weve had such a long time to prove ourselves, that this is not a flash in the pan, that this is something serious and robust, Santamaria said. We know so much about the mechanisms of our actions, and so much granularity. I think there are no other drugs that have reached the clinic with this level of understanding. That was painful in the beginning for us, but in the end its going to be good.

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Genetherapy | Cell Therapy | Conferences | Events | 2019 …

Cell Therapy

CellTherapy or Cytotherapy is the transfer of cells into a patient with a goal ofimproving the disease. From beginning blood transfusions were consideredto be the first type of celltherapy to be practiced as routine. Later, Bone marrow transplantation hasalso become a well-established concept which involves treatment of much kind ofblood disorders including anemia, leukemia, lymphoma and rareimmunodeficiencydiseases. Alternativemedical practitioners perform celltherapy in the form of several different names including xeno-transplanttherapy, glandular therapy, and fresh celltherapy. It has been claimed by the proponents of celltherapy that it has been used successfully to repair spinal cord injuries,strengthen weaken immune system, treatsautoimmunediseaseslike AIDS, helppatients with neurological disorders like Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons diseaseand epilepsy.


GeneTherapy basically involves the introduction or alteration of geneticmaterial within a cell or organism with an intention of curing the disease.Both celltherapy and gene therapy are overlapping fields of biomedical research withthe goals of repairing the direct cause ofGeneticdiseasesin DNA orcellular population respectively, the discovery of recombinant DNA technologyin the 1970s provided tools to efficiently develop genetherapy. Scientists use these techniques to readily manipulate viralgenomes, isolate genes and identify mutations involved in human disease,characterize and regulategeneexpressions, and engineer variousviral and non-viral vectors. Various long-term treatments for anemia,hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, Gauschers disease, lysosomalstorage diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and diseases of bones andjoints are resolved through successful gene therapy and are elusivetoday.

StemCell Therapies

CellTherapy is defined as the therapy in which cellular material is injectedinto a patient in order to recover the healthy tissue. Celltherapy is targeted at many clinical indications in multiple organs bymeans of several modes of cell delivery.Stem-CellTherapyis the use ofstem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Stemcells are a class of undifferentiated cells which are able to differentiateinto required or specialized cell types. Adult or somatic stem cells exist throughout the body after embryonic development and arefound available inside the different types of tissue. The stem cell methodologyincludes the phases of Stem cell or progenitor cell engraftment,differentiation followed by long term replacement of damaged tissue.

CellCulture and Bioprocessing

A Stem-Cell line is a group of undifferentiated stem cells which is culturedinvitro and can be propagated indefinitely. While stem cells can propagateindefinitely in culture due to their inherent cellular properties, immortalizedcells would not normally divide indefinitely but have gained this ability tosustain due to mutation. The Immortalized cell lines can be generated from cells by means of isolating cells fromtumors or induce mutations to make the cells immortal. An immortalizedcell line is a population of multicellular organism cells which has notproliferates indefinitely. Due to mutation, the cells evaded normal cellularsenescence and instead undergoing continuous celldivision. A key factor in reducing the production costs ofbiopharmaceuticals is the development of cell lines which in turn produce ahigh yield of product.

TissueScience & Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative Medicine is the branch of translational research deals with the processof replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs inorder to restore or establish normal functionality of cell. Regenerativemedicine is the combination oftissueengineeringand Molecular Biology. CellTherapy mediate cell repair via five primary mechanisms: providing ananti-inflammatory effect, homing to damaged tissues and recruiting other cellssuch as endothelial progenitor cells for necessary tissue growth, supportingtissue remodeling over scar formation and inhibiting apoptosis programmablecell death and differentiating tissues into bone, cartilage, tendon andligament tissue.

ClinicalTrials on Cell & Gene Therapy

Clinical Trials of Celland Gene Therapy products often varying from the clinical trials design for other types of pharmaceutical products. Thesedifferences in trial design are necessitated by the distinctive features ofthese products. The clinical trials also reflect previous clinical experienceand evidence of medicine. Early experiences with Cell and Gene Therapy products indicate that some CGT products may posesubstantial risks to subjects due to effect at cellular and genetic level. Thedesign of early-phase clinical trials of Cell and Gene Therapy products ofteninvolves the following consideration of clinical safety issues, preclinicalissues and chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) issues that areencountered.


Diseases can betreated using viruses as vector to deliver genes inGeneTherapy. Viruses as genevector however, can themselves cause problems in that they may initiateinflammation and the genes may be expressed at too high a level or for too longperiod of exposure. The goal of Nano Technology in genetherapy is delivery of therapeutic genes without a virus, usingnanoparticles as non-viral vector to deliver the genes. The particles canbe made with multiple layers so the outer layer with covering of peptide thatcan target the particles to cells of interest at specific site. The emergent Nanotechnologyin gene therapy is used to develop unique approaches in treating theretinopathies and the development of micro and Nano dimensional artificialantigen presenting cells forcancerimmunotherapy. These antigenpresenting cells mimic the natural signals in immunity that killer T-cellsreceive when there is an invader (bacteria, virus, cancer cell, etc.) in thebody.

AdvancedGene Therapeutics

Functionality ofbiomaterials for these forms is depends upon the chemical reaction such aslocalized or systemic response at the surface tethered moieties or encapsulatedtherapeutic factors such as drugs, genes, cells, growth factors, hormones andother active agents to specific target sites. The application of functional biomaterials is rehabilitation, reconstruction, regeneration, repair,ophthalmic applications and act as therapeutic solutions. It has the propertyof biocompatibility and produce inertness response to the tissue.Thebiomaterial-mediated gene therapy aim to use polymeric gene therapy systems tohalt the progression of neuron loss throughneuroprotectiveroutesand it combine stemcell therapy and biomaterial delivery system in order to enhance regeneration or repairafter ischemic injury.

Geneand Cell Therapy for Rare & Common Diseases

Gene therapy is a superior method to treat uncommon hereditary maladies; fixa solitary quality deformity by presenting a ‘right’ quality. The main qualitytreatment preliminaries were directed utilizing patients with uncommonmonogenetic issue, however these are presently dwarfed by the clinical testingof quality therapeutics for more typical conditions, for example, malignancy,AIDS and cardiovascular illness. This is halfway because of an inability toaccomplish long haul quality articulation with early vector frameworks, a basicprerequisite for amending numerous innate hereditary deformities. Presently, with the appearance ofadeno-relatedviral(AAV) and lent viral vectors, which show steady qualityarticulation in creature thinks about, this mechanical obstruction, may havebeen survived. These vectors are foreseen to shape the premise of numerous genetherapy protocols for acquired hereditary illnesses.

CellScience and Stem Cell Research

The extract derivedfrom the plant cell culture technology is being harnessed and utilized as anactive ingredient in anti-aging skincare products. In recent years, researchershave identified naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidantactivity proven to protect skin stem cells from UV-induced oxidative stress,inhibit inflammation, neutralize free radicals and reverse the effects ofphoto-aging by means ofanti-oxidantactivity. Consequently,cosmeceutical products containing plant stem cell derived extracts have theability to promote healthy cell proliferation and protect against UV-induced dermatological cellular damage in humans. In contrast to epidermal stem cells,plant stem cells are totipotent that they are capable of regenerating anentirely new, whole plant. Through innovative plant stem cell technology,scientists are able to extract tissue from botanicals and regenerate stem cells can be harnessed for use in humans. The use of stem cellsderived from botanicals plant, rather than human stem cells, avoids thecontroversy surrounding the source or methods of extraction of human stem cellswhile still harnessing the potential of these intriguing cells and its effectin anti-photo aging.

MolecularBasis of Epigenetics

Epigenetics refers to changes in a chromosomewhich has influence on gene activity and expression. It is also used todescribe any heritable phenotypic change that doesn’t derive from amodification of the chromosome such as prions.Epigeneticsis the mechanism for storing andperpetuating or continuing indefinitely a memory at the cellular level. Thebasic molecular epigenetic mechanisms that are widely studied at present regulation of chromatin structure of cell through histone post-translationalmodifications and covalent modification of DNA principally through the methodof DNA methylation. Chromatin is a dynamic structure that integrates potentially hundreds ofsignals from the cell surface and has effects of coordinated and appropriate transcriptional response in cell. It is increasingly clear that epigenetic marking ofchromatin and DNA itself is an important component of the cell signalintegration of entire function that is performed by the genome. Moreover, thechanges in the epigenetic state of chromatin in cell can have lasting effectson behavioral changes.

Geneticsand Stem Cell Biology

An undifferentiated mass of cell in amulticellular animal which is prepared for offering rise to uncertain number ofcells of a comparable sort, and from which certain diverse sorts of cell riseby detachment. Undifferentiated life forms can isolate into specific cell creates. Thetwo describing characteristics of an undifferentiated cell are endlessself-restoration and the ability to isolate into a specific adult. There aretwo critical classes of youthful microorganisms: pluripotent that can end upbeing any cell in the adult body, and multipotent that is kept to transforminginto more limited masses of cells.

Regulatoryand Safety Aspects of Cell and Gene Therapy

Celltreatment things require a combination of prosperity examinations.Comparable living being and quality things are heterogeneous substances. Thereare a few zones that particularly ought to be tended to as it is extremely notthe same as that of pharmaceuticals. These range from making group consistency,thing soundness to thing prosperity, quality and sufficiency throughpre-clinical, clinical examinations and displaying endorsement. This reviewplots the present headings/administers in US, EU, India and the relatedchallenges in making SCBP with highlight on clinical point.

Markets& Future Prospects for Cell & Gene Therapy

The immense number of associations related withcell treatment has extended development incredibly in the midst of the pastcouple of years. More than 500 associations have been recognized to be lockedin with cell treatment and 305 of these are profiled 291 co-tasks. Of theseassociations, 170 are related with fundamental microorganisms. The Profiles of72 academic establishments in the US related with cell treatment close by theirbusiness facilitated efforts. Allogeneicdevelopment with in excess of 350 clinical preliminaries is prepared toorder the commercialization of cell medicines in publicize. Advance R&D incell and quality treatment is depended upon to bloom given the normally basedpurposes of intrigue.


Cell biology is the investigation of cell andhow the cell capacities. Cell consist of numerous organelles that performparticular capacities and assume an imperative part in the development andgrowth of an organism. Cells are of 2 composes Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell. Case of aProkaryoticCellincorporates,Bacteria, then again Animal Cell and Plant Cell are portrayed as EukaryoticCells

Geneediting and CRISPR based technologies

CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced ShortPalindromic Repeats) Technology is a champion among the most fit yet clearmechanical assembly for genome changing. It urges and empowers investigators toeasily change DNA groupings and modify quality limits. It has various potentialapplications that join helping innate disseminates, treating and keeping thespread of diseases and improving yields. CRISPR broadly used as CRISPR-Cas9whereCRISPRsare particular stretches out of DNA andCas9 is the protein which is an aggravate that exhibitions like a few nuclearscissors, fit for cutting DNA strands. The assurance of CRISPR advancementanyway raises moral stresses as it isn’t 100% compelling. Regardless, the progressionof CRISPR-Cas9 has disturbed the designed science industry these days, being aclear and great quality changing device.

Genetics& Genomic Medicine

Genetics in Health and Disease in whichtherapy utilizesgenetics, imaging and biological indicators tounderstand predisposition to disease, what constitutes health during childhoodand throughout the life course. Gene and Protein Function are used to develop tools, skills and resources to elucidategene function and to inform development of new therapies using state-of the-arttechnologies. Personalized Medicine and Patient benefit is considered to ensurebasic science discoveries of disease mechanisms and patients genomes are usedto produce best effect to improve patients lives which include betterdiagnostics, identification of biomarkersand targeting of therapies.


Tissue Engineering or Bioengineering is the combinational usage of cells,Engineering, materials methods, suitable biochemical and physicochemicalfactors in order to improve or replace the infected biological tissues. Thefield includes the development of materials, devices,techniques to detect and differentiate disease states, the treatmentresponse, aid tissue healing, precisely deliver treatments to tissues or cells,signal early changes in health status, and provide implantable bio-artificialreplacement organs for recover or establish of healthy tissue. Techniquesdeveloped here identify and detect biomarkers of disease sub-types,progression, and treatment response, from tissue imaging to genetic testing andSingle cell analysis, that aid the more rapid development of new treatments andguide their clinical applications in treating the disorder. It includes theusage of computational modeling, bioinformatics, andquantitativepharmacologyto integratedata from diverse experimental and clinical sources to discover new drugs andspecific drug targets, as well as to design more efficient and informativepreclinical, clinical safety and efficacy studies.

Immunogenetics& Transplantation

Immunogenetics and Transplantation providesspecialized diagnostic services for allogeneic transplantation and related research. It provides support for blood, bonemarrow, kidney, pancreas, liver, heart, lung, small bowel andcorneatransplantation. Currently Immunogenetics& Transplantation is hot topic of discussion.


Biomarkersare evolving rapidly in the advance of personalized medicine and individualhealth. The identification & validation of biomarkers in drug discovery,development and in disease prognosis, diagnosis, prevention & treatmentplay an essential role in the genomic era.

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Genetherapy | Cell Therapy | Conferences | Events | 2019 …

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