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Category : Anti-Aging Medicine

The Right Chemistry: Looking for the secrets to longevity – Montreal Gazette

We cant avoid aging. Every passing minute brings us one minute closer to the end. Not a pleasant thought. So, it is little wonder that the term anti-aging has been seized by marketers of various cosmetics, health supplements, exotic juices and dietary regimens. Anti-aging medicine is a growing field with numerous biotech companies working on drugs designed to combat the aging process.

The quest for immortality, of course, is not new. The ancient alchemists sought to turn base metals like lead into gold in order to find the secret of golds immortality. After all, the metal would not tarnish, it maintained its beautiful sheen and seemed to last forever. If they could find its magic, they could perhaps apply it to humans. But they never did find the secret. Lead is still lead and the alchemists are long dead.

This is not to say that there are not some intriguing possibilities that may help slow down the clock. As we age, an increasing number of our cells enter a stage of senescence in which they no longer divide and begin to release chemicals that cause inflammation resulting in damage to tissues. A buildup of senescent cells, sometimes called zombie cells, is a hallmark of aging. Can anything be done to prevent this buildup? Possibly. At least in mice. When researchers at the Mayo Clinic injected just a small number of senescent cells into young mice, their speed, endurance and strength eroded to that seen in a senior mouse in just a few weeks. When the mice were then treated with desatinib and quercetin, a combination of drugs known to destroy senescent cells, they recovered most of their lost physical capabilities within two weeks! Quite dramatic! But mice are not people, and while quercetin is a safe compound extracted from apple peel, desatinib is a very expensive leukemia drug with loads of side effects. Still, this experiment is a proof of principle, demonstrating that destroying senescent cells with senolytics is worthy of exploration.

However, slowing aging may not be a matter of what we do, but what we dont do. It may be that if we want to live longer, all we have to do is eat less. Calorie restriction has been the only sure-fire way that scientists have found to slow aging in animals from rodents to monkeys and now we are beginning to accumulate data that suggests this applies to humans, as well. The idea that less is more when it comes to eating is not new. Hippocrates noted that fat people were more likely to die suddenly than slender ones, and Avicenna, the famed Persian philosopher and physician, suggested that the elderly should eat less than when they were younger.

Venetian nobleman Luigi Cornaro may have been the first to put a restricted calorie diet to a test in the 17th century when he came to believe that his health was deteriorating due to excessive partaking of food, drink and sex. He then restricted himself to no more than 350 grams of food a day and 400 mL of wine and lived to the ripe old age of 98. He documented his regimen in his book Discourses On the Temperate Life and described how the changes he made in his lifestyle allowed him to remain in vigorous health well into old age.

Today, members of the Calorie Restriction Society that has the goal of increasing longevity are following in Cornaros footsteps and are acting as human guinea pigs. They consume no more than 2,000 calories per day, which is just over half of what an average North American wolfs down. They dont do this, though, by eating half servings of hamburger, fries or pizza. They do it by following a diet high in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, beans and fish. And according to a study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, the austere regimen is paying off. Researchers examined the heart function of 25 members of the Calorie Restriction Society, and to their amazement found that the hearts functioned like those of people 15 years younger. But permanent hunger is not appealing.

What is appealing, however, is taking a deep dive into the science of aging. That is just what we will do this year at our annual Trottier Public Science Symposium, one of McGills largest annual public events. We have invited three expert speakers to address humans Longing for Longevity. On Tuesday, Oct. 22, Harvard Professor of Genetics David Sinclair, a world leader in aging research, will discuss how aging may be a treatable disease, and cosmetic chemist Kelly Dobos will scrutinize claims made by producers of anti-aging cosmetics. On Wednesday, Oct. 23, Ruth Westheimer, psychosexual therapist, author and pioneer of radio and television programs dealing with sexual issues will speak on Sex After 50. (Spoiler: there is.)

The symposium will take place at 7 p.m. both days at the Centre Mont Royal, 1000 Sherbrooke St. West. Admission is free. Arrive early.

joe.schwarcz@mcgill.ca

Joe Schwarcz is director of McGill Universitys Office for Science & Society (mcgill.ca/oss). He hosts The Dr. Joe Show on CJAD Radio 800 AM every Sunday from 3 to 4 p.m.

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The Right Chemistry: Looking for the secrets to longevity - Montreal Gazette

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Methylation Clocks and True Biological Age – ScienceBlog.com

The good news is that the DataBETA project has found a home. After several months of seeking a university partner, I am thrilled to be working with Moshe Szyfs lab at McGill School of Medicine. DataBETA is a broad survey of things people do to try to extend life expectancy, combined with evaluation of these strategies (and their interactions!) using the latest epigenetic clocks. Szyf was a true pioneer of epigenetic science, back in an era when epigenetics was not yet on any of our radar screens. No one has more experience extracting information from methylation data.

DataBETA is just the kind of study that is newly possible, now that methylation clocks have come of age. Studies of anti-aging interventions had been impractical in the past, because as long as the study depends on people dying of old age, it is going to take decades and cost $ tens of millions. Using methylation clocks to evaluate biological age shortcuts that process, potentially slashing the time by a factor of 10 and the cost by a factor of 100. But it depends critically on the assumption that the methylation clocks remain true predictors of disease and death when unnatural interventions are imposed. Is methylation an indicator, a passive marker of age? Or do changing methylation patterns cause aging?

Two types of methylation changes with age

Everyone agrees that methylation changes with age are the most accurate measure we have, by far, of a persons chronological ageand beyond this, the GrimAge clock and PhenoAge clock are actually better indications of a persons life expectancy and future morbidity than his chronological age.

Everyone agrees that methylation is a program under the bodys control. Epigenetic signals control gene expression, and gene expression is central to every aspect of the bodys metabolism, every stage of life history. Sure, there is a loss of focus in methylation patterns with age, sometimes called epigenetic drift. But there is also clearly directed change, and it is on the directed changes that methylation clocks are based.

But there are two interpretations of what this means. (1) There is the theory that aging is fundamentally an epigenetic program. Senescence and death proceed on an evolutionarily-determined time schedule, just as growth and development unfold via epigenetic programming at an earlier stage in life. Several prominent articles were written even before the first Horvath clock proposing this ideas [ref, ref], and I have been a proponent of this view from early on [ref]. If you think this way, then methylation changes are a root cause of aging, and restoring the body to a younger epigenetic state is likely to make the body younger.

(2) The other view, based on an evolutionary paradigm of purely individual selection, denies that programmed self-destruciton is a biological possibility. Since there is a program in late-life epigenetic changes, it must be a response and not a cause of aging. Aging is damage to the body at the molecular and cellular level. In response to this threat, the body is ramping up its repair and defense mechanisms, and this accounts for consistency of the methylation clock. In this view, setting back the methylation pattern to a younger state would be counter-productive. To do so is to shut off the bodys repair mechanisms and to shorten life expectancy.

So, if you believe (1) then setting back the bodys methylation clock leads to longer life, but if you believe (2) then setting back the bodys methylation clock leads to shorter life.

I think there is good reason to support the first interpretation (1). Epigenetics is fundamentally about gene expression. If you drill down to specific changes in gene expression with age, you find that glutathione, CoQ10=ubiquinone, SOD and other antioxidant defenses are actually dialed down in late life when we need them more. You find that inflammatory cytokines like NFB are ramped up, worsening the chronic inflammation that is our prominent enemy with age. You find that protective hormones like pregnenolone are shut off, while damaging hormones like LH and FSH are sky high in women when, past menopause, they have no use for them. There is a method in this madness, and the method appears to be self-destruction.

Until this year, I have been very comfortable with this argument, and comfortable promoting the DataBETA study, which is founded in the premise that setting back the methylation clock is our best indicator of enhanced life expectancy. The thing that made me start to question was the story of Lu and Horvaths GrimAge clock, which I blogged about back in March.

The GrimAge clock is the best predictor of mortality and morbidity currently available, and it was built not directly on a purely statistical analysis of direct associations with m&m, but based on indirect associations with such things as inflammatory markers and smoking history. (This is a really interesting story, and I suggest you go back and read the March entry if you have not already. The story has been told in this way nowhere else.)

(Please be patient, Im getting to the point.) Years of smoking leave an imprint on the bodys methylation patterns, and this imprint (but not the smoking history itself) is part of the GrimAge clock. I asked myself, How does smoking shorten life expectancy? I have always assumed that smoking damages the lungs, damages the arteries, damages the bodys chemistry. Smoking shortens lifespan not through instructions imprinted in the epigenetic program, but quite directly through damaging the bodys tissues. Therefore, the epigenetic shadow of smoker-years that contributes to the GrimAge clock is not likely to be programmed aging of type (1), but rather programmed protection, type (2).

For me, this realization marked a crisis. I have begun to worry that setting back the methylation clock does not always contribute positively to life expectancy. The canonical example is that if we erased the bodys protective response to the damage incurred by smoking, we would not expect the smoker to live longer.

The bottom line

I now believe there are two types of methylation changes with age. I remain convinced that type (1) predominates, and that setting these markers to a younger state is a healthy thing to do, and that it offers genuine rejuvenation. But there are also some type (2) changes with agehow common they are, I do not knowand we want to be careful not to set these back to a younger, less protected state.

The methylation clocks promise a new era in medical research on aging, an era in which we can know what works without waiting decades to detect mortality differences between test and control groups. But it is only type (1) methylation changes that can be used in this way. So it is an urgent research priority to distinguish between these two types of directed changes.

This is a difficult problem, because the obvious research method would be to follow many people with many different methylation patterns for many decadesexactly the slow and costly process that the methylation clocks were going to help us avoid. My first hunch is that we might find a shortcut experimenting with cell cultures. Using CRISPR, we can induce methylation changes one-at-a-time in cell lines and then assess changes in the transcriptome, and with known metabolic chemistry, make an educated guess whether these changes are likely to be beneficial or the opposite. As stated, this probably will not work because methylation on CpGs tends to work not via individual sites but on islands that are typically ~1,000 base pairs in length. Perhaps changes in the transcriptome can be detected when we intervene to methylate or demethylate an entire CpG island.

Perhaps there is a better way. I invite suggestions from people who know more biology than I know for experimental ways to distinguish type (1) from type (2) methylation changes with age.

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Methylation Clocks and True Biological Age - ScienceBlog.com

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Pick Up the Pace: Walking More Quickly May Improve Your Health – Healthline

Share on PinterestResearchers say people who walk more quickly tend to have better cognitive and overall health. Getty Images

When it comes to long-term health of the body and the brain, that old nudge Grandma used to give you may just have powerful implications: Put a little pep in your step.

A 40-year research study published in the journal JAMA Network Open finds that lifelong walking speed may have a direct link to overall health and cognitive function.

In the study, slower walkers were shown to have accelerated aging on a 19-measure scale devised by researchers.

In addition, their lungs, teeth, and immune systems tended to be in worse shape than the people who walked more quickly.

Cognitive function and deterioration was linked to slower walking as well.

The data is from a study of nearly 1,000 people who were born during a single year in Dunedin, New Zealand.

The research participants have been tested, quizzed, and measured their entire lives, mostly recently from April 2017 to April 2019 at age 45.

According to Line J.H. Rasmussen, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in the Duke University Department of Psychology & Neuroscience and the Clinical Research Centre at Copenhagen University Hospital Amager and Hvidovre in Copenhagen, Denmark, and a lead researcher on the study, what fascinated the team most was that long-term cognitive outcomes seem to connect directly to gait speed in children as young as 3 years old.

Since childhood brain health already at the age of 3 years was associated with walking speed at midlife, it looks like the early life function of the brain could affect the long-term function of the body and thus the walking speed, Rasmussen told Healthline.

A most remarkable finding was that we could predict how fast they walked at midlife by a childhood assessment of their neurocognitive functions at age 3. There was a difference of 12 IQ points on average between children who grew up to be the slowest (mean gait speed 1.21 meters per second) and fastest (mean gait speed 1.75 meters per second) walkers 4 decades later. Gait speed is not only an indicator of aging, but also an indicator of lifelong brain health, she said.

What does this mean?

For the research community and those who study and treat both the aging population and all ages of neurological patients, its a little bit of we knew this and a lot of lets look at this more.

For Rasmussen and her co-researchers, the next step is to dig deeper, specifically looking at the chicken-or-the-egg aspect of all this.

Did a less healthy brain cause slower gait in life, or does having a slower gait lead to the decreased health?

[We want to] find out if poor cognitive function causes the slow walking speed and accelerated aging, she said.

They also want to link with other researchers to find ways to apply this knowledge to current practices.

We would like to see whether gait could be used as a simple way to test the effect of anti-aging treatments, she said.

Rasmussen notes there are randomized trials of preventive treatments for middle-aged people who are still well.

Those trials could use gait as a test to see if the experimental treatments are helping, she said.

So, whats a person to do with this information?

Its not a huge surprise that your lifelong habits influence your lifelong physical function, Michael J. Ormsbee, PhD, FACSM, FISSN, CSCS, associate professor in the department of nutrition, food, and exercise sciences and associate director of the Institute of Sports Sciences & Medicine at Florida State University, told Healthline.

The bottom line to me is one, be active; two, start early; and three, never stop. Lets work on using exercise as medicine and applying this to the early years, rather than later in life, he said.

Ormsbee sees a possible immediate actionable item from this study as well.

It is also interesting that perhaps gait speed could be used as a very easy (at-home even) test to do and gauge health, he said.

Walking speed has long been used as a measure of health and aging in older patients, but whats new in this study is the relative youth of these study participants and the ability to see how walking speed matches up with health measures the study has collected during their lives.

Applying this to testing, both in home and medical offices, could help pinpoint possible issues and bring in intervention sooner.

Predicting future health would be huge for overall health and economic burden, Ormsbee said.

While the study authors work to dig deeper and look at things such as socioeconomic background, lifestyle habits, and other issues, the general public can take easy action, Ormsbee says.

He says its never a bad idea to move more, and move more quickly, at any age.

Its never too late (or too soon) to move more, he said.

But he also adds that people should still remember to stop and smell the roses.

In other words, move at a healthy pace but remember to savor this life as well.

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Pick Up the Pace: Walking More Quickly May Improve Your Health - Healthline

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Everything you need to know about Bakuchiol a smart alternative to Retinol – Dazed

In our on-going quest for perfect skin, Retinol has been considered a bit of a hero product. A derivative of vitamin A, Retinol helps boost collagen production and aids in cell turnover thus helping reduce everything from wrinkles and sunspots to acne and uneven skin, making it a favourite of everyone fromFrank Oceanto AOC.

However, Retinol can also often cause irritation and dryness, especially for those with sensitive skin, and those who suffer from rosacea, eczema, or psoriasis are advised to steer clear. Not to worry though, there is a new ingredient in town which boasts all of the benefits of Retinol without any of the irritants. Introducing: Bakuchiol.

Pronounced buh-koo-chee-ol, Bakuchiol is a plant-based derivative of the babchi plant (psoralea corylifolia). For years, the babchi plant has been widely used in Ayurvedic medicine (a thousands year old holistic healing system originating in India) to treat a variety of illnesses from indigestion to scorpion poisoning, and now new research has emerged that shows Bakuchiol mimics the effects of Vitamin A when used in skincare.

In 2018, a study published by the British Journal of Dermatology reported that: Bakuchiol is comparable with retinol in its ability to improve photoageing and is better tolerated than retinol. Concluding that: Bakuchiol is promising as a more tolerable alternative to retinol.

Not only is Bakuchiol is anti-aging, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory, with the potential to treat acne and hyper-pigmentation, critically, it also does without the less than ideal side effects of Retinol such as redness, burning, skin irritation and dryness.

With all those benefits plus a few additional ones Bakuchiol is suitable for vegans and safe for use during pregnancy, unlike Retinol this new hero ingredient is on its way to holy grail status. Here weve rounded up some of the best products on the market right now.

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Everything you need to know about Bakuchiol a smart alternative to Retinol - Dazed

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Doctor launches the first online clinic dedicated to using common drugs for a different purpose: to slow aging – CNBC

Dr. Zalzala hopes to serve the growing market of people interested in anti-aging treatments.

One of the many wild medical pursuits in Silicon Valley is the effort to slow down the aging process. Sajad Zalzala is trying to make it a reality.

Zalzala, a 38-year-old family medicine doctor based in the Detroit area, has just opened an online clinic called Qalytude, dedicated to anti-aging. As a physician licensed to practice in all 50 states, Zalzala can treat patients anywhere in the country by phone or online, in addition to those who visit his physical clinic.

Initially, Zalzala will be targeting the small but growing segment of Americans who take medicines like Metformin, a type 2 diabetes drug, but for the unintended purpose of staving off aging. Researchers are now finding evidence of reduced cancer risk in the drug, and studies in mice have shown potential for an improved life span, but scientists warn that it might not produce the same result in humans.

"There's this movement around Metformin that I could see having a snowball effect," Zalzala told CNBC.

He's jumping into a market for anti-aging services, products and technologies that's expected to reach $271 billion by 2024, according to Market Research Engine. Venture capital funds are dabbling in the space as are billionaires like Jeff Bezos and biohackers, who experiment with drugs and supplements for health and longevity purposes.

Zalzala said that only a few clinicians are trained in this field, and they're highly costly to see and often backed up with patients. Many primary care physicians won't prescribe Metformin to people who don't have diabetes until they better understand whether it's safe.

Zalzala's goal is to make it easier for people interested in drugs like Metformin to talk to a physician. He plans to hire a team of doctors to conduct research into Metformin and other drugs both their safety and efficacy and prescribe them virtually to patients while monitoring them for side effects.

Having previously worked for a handful of virtual medical companies, including Hims and Pill Club, Zalzala is familiar with the model. Hims and Roman are among companies that have sprung up in recent years to help people get medications for erectile dysfunction and hair loss, the types of things that patients are often embarrassed to discuss with a family doctor. Other companies are prescribing medication virtually for birth control, sexual health and prevention, anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Some of these companies require that patients talk to their doctor via video, while others request only that the user fill out a survey. The laws that govern how engaged a physician must be in the process vary by state.

For an area like anti-aging, a medical expert needs to be highly involved in the process.

These drugs "always must be prescribed by a doctor," said Lisa Suennen, managing director of digital and technology at the law firm Manatt, Phelps and Phillips. "Any drug can be dangerous if it is mixed with something contraindicated," and it's especially important to be cautious when they're being used "for claims that aren't fully vetted."

The side effects for Metformin include diarrhea, low blood sugar and abdominal pain, as well as a condition called lactic acidosis that involves excessive acid building up in the body. It also still isn't well understood whether the drug will provide benefits to healthy people, particularly those who exercise regularly.

Another medicine Zalzala is exploring is rapamycin, which has an immunosuppressant function and is useful in helping patients avoid rejected transplanted kidneys. He's also looking into so-called NAD booster patches. Both interventions are starting to get tested in the Silicon Valley tech community for their anti-aging effects, even though there are health risks.

Zalzala said he intends to be especially conservative with these untested therapies, but he didn't rule out the possibility of prescribing them. He said that he will recommend lifestyle and dietary changes and not just pills.

"Most of us don't have the perfect lifestyle," he said. "So I'm hoping to add an extra layer of protection."

WATCH: Tech, health care will continue to lead the market

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Doctor launches the first online clinic dedicated to using common drugs for a different purpose: to slow aging - CNBC

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Dr. Monica Jacob Obesity Consultant and Anti-Aging Physician in Mumbai – The India Saga

By TIS Staffer 09 Oct 2019

Dr. Monica Jacob is MBBS, M.D (Bom), She is an Aesthetic physician, Obesity Consultant, and Anti-Aging Physician.

She has been practicing for 16 years. She completed her M.B.B.S from J.J Group of hospitals, Grant medical college (Mumbai) in 1999, M.D. from TNMC, Nair medical college (Mumbai).

DPB from C.P.S in 2002.Diploma in aesthetic dermatology (American academy of aesthetic medicines), Nutrition & Diet planning (Australia, gold coast academy), Hair transplantation (American Acadamy of Aesthetic medicines), Anti-ageing medicine- hormones.

Her clinic offers the latest technologies for the treatment of various skin and hair ailments.

Dr. Monica Jacob is an amazing doctor. She is so vibrant and her good attitude is infectious. She is thorough and meticulous in her job. She is very friendly & equally professional. She helped her patients in understanding the reasons for the skin issues & also explained in detail various treatment procedures to address the same. In fact, Various patients highly recommended her.

Easy Remedies that she tells to Follow

1.Protect your skin from the sun every day. ...

2.Apply self-tanner rather than get a tan. ...

3.If you smoke, stop. ...

4.Avoid repetitive facial expressions. ...

5.Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet. ...

6.Drink less alcohol. ...

7.Exercise most days of the week. ...

8.Cleanse your skin gently.

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Dr. Monica Jacob Obesity Consultant and Anti-Aging Physician in Mumbai - The India Saga

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Push-ups? Here’s what can really help you live to a ripe old age – The Australian Financial Review

The problem with any of these approaches is that you would just be training for a particular test, which misses the point. It's not the push-up itself that makes you live longer; it's that you are still strong and nimble enough to execute one.

What these tests have in common is they're good shorthand of things that matter for longevity: overall health, fitness and muscle strength. A fit person walks faster than someone out of shape, and getting up off the floor is tricky for people with weak bones and muscles.

"Frailty is a really bad thing starting in middle age, and even worse as you get older," says Michael Joyner, a physician and human physiology researcher at the Mayo Clinic.

One way to think of longevity is "not as some magic property of a body, but as the lucky state of not having a fatal disease", says Steve Cole, professor of medicine and psychiatry and bio-behaviouralsciences at the UCLA School of Medicine. "By and large, people don't die of being old; they die of disease." Therefore, the study of longevity is a way of looking at disease risk or the rate of disease development, he says.

Over the years, various drugs and nutritional supplements have been studied for their potential to help us live longer, but nothing has been shown to work in humans to the extent that would be required for the Food and Drug Administration's approval, says Gordon Lithgow, chief academic officer at the California-based Buck Institute for Research on Aging.

While researchers continue searching for a pill to extend life, you'll have to try these verified methods.

The most powerful way to promote longevity and improve your long-term health is also simple and, depending on how you do it, free.

"There's no question that exercise is the biggest anti-ageing medicine there's ever going to be - it's really huge," Lithgow says.

"Hands down, nothing compares to exercise," says Laura Carstensen, founding director of the Stanford Center on Longevity. "The great thing is that most people can do it, and you don't need 10,000 steps per day to get the benefits." It takes remarkably little exercise to get longevity benefits.

Even 10 to 15 minutes a day provides measurable rewards, says Michael Joyner, a physician and human physiology researcher at the Mayo Clinic. Going from sedentary to even just a bit of exercise is where you get the biggest payoffs. The health benefits - such as reducing your risk of heart disease and diabetes - increase with greater amounts of exercise, until you get to about an hour of exercise per day. After that, the rewards start to level off.

"Almost anyone doing more than that is doing it for things other than health," Joyner says.

Go ahead and train for that Ironman if that's what you want, but if you're exercising for health and longevity, you don't need to run a marathon. Work by Iowa State University epidemiologist Duck-Chul Lee suggests that even running a little less than 10 minutes a day could decrease your mortality risk by about 30 per cent.

But you don't have to run. Walking or other moderate activities are just as good if you're looking for a longevity boost.

Some of the early evidence for the heart benefits of moderate exercise came from studies in the 1950s by British epidemiologist Jeremy Morris showing that conductors on double-decker buses, who spent their shifts walking up and down, had lower rates of coronary heart disease and thus lived longer than bus drivers who spent their workday sitting. Since then, studies showing the cardiovascular benefits of exercise have been "incredibly consistent", Joyner says.

But there's more. Physical activity also reduces the risk of diabetes, which one study found shaved six years off life expectancy.

And it keeps your brain healthy, too. "Exercise has better effects on cognitive performance than sitting around playing brain games," Carstensen says. A 2006 study in Neuroscience found that exercise spurs the brain to release growth factors that promote new connections between neurons, keeping the brain healthy. There's even research suggesting that strength training can reverse some age-related changes in your muscles.

There seems to be something about keeping an active lifestyle, too.

When you look at centenarians as a group, they might not be Arnold Schwarzeneggers, but they typically maintain a high level of physical function, says author Bill Gifford, who interviewed quite a few of them while writing his book, Spring Chicken: Stay Young Forever (Or Die Trying). "They can go up and down stairs, probably because they never stopped going up and down stairs," Gifford says.

His research for the book spurred him to make sure he was exercising at least a little bit every day.

Extend your life span while you sleep. It sounds like a bad infomercial, but it turns out that sleeping well is a good way to keep your body healthy for the long haul. Sleep is a time when your brain gets caught up on maintenance. In 2013, a team led by Maiken Nedergaard at the University of Rochester Medical Center published a study in Science concluding that sleep helps the brain clear out metabolic waste that accumulated during waking hours, providing a kind of restorative maintenance.

Skimp on sleep, and you hinder this important work.

If you've ever missed a night of slumber, you know that sleep deprivation hampers your mood and makes it hard to think clearly, but it can have severe consequences for your metabolic health, as well. Take someone who needs seven hours of sleep a night and restrict them to only five hours of shut-eye for five nights and they experience metabolic changes that look a lot like diabetes, says Satchidananda Panda, who studies circadian biology at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

Indeed, numerous studies have shown that sleep deprivation can decrease insulin sensitivity - a measure of how well your body regulates blood sugar - and increase your risk of diabetes. A 2015 meta-analysis found that Type 2 diabetes risk was higher in people who sleep less than seven hours or more than nine hours, compared with people who got seven to eight hours a night.

So why is sleeping more than nine hours associated with greater mortality? "People who sleep 14 hours per day are probably not healthy," Carstensen says, but it's hard to say right now whether it's possible to get too much sleep. Most people are on the other end of the spectrum.

Regularly sleeping too long may indicate a health problem

The consensus among sleep researchers is that seven to eight hours of sleep is ideal, but that's just a best guess based on the current data, Carstensen says.

"The biggest problem is that most of the data is self-reported and people are really bad at that," Carstensen says.

The advent of sleep trackers can help with the measurements, but they aren't always accurate, so avoid fixating too much on the exact numbers or you may end up in a cycle of anxiety that prevents you from sleeping. The problem is common enough that researchers have coined a term for it - orthosomnia.

Don't make a habit of skimping on sleep during the week with the idea that you'll catch up on the weekends. It doesn't take many nights of short sleep to reduce insulin sensitivity, and a small study published this year in Current Biology found that recouping on sleep over the weekend didn't entirely make up for the metabolic problems that developed during sleep deprivation. Furthermore, when volunteers in the study were given the opportunity to catch up on sleep over the weekend, they ended up shifting their body clocks so that it became harder to get up on Monday morning.

(Getting enough sleep every night might also improve your work life. In the throes of writing his book, Gifford made a decision to start prioritising sleep over work. His deadline was fast approaching, and he'd been getting up early and staying up late. Allowing his body to sleep as long as it needed to led to a "radical transformation in my ability to write", Gifford says. "I'd been trying to work 14 hours per day, and then suddenly I was getting twice as much done in six or seven hours.")

Forget all those headlines you've seen about "anti-ageing diets" and anti-aging "superfoods".

"These notions are generally not supported by science," Lithgow says. That's not to say diet isn't important, only that "nutrition is just a very difficult science", he says.

Severely restricting calories in lab animals makes them live longer, but "it's not clear that it works in humans", Lithgow says. Although there's plenty of evidence that it's not good to overeat, he says, whether drastically limiting food intake can extend life in people remains an open question. The joke, of course, is that calorie restriction will surely make your life seem longer.

It might be possible to get some of the benefits of calorie restriction without giving up so much food. Intriguing work by Panda suggests that restricting the timing of when you eat, rather than the amount, might provoke some of the healthy metabolic changes that reduce the risk of diabetes. Most of these studies have been done in mice, however, and Panda acknowledges that the human studies are small.

Although Panda is confident enough in the results to have written a book, The Circadian Code, which includes instructions on how to try it, some scepticism is warranted, Joyner says.

"Time-restricted eating has shown some interesting results in small studies," Joyner says, but "will it be sustainable over time in the real world? This is important because most dietary strategies work only if they are adhered to."

He says he wonders whether the metabolic benefits that Panda has found with time-restricted eating is really about the timing or simply related to people eating less when their dining hours are restricted. One thing shown repeatedly in anti-ageing studies is that things that initially look like magic bullets never live up to their initial hype, Joyner says.

What does seem clear, however, is that metabolic health is important for long-term health, because it keeps diabetes in check and that insulin sensitivity in particular appears crucial.

Given what we know right now, a Mediterranean diet - with its heart-healthy emphasis on fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts, healthy fats like olive oil, whole grains and limited consumption of red meat - "is probably the best approach for improving longevity", Carstensen says.

But the benefits are pretty modest. If you hate eating that way, then the payoff probably won't feel worth it to you, she says. At least try to eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

The idea of red wine as a health elixir became popular in the 1980s with the observation that rates of coronary heart disease were low in France, despite the predominance of a diet relatively high in fat and cholesterol. The French penchant for a glass of red wine with dinner was proposed as an explanation for this "French Paradox", popularisingthe notion of red wine as heart helper.

Subsequent studies have indeed found that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, and a two-year randomisedclinical trial in Israel showed that people with Type 2 diabetes who were assigned to drink a glass of red wine with dinner every night experienced some improvements in blood markers associated with cardiovascular disease risk.

But other studies suggest that alcohol may raise the risk of many cancers, and a report published last year in the journal Lancet concluded that there's no amount of alcohol that improves health. What gives?

"Alcohol studies are very much like nutrition studies - based almost exclusively on self-reports, and we know that people are really bad at self-reporting," Carstensen says. "Most people, when they say they're drinking two drinks per day, are probably consuming more. We don't know the amounts that people are consuming nor do we know what else they do."

There's some evidence that people who abstain from alcohol are sicker or less healthy than those who imbibe a little.

"That probably reflects not a lack of alcohol in their system, but something about their world - that they're sick or isolated or don't have friends to meet at the pub," Carstensen says. "I've never seen a study that's really controlled for all of those factors." Which means that the studies calculating the health consequences of alcohol consumption depend on consumption figures that are inherently unreliable and may fail to account for other factors that could be at play.

Drinking to excess - more than one or two drinks a day - is unhealthy, and will take a toll on your longevity - no doubt about it. But taking the published studies together, "I don't think we have a lot of evidence that moderate alcohol is bad for you," Carstensen says. At the same time, she'd "be very hesitant to recommend that people who don't drink should start".

In today's world, it's easy to live in a state of chronic stress, and the problem isn't just that stress feels lousy. It also makes you more susceptible to diseases that could shorten your life.

Researchers are now learning that many conditions associated with older age - such as cancer, heart attacks and Alzheimer's disease - share a common ingredient: inflammation.

Under normal conditions, inflammation is simply the body's response to injury - it's how the body heals cuts and wounds and other insults, Cole says. "Inflammation by itself is not inherently evil." But when we're feeling chronically threatened or under siege, our bodies amp up their inflammatory machinery to ready our biological response to injury, and that inadvertently fuels the development of an array of age-related diseases, where inflammation is a common fertiliser, Cole says.

Research has identified chronic stresses that can provoke harmful biological changes, including living in poverty, caregiving for a dying spouse, losing a loved one, suffering post-traumatic stress disorder, and experiencing prejudice.

"Any way of feeling threatened or insecure seems to be enough to activate the body to produce more inflammation," Cole says. "This is one of the best defined connections between the world as we experience it and how we end up generating a body that's a fertile ground for the development of these diseases."

Your chance of developing chronic inflammation also rises with the passing years. "Inflammation seems to be a general sign of aging, where our inflammatory processes are being turned on or accumulated," Lithgow says. "Age-related inflammation is very much like inflammation from an injury, but now it's coming on without a source of infection."

What's the antidote? "Obviously we should all just be happy," Cole says with a laugh, as if it were that easy. He knows that it's not and says you probably can't eliminate stress from your life, but you can find ways to manage it. Identify the recurring stressors in your life, and work on a plan to diffuse them.

Wellness strategies such as yoga, tai chi and meditation can reliably help diffuse stress, Cole says, although he acknowledges that they often don't make a huge difference.

Forging connections with other people has been found to be a powerful way to manage stress and improve your overall wellbeing.

"People who report having stronger relationships live longer than people who are socially isolated," Carstensen says. A meta-analysis published in 2015 calculated that loneliness and social isolation were associated with 29 per cent and 26 per cent increases in mortality risk, respectively, and living alone was linked to a 32 per cent increase risk of dying.

What's clear is that people who have a strong sense of purpose and meaning in their lives have a markedly lower risk of death than those who don't.

"How we can bottle that and make it useful is more of a challenge," says Cole, who has studied loneliness and longevity.

Telling a lonely person to stop being lonely doesn't work, Cole says, "but if you can go to the lonely person and say, 'Hey, we really need your help. Is there anything you can do to help others?' - that is incredibly powerful. The mechanism here seems to be turning attention away from yourself and your own suffering and toward a community or cause greater than yourself."

Centenarians tend to have a sense of purpose in their lives.

"It's really important that people who are entering the later phases of life have a clear purpose, something to get up for every day," Lithgow says. That thing can be anything from looking after a grandchild or working or tending a garden.

Many centenarians continued working into their 80s, 90s and beyond, Lithgow says, and usually these jobs are in environments where they interact with younger people.

Interacting with other generations can keep older people engaged, and some retirement communities and nursing facilities are now taking steps to give their residents opportunities to connect with kids - for instance, placing kindergarten classrooms in nursing homes.

Most of the proven tips for living a long, healthy life are not products that you buy, but good lifestyle habits that you adopt (or bad ones, such as smoking, that you either quit or never take up and are clearly associated with diminished longevity).

Even something as simple as always wearing a seat belt can reduce your chances of dying early. Most of the things that make up a longevity lifestyle are simple - exercise, eat (and drink) healthily, sleep adequately, stay engaged - if only people would do them.

"To me, the bottom line is: Live a reasonably moderate life and you'll be OK," Carstensen says.

Washington Post

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Ingredient Spotlight on Snow Mushroom – Truth In Aging

Snow mushroom or tremella fuciformis (also known as snow fungus, snow ear, silver ear fungus and white jelly mushroom) starts out as a slimy, mucous-like film until it encounters its preferred hosts. Then it grows into an ethereally pretty white cloud that is gaining a well-deserved reputation in anti-aging skincare.

Tremella is one of natures natural sponges. It is said that it can hold 500 times its weight in water.This is about half as much as hyaluronic acid, which behaves in a similar way to draw in moisture and retain it. But snow mushroom has so much more going for it than hyaluronic.

For a start, snow mushroom can create a flexible hydration film that helps to restore dry skin to its optimally hydrated state. The molecular size of the extract is smaller than hyaluronic acid (a notoriously clunky molecule) and this means it can penetrate the skin more easily.

Then this shroom just keeps getting better. Scientists have demonstrated that it exhibits potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects. Wondering why, they discovered that snow mushroom protects fibroblasts via the upregulation of SIRT1 expression. This has to do with sirtuins, which regulate the activity of the genes responsible for metabolism, cell defense and reproduction. When food is scarce, the body's sirtuins go into self-preservation mode. So giving your sirtuins a boost is a good thing.

Tremella fuciformis is a traditional nutritional food in China and is used as a traditional Chinese medicine and dietary supplement. Recent studies have indicated that the medicinal and tonic properties of tremella fuciformisare due to its polysaccharides, which are anti-inflammatory. Polysaccharides in skincare also reduce transepidermal water loss, protecting the skin barrier function.

Researchers have also demonstrated that snow mushroom oxidative stress and apoptosis in skin fibroblasts in a concentration-dependent manner and possessed excellent antioxidative properties. (source). It also efficiently reduced water and collagen loss in the skin and inhibited the increase of glycosaminoglycans.

A few other claims are less well documented (at least not that I can find), but Ill record that snow mushroom has also been shown to inhibit melanin production by 59.7%. It is also said to be comprised of over 18 kinds of amino acids and is a source of vitamin D.

Find tremella in hMSC Skincare Amplify ($160 in the shop), Cannatera Renew Facial Moisturizer ($69 in the shop), Cannatera Revive Serum ($79 in the shop), and Dr. Dennis Gross Alpha Beta Pore Perfecting Cleansing Gel ($32 in the shop)

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Teresa Sievers: The life behind the murder victim – Wink News

FORT MYERS

While you may know her face and you probably know the name, who was Dr. Teresa Sievers before she was a murder victim?

Ladies, remember when walking into a room meant turning heads? said Teresa in a YouTube video. You had that glowing skin, in-shape body. Didnt you feel sexy and confident?

Teresa was used to commanding attention. She was always dressed to perfection, always in heels and her middle name was literally Grace.

She was a tiny thing like you and just as cute as a bugs ear, said a former patient, Marian Ziegler-McAfee. Uplifting, positive, full of energy, a dynamo, a dynamo in a tiny package.

Teresa was only 411. When patients like Marian got to know her, they appreciated her, even loved her.

Several people said that she was like the Oprah Winfrey of Florida, Marian said. That she was that popular.

MORE:Teresa Sievers murder trial pushed back, date undecided

Teresa grew up in Connecticut. She was her high school valedictorian and later on graduated medical school with honors. When the new doctor moved to Charleston, she met her first husband, Kenny Cousins.

I believe this is the sort of person you might meet once in your life, Kenny said. When I met Theresa, she was doing clinical research in South Carolina. Some of the ways that we connected certainly love of the outdoors, the ocean, music, food and really having a good time. The real kind of a work hard, play hard ethic.

The pair moved to Saint Pete where Teresa worked at an outpatient clinic in a disadvantaged part of town.

She didnt think it was fair that she would have to have two or 3,000 patients, Kenny said. She could literally only spend 15 minutes with each of those patients.

MORE:Attorneys motion contains disturbing detail of Sievers murder

Three years after they married, Teresa and Kenny divorced. But Kenny said they remained dear friends. Even when Teresa remarried to Mark Sievers a few months later, they kept in touch, emailing monthly a couple of short lines with life updates.

She really felt restricted to be a doctor and thats one of the reasons when she got remarried to Mark, Kenny said. They bought a practice in the Fort Myers area where she wasnt taking medical insurance because it sort of lifted that burden.

It was a calling she had and she fulfilled it in an exceptional way. It was not a 15-minute visit; it was an hour and a half a visit, Marian said. Im grateful that I got that in this lifetime. Thats how rare she is.

For her patients, her medicine lives on in a series of videos on a YouTube channel, which focuses mainly on anti-aging. Many women turned to her for help through menopause. It was a group of women she was talking to when she said something that now has the kind of irony that makes you think.

I dont know about you, but Im not ready for post-mortem, said Teresa in a YouTube video. I want to enjoy my life like it is now.

MORE:From dreams to nightmare, key witness describes life before, after Sievers killing

Teresa had a beautiful life or at least that is how it looked.

Almost a year to the day after that video was uploaded, Teresa was murdered. She came back early from a family trip while Mark and their two daughters stayed in Connecticut.

Teresa rolled her suitcase into an attack in her kitchen.

Is she awake? the dispatcher said.

No she is dead on the floor, the caller said. Shes cold. The back of her head is bashed in and there is blood everywhere.

WINK News Anchor Amanda Hall first interviewed Kenny in 2015, shortly after the killing.

I mean my God shes 411 and defenseless and by herself, Kenny said. If there were problems in their marriage, why couldnt they just get divorced?

As Mark awaits trial for plotting his wifes murder, Kenny wants people to focus on how special she was.

This is the Teresa. This is the person that I know. This is the person that I care about and respect and honor, Kenny said. I really want people to understand this is a loving, kind, caring nurturing mother and physician. This is a person that wanted to and I believe made an impact on everyones life that she touched.

Will he ever find peace? Teresa may have answered that best in one of her YouTube videos.

Is it a guarantee? Teresa said. No. Theres no guarantees in life.

Its hard to find peace knowing that somebody that you know and love and care about and you always want the best for has been taken this way, Kenny said. I havent been able to get my arms around any of that yet. I dont know if I ever will.

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EastGate Biotech Announces Expansion and Restructuring of Joint Venture with its Partner in Pakistan – GlobeNewswire

Key products to be tested, registered and marketed include Insugin for diabetes application, alternative insulin for Alzheimers application, and Blood Plasma Derived Products, Human Serum Albumin 20%

WEST CALDWELL, NJ and TORONTO, ON, Oct. 09, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- via NEWMEDIAWIRE -- EastGate Biotech Corp. (OTC: PINK: ETBI), a pharmaceutical company that focuses on innovative technological developments specifically in insulin drug delivery for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, announced today that it has restructured its Joint Venture Agreement in Pakistan. The rationale behind the restructuring was to initiate a branding campaign that expanded the purpose of the Joint Venture beyond Insugin. An independent company called EastGate Biotech Pakistan was established by the local partner with the same ownership structure of 51% held by EastGate Biotech and 49% held by EastGate Biotech Pakistan.

The objectives and activities of the Joint Venture Agreement include:

Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is made of plasma proteins from human blood. It is one of the primary components of blood and typically extracted from expired blood. This medicine works by increasing plasma volume or levels of albumin in the blood. HSA is used to replace blood volume loss resulting from trauma or an injury that causes blood loss.

The global plasma fractionation market is projected to reach $29.5 Billion by 2023 from $21.23 billion in 2018. Blood Fractionation is a critical, essential, and even a matter of national security to every country that wants to be independent of import and reliance on a single local producer.

We are pleased to solidify our relationship with our local JV partner, said Anna Gluskin, CEO of EastGate Biotech. Our local partner initially approached us with the idea of branding the EastGates name for our innovative delivery of Insugin for diabetes treatment, but then wanted to expand it to include the Alzheimers indication. Both parties realized there is greater value in developing a brand versus just one product. So the inclusion of the opportunity to register blood plasma derived products to the Joint Venture pipeline fits our strategy of creating greater shareholder value. This restructuring has increased the revenue potential for EastGate and long term profitability for all of our stakeholders.

EastGate has an incredible delivery platform, said COO, Bill Abajian. Once this proprietary technology is demonstrated on a commercial scale there is little doubt that many large and territorial pharmaceutical companies will want to possess it. Licensing has always been a key part of our strategy and formulating new methods of delivery is a key maneuver in big pharmas playbook for their own product pipeline. The Pakistani JV Agreement has clear objectives which focus on products with massive potential, but only require a small market penetration rate in order for EastGate to recognize substantial revenues which lead to greater valuations. We ultimately look to strengthen our pathways for both a robust financial scenario for EastGate or for strategic M&A partnerships.

We look forward to boosting the awareness of EastGate Biotech as an innovative company, said CEO of EastGate Biotech Pakistan, Nasir Irfat. Our overall plan is to start with our own alternative insulin products and build a solid foundation and brand name. We believe the oral insulin mouth rinse could reach blockbuster status at which point we would hope to attract other innovative products that are in high demand. It gives me great pleasure to introduce EastGate Biotech to the Blood Plasma-derived product space through my own license with JV Pharmaland of Belarus, which is one example of a product with critical use.

About EastGate Biotech

EastGate Biotech focuses on innovative technological developments and produces and distributes innovative drug compounds and healthy nutraceuticals that are based on natural therapies absorbed by the body. We utilize advanced nanotechnologies and alternative delivery systems that take difficult to deliver compounds and deliver them using our nanotechnology platform which ultimately increase the bioavailability to the body. Using our methods of delivery provides healthy alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals that all-too-often create dangerous side-effects and unexpected consequences for those trying to attain and maintain a healthy lifestyle. EastGate's wholly owned subsidiary Omni Surgery and Anti-Aging Centre is the first of many surgery centers to come under the Omni umbrella as we plan to roll up existing business under the Omni brand and expand our footprint globally.

Cautionary statement on forward-looking information

All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained or incorporated by reference in this news release constitute "forward-looking information" or "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of certain securities laws, including the provisions for "safe harbor" under the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are based on expectations, estimates and projections as of the date of this news release.

The words "anticipates", "plans", "expects", "indicate", "intend", "scheduled", "estimates", "forecasts", "focus", "guidance", "initiative", "model", "methodology", "outlook", "potential", "projected", "pursue", "strategy", "study", "targets", or "believes", or variations of or similar such words and phrases or statements that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", or "should", "might", or "way forward", "will be taken", "will occur" or "will be achieved" and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are necessarily based upon a number of estimates and assumptions that are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive risks, uncertainties and contingencies. The risks, estimates, models and assumptions contained or incorporated by reference in this release, include those identified from time to time in the reports filed by EastGate with the SEC, which should be considered together with any forward-looking statement. EastGate undertakes no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

CONTACT:

Rose Perri1-647-692-0652Email: information@eastgatepharmaceuticals.comWebsite: http://www.EastGateBiotech.com

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