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Category : Human Longevity

Larry Hunter, former Ann Arbor council member and Black Panther, dies at 69 –

ANN ARBOR, MI Larry Hunter, a social activist who served 12 years on Ann Arbors City Council and advocated for human rights and affordable housing and fought racial discrimination and segregation, died Nov. 12.

He was 69.

Hunter was a Democratic 1st Ward representative from 1982 to 1994 and served as mayor pro tem under both Democratic and Republican mayors.

At last weeks council meeting, 1st Ward representative Jeff Hayner observed a moment of silence for the late city leader, calling him a king among men who will be missed.

Born in 1951, Hunter, one of 14 siblings, grew up in a public housing project and lived in both the Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti areas.

He became politically active at an early age, organizing walkouts at Pioneer High School as a Black Student Union leader, and joined the Black Panther Party and participated in marches and demonstrations against injustice.

He made his first run for public office in 1982 as a 30-year-old former city employee and 18-year resident of Ann Arbor, unseating three-term incumbent Earl Greene.

At the time, Hunter lived at 610 N. Fifth Ave. in a historically Black neighborhood just north of downtown.

Hunter, an anti-death penalty advocate with the American Friends Service Committee, a Quaker organization, lost in eight of 11 precincts in his first run, but scored heavily in the three precincts that included predominantly Black neighborhoods, The Ann Arbor News reported in 1982.

In a win that somewhat surprised his opponent, he outpolled Greene 70-25 at the Ann Arbor Community Center, 97-35 at the Arrowwood Hills Cooperative and 127-37 at Mack School.

We reached the grass roots, Hunter said. People have traditionally written off Arrowwood, but we didnt.

Prior to being elected, Hunter spent several years working with Ann Arbors public housing and Model Cities youth programs.

He also was on the board of the Community Skills Center, where he once recalled we managed to save a lot of kids and return them to the Ann Arbor Public Schools system. He also served as director of the Ypsilanti Resource Center.

These are some of the most difficult times in Ann Arbors history, Hunter wrote during his 1982 campaign, calling attention to revenue challenges, business losses and declining human services.

However, after many years of grassroots involvement in this community, I know that solutions will be found and that we will prevail and prosper, he said. This is because Ann Arbors greatest asset is its people and the unique human environment they have generated. Now more than ever, we need to mobilize their energies to solve our problems through active participation in the process of city government.

He advocated for holding the line on property tax increases wherever possible, while addressing neighborhood needs. He called for aggressive leadership to ensure the continuation of essential human services by the public sector.

Hunter also thought economic regeneration, along with carefully planned growth, should be among the citys top goals, pursued through broad-based community involvement.

On the campaign trail in 1982, he vowed to give careful consideration to the concept of a Downtown Development Authority, which City Council created during his first term. In November 1982, council adopted a downtown development and tax-increment financing plan to combat urban decline and revitalize downtown.

Hunter vowed to work with downtown businesses to advance equitable measures to improve the business environment and create jobs.

He quickly rose to party leadership after knocking off Greene, an old-guard Democrat, and was known for a blunt and sometimes rambling speaking style, engaging opponents in bitter debate while providing sage political advice for his allies, The News reported.

In a 7-3 vote described as a symbolic blow against apartheid in 1985, Hunter won support for a resolution to divest stock the city held $19 million in city pension funds in companies doing business in South Africa. He carried a Divest Now sign as he marched with protesters in front of city hall beforehand.

In an endorsement in 1990, The News called Hunter a consistent, thoughtful voice for the 1st Ward and a council member who worked skillfully behind the scenes.

He is a respected and knowledgeable politician, whose contributions to the community are numerous, The News wrote, saying one of his strongest traits was his willingness to compromise and find consensus, such as his work with Mayor Jerry Jernigan and other Republicans to assist the Ann Arbor YMCA with building additional housing.

Hunter has put his longevity to good use by taking strong leadership positions on major issues without neglecting the benefits of compromise, The News wrote. He also has represented his district with sensitivity, continues to press for affirmative action and articulates a vision of the city that includes affordable housing.

Few at city hall had a better grasp of the issues or better knowledge of the workings of government than Hunter, The News said.

In January 1991, Hunter, then 39, was arrested by Washtenaw County sheriffs deputies following a traffic stop on Michigan Avenue in Ypsilanti, an arrest he and his Democratic colleagues argued amounted to racial harassment.

White deputies who made the arrest alleged Hunter assaulted a deputy after the car in which he was a passenger was stopped because of a broken tail light.

Deputies also arrested the driver, 46-year-old Raymond Chauncey, an Ann Arbor human rights investigator and 21-year employee of the city.

Both men were jailed for about seven hours, according to news reports.

Hunter said the next morning there was absolutely no basis for the arrest and he questioned why deputies asked him for ID and searched him. He said his hand accidentally brushed a deputy while he was being searched and another deputy laughed and said, Thats assault.

The prosecutors office later determined there was not enough evidence for an assault charge.

Deputies claimed Hunter initially did not produce ID when requested and slapped and pushed away a deputys hand three times, and they searched him because he made a rapid movement to his pocket. Hunter maintained he initially didnt identify himself because he wasnt accused of a crime and was asserting his legal rights.

Hunter and Chauncey filed complaints against the sheriffs office alleging they were harassed because they were Black, and the sheriffs office launched an internal investigation.

Ray and I were subjected to brutality and incarceration and received overtly racist treatment by some deputies, Hunter said. It is not a crime to be born as an African American.

City Council Member Ann Marie Coleman, who represented the 1st Ward with Hunter, said she was truly outraged, while Liz Brater, D-3rd Ward, said she was very disturbed.

Everyone reports that when they have a tail light out and theyre stopped by the police, they get a warning, Coleman said. Im speechless that they did all they did with Mr. Chauncey and Mr. Hunter.

Weeks later, Republican Sheriff Ronald Schebil exonerated his deputies, saying they did nothing wrong.

There was probable cause to stop the vehicle, arrest the occupants and detain them at the correctional facility, he said in a news release.

Hunter called the finding an outrage and vowed to file a lawsuit for false arrest, false imprisonment and racial harassment.

He said he and Chauncey were not allowed to call attorneys while they were jailed until they pointed out two white men who also were jailed were given access to a phone.

Sabra Briere, a former 1st Ward council member, recalled this past week how Hunters arrest became a prime example of racial harassment by police when she was president of the Washtenaw County branch of the ACLU in the 1990s.

That was one of the things that people used when the ACLU was looking at driving while Black issues ... and its still an issue, Briere said. It is a shame it happened.

In 1993, as Ann Arbors longest-serving council member, Hunter announced he would not seek another term, saying 12 years is enough. He instead threw his support behind Pat Vereen-Dixon, manager of the Arrowwood Hills housing cooperative, who ran in the citys first November election and became the first Black woman on council.

Hunter later went on to earn a law degree and got involved in supporting lawsuits for fair housing and other issues in Washington, D.C.

Two years ago, while he was in town from D.C., he participated in a 74-minute video interview about his life as part of the Living Oral History Project, a partnership between the Ann Arbor District Library and the African American Cultural and Historical Museum of Washtenaw County.

He recalled his early life, how he became politically active, how he was a conscientious objector during the Vietnam War and his involvement with the Black Panthers, which he called the first Black mans book club.

He also offered some advice to the younger generation to stay in school and never fall behind on getting an education.

But my most important thing is be yourself and learn how to stand up and fight, he said. And if you get knocked down, you get back up and you keep fighting.

Briere said shes saddened by Hunters loss. She considered him a fighter for human rights and those with lesser means.

Hunter was probably concerned about national issues more than some were comfortable with locally, Briere said.

What Larry was, was a good spokesperson for all politics is local ... think globally, act locally, she said. Those were things that he was always doing.


Records show wide range of citizen complaints against Ann Arbor police

Police oversight in Ann Arbor challenged by citys refusal to release officer discipline records

Ann Arbors new cutting-edge recycling plant with zero-waste ethic to open October 2021

3 days of court hearings planned for arguments in Ann Arbor dioxane pollution case

Coronavirus on campus: How Michigan colleges handled it and what the winter semester holds

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Larry Hunter, former Ann Arbor council member and Black Panther, dies at 69 -

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Life Longevity and the pursuit of harmony – WKBW-TV

Longevity expert Dr. Brian Kennedy explains the signs behind increasing your life span and happiness. Dr. Kennedy says the United States ranks 39th in life expectancy. Sleep is key to longevity and also human connection. He says he believes the pandemic is leading to poorer lifestyle choices that are increasing our aging at the same time. Stress is affecting our sleep and its keeping us from being with our friends and family. He says weve known in the elderly these two factors are predictors for mortality. Older people often live alone and they have these problems naturally but the pandemic is really exasperating those problems for the elderly and it is extending to everyone now so we need strategies to deal with that. Dr. Kennedy says the first thing he would say sounds obvious but try to stay positive. This pandemic will come to an end. One thing that is important is mindfulness; finding ways to be self-aware to figure out whats going on in your own brain. To realize when you are stressed is a big step toward dealing with it and that can be through meditation or yoga. There isnt one right answer. Dr. Kennedy says he does a lot of runs and that clears his head. He says one thing that may be worth reading is Be Your Own Harmonist by Lola Till. He says the reason he brings it up is that it is a personal journey for a healthy lifestyle. She is not a doctor. She wanted to find a way to adopt a healthier approach to her life.

Dr. Kennedy says we are losing exercise right now if you are not going to work or out with your friends. He says probably missing four or five thousand steps a day that you normally get so it is important to find safe ways to get that exercise whether it is running or biking or exercising at home. Then with diet he says in the United States the problem is people are overeating. He said life expectancy is not going up in part because of obesity. The research shows that fasting can be very beneficial. This is going periods of time without eating. One way people do it is by time restricted eating where you eat all of your food in an 8 or 12 hour window. There are a lot of different ways to do fasting but all of them show really good benefits. They are good for metabolism, they help you lose weight, they are good for inflammation and in the long term they help rejuvenate your skin cells and deal with cellular damage. One way to do that is with a fasting mimicking diet. ProLon has this diet that has five days of food and it gives you healthy nutrition and good things to eat but keeps those pathways that drive aging and inflammation down and it gives you the benefits of fasting without actually having to go through the fast. He says he thinks a really good way to kickstart a healthy diet if you want to go down that path.

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For information on the book Be Your Own Harmonist by Lola Till click here.

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Life Longevity and the pursuit of harmony - WKBW-TV

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Migrating species tend to ‘live fast and die young’ – UPI News

Nov. 17 (UPI) -- Want to live a long and healthy life? Experts in human longevity often stress the importance of staying active.

But new research suggests more sedentary animals -- species that stay put, avoiding long distance travel -- enjoy comparatively longer lifespans.

The findings, published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, suggest animal species that migrate tend to "live fast and die young."

For the study, scientists at the University of Exeter analyzed the development patterns and lifespans of some 1,300 mammal and bird species. They found species that migrate develop faster, reproduce earlier and generally live shorter lives than their more stationary peers.

Their analysis may explain why many migratory species are on the decline.

"Many species migrate over long distances and this requires substantial amounts of energy," lead study author Andrea Soriano-Redondo said in a news release.

"This energy cannot be used for other purposes such as self-maintenance or reproduction, so we would expect animals to adjust the amount of energy they use for these things," said Soriano-Redondo, a conservation biologist and research fellow at Exeter.

Instead of investing their energy in survival, migrating species focus on reproducing earlier and faster. The ability to generate offspring more rapidly may help migrating species offset the risks posed by their fast-paced lifestyle.

Researchers gauged the "pace-of-life" of hundreds of bird and mammal species by considering their longevity, age of female sexual maturity and the number of times a species can reproduce each year.

Several studies have highlighted the dangers climate change poses to migrating species. The latest research suggests changes in temperature and seasonal patterns can amplify the risks of what was already a perilous lifestyle.

"We have long thought that migration is a risky behavior," said study co-author Stuart Bearhop.

"Animals often take a chance when they migrate, hoping to find the right conditions in their destination. In the case of birds that migrate to the High Arctic, they arrive in spring and have a short window in which to breed," said Bearhop, professor of biology at Exeter's Center for Ecology and Conservation.

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Migrating species tend to 'live fast and die young' - UPI News

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Fountain of youth? The science behind living longer – KGUN

Lets face it: life expectancy in the U.S. is an issue. Ranked 39th in the world at 78.93 years, Americans life expectancy lingers behind dozens of comparable countries (take Japans 84.67 years). As if this trend werent hard enough to navigate on its own, the Coronavirus pandemic has taken over 200,000 American lives and age is among the top risk factors for severe illness.

Americans are feeling overwhelmed. The pandemic has thrown their lives off track physically, mentally, and emotionally. A recent survey shows 8 out of 10 Americans have changed their eating habits; theyre snacking more and moving less. 80% of mothers are dealing with mild to high levels of anxiety around COVID its keeping 23% of moms up all night.

With no end in sight to the pandemic, Americans are desperate for advice on how to adjust and find ways to live their best life. American longevity expert Dr. Brian Kennedy is famous for his research in the biology of aging. Hes a visionary, translating research discoveries into new ways of delaying, detecting, and preventing human aging and associated diseases. Dr. Kennedy is joining viewers virtually from Singapore to give them knowledge and tools as they seek to find harmony, balance, and longevity amid the chaos.

Dr. Brian Kennedy will share key insights with viewers, and discuss the three top factors to increasing longevity:

Sleep for success: Did you know that sleep and longevity are directly related and can affect memory and immunity? Deep, consistent sleep is tied to good health and too little of it may end up shortening your life. Researchers say that every 5% reduction in REM sleep increases mortality rates by 13% to 17% among middle-age and older adults.

Human Connection is Key: Social isolation and feelings of loneliness have become widespread issues in the wake of the Coronavirus pandemic. Studies show loneliness and weak social connections are associated with a reduction in lifespan, and are as lethal as smoking 15 cigarettes per day. Recently, researchers found links between poor physical and mental health outcomes and major risk factors like social isolation, especially in older adult populations. In general, Dr. Kennedy will explain why social connection is so important to our emotional health and overall longevity and will share ways to stay connected despite distance.

Mindfulness over matter: One of the most essential aspects to preserving and enhancing your health is mindfulness the ability to be fully present in the moment. Studies have linked quieter brains with longer lifespans. Dr. Kennedy will explain that mindfulness isnt just about observing the thoughts in your brain it also includes practices like forgiveness and time in nature that benefit emotional and physical health, and can reduce symptoms of stress and anxiety. Dr. Kennedy will share his tips and favorite reads on the subject.

The Science of Eating and Moving: Americans say the pandemic has thrown their eating habits out of whack. A recent survey shows Americans are snacking more and thinking about food more than usual. Dr. Kennedy believes a combination of proper nutrition and exercise leads to increased energy, mental clarity, and longevity. He will share how overall wellness and longevity can be positively impacted by eating foods that give your body the nutrients it needs to function at its best. Additionally, Dr. Kennedy will explain how periods of fasting can allow the body to rest and reset, and benefit processes in the body including cell rejuvenation.

About Dr. Brian Kennedy:Dr. Brian Kennedy is internationally recognized for his research in the basic biology of aging and as a visionary committed to translating research discoveries into new ways of delaying, detecting, and preventing human aging and associated diseases. He is a Professor in the Departments of Biochemistry and Physiology at National University Singapore and Director of the Centre for Healthy Longevity in the National University Health System. From 2010 to 2016 he was the President and CEO of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Currently he remains as a Professor at the Institute. Dr. Kennedy also has an adjunct appointment at the USC Davis School of Gerontology. He is also actively involved biotechnology companies, serving in consulting and board capacities, as well as Scientific Director of Affirmative Health. Dr. Kennedy is on the Board of Directors for L-Nutra, Inc. and serves as a Co-Editor-In-Chief at Aging Cell.

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Fountain of youth? The science behind living longer - KGUN

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Longevity and Anti-senescence Therapy Market: Opportunities, Demand and Forecasts, size COVID-19 2023 – ICOTodayMagazine

The global longevity and anti-senescence therapies market should grow from $329.8 million in 2018 to $644.4 million by 2023 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.3% during 2018-2023.

Report Scope:

The scope of this report is broad and covers various therapies currently under trials in the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market. The market estimation has been performed with consideration for revenue generation in the forecast years 2018-2023 after the expected availability of products in the market by 2023. The global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market has been segmented by the following therapies: Senolytic drug therapy, Gene therapy, Immunotherapy and Other therapies which includes stem cell-based therapies, etc.

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Revenue forecasts from 2028 to 2023 are given for each therapy and application, with estimated values derived from the expected revenue generation in the first year of launch.

The report also includes a discussion of the major players performing research or the potential players across each regional longevity and anti-senescence therapy market. Further, it explains the major drivers and regional dynamics of the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market and current trends within the industry.

The report concludes with a special focus on the vendor landscape and includes detailed profiles of the major vendors and potential entrants in the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market.

Report Includes:

71 data tables and 40 additional tables An overview of the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2017 and 2018, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2023 Country specific data and analysis for the United States, Canada, Japan, China, India, U.K., France, Germany, Spain, Australia, Middle East and Africa Detailed description of various anti-senescence therapies, such as senolytic drug therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy and other stem cell therapies, and their influence in slowing down aging or reverse aging process Coverage of various therapeutic drugs, devices and technologies and information on compounds used for the development of anti-ageing therapeutics A look at the clinical trials and expected launch of anti-senescence products Detailed profiles of the market leading companies and potential entrants in the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market, including AgeX Therapeutics, CohBar Inc., PowerVision Inc., T.A. Sciences and Unity Biotechnology


Global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market deals in the adoption of different therapies and treatment options used to extend human longevity and lifespan. Human longevity is typically used to describe the length of an individuals lifetime and is sometimes used as a synonym for life expectancy in the demography. Anti-senescence is the process by which cells stop dividing irreversibly and enter a stage of permanent growth arrest, eliminating cell death. Anti-senescence therapy is used in the treatment of senescence induced through unrepaired DNA damage or other cellular stresses.

Global longevity and anti-senescence market will witness rapid growth over the forecast period (2018-2023) owing to an increasing emphasis on Stem Cell Research and an increasing demand for cell-based assays in research and development.

An increasing geriatric population across the globe and a rising awareness of antiaging products among generation Y and later generations are the major factors expected to promote the growth of global longevity and anti-senescence market. Factors such as a surging level of disposable income and increasing advancements in anti-senescence technologies are also providing traction to the global longevity and anti-senescence market growth over the forecast period (2018-2023).

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the total geriatric population across the globe in 2016 was over REDACTED. By 2022, the global geriatric population (65 years and above) is anticipated to reach over REDACTED. An increasing geriatric population across the globe will generate huge growth prospectus to the market.

Senolytics, placenta stem cells and blood transfusions are some of the hot technologies picking up pace in the longevity and anti-anti-senescence market. Companies and start-ups across the globe such as Unity Biotechnology, Human Longevity Inc., Calico Life Sciences, Acorda Therapeutics, etc. are working extensively in this field for the extension of human longevity by focusing on study of genomics, microbiome, bioinformatics and stem cell therapies, etc. These factors are poised to drive market growth over the forecast period.

Global longevity and anti-senescence market is projected to rise at a CAGR of REDACTED during the forecast period of 2018 through 2023. In 2023, total revenues are expected to reach REDACTED, registering REDACTED in growth from REDACTED in 2018.

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The report provides analysis based on each market segment including therapies and application. The therapies segment is further sub-segmented into Senolytic drug therapy, Gene therapy, Immunotherapy and Others. Senolytic drug therapy held the largest market revenue share of REDACTED in 2017. By 2023, total revenue from senolytic drug therapy is expected to reach REDACTED. Gene therapy segment is estimated to rise at the highest CAGR of REDACTED till 2023. The fastest growth of the gene therapy segment is due to the Large investments in genomics. For Instance; The National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.) had a budget grant of REDACTED for REDACTED research projects in 2015, thus increasing funding to REDACTED for approximately REDACTED projects in 2016.

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Longevity and Anti-senescence Therapy Market: Opportunities, Demand and Forecasts, size COVID-19 2023 - ICOTodayMagazine

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Global Precision Medicine Software Market in-Depth Analysis, Key Players, Challenges, Segmentation and Forecasts to 2027. – The Think Curiouser

Latest updated Report gives analysis of Precision Medicine Software market overview, scope, market risks, market driving force and market opportunities. Precision Medicine Software competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of top manufacturers working in Precision Medicine Software industry are analyzed clearly by landscape contrast

The Global Precision Medicine Software Market divides the industry on the basis of the regions by growth, product types and applications, over the forecast period (2020-2027) of the Precision Medicine Software market. It analyzes every majorfacts of the global Precision Medicine Software by specifications of the product, restraints, challenges, andgrowth opportunities. Company profiles of the major leading player with Precision Medicine Software investment forecast, latest technology trends,and future forecast. Detailed global understanding of the Precision Medicine Software market based on present and future size(revenue) and Precision Medicine Software market prediction plot in the form of a list of charts and tables, pie-charts to assist aspirants and major market players in making significant and growing choices.

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The research mainly covers Precision Medicine Software market in North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Precision Medicine Software Europe industry (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (Southeast Asia, China, Korea, India and Japan), Precision Medicine Software South America industry (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia), Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa). The Precision Medicine Software report also performs SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) with XX CAGR values, and XX USD of past(2015-2019) and Precision Medicine Software forecast(2020-2027) on the basis of growth and market condition following with the size of Precision Medicine Software market.

The Global Precision Medicine Software market reportcomprises variouskey manufacturers, application analysis and type analysis:

Key players of the global Precision Medicine Software market:

Abbott Laboratories(US)Syapse, Inc. (US)Roper Technologies(US)Sunquest Information Systems Inc. (US)Pfizer, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc.(US)N-of-One, Inc. (US)NantHealth, Inc. (US)LifeOmic Health, LLC (US)Fabric Genomics (US)Allscripts(US)GlaxoSmithKline plc(UK)Gene42, Inc. (Canada)Foundation Medicine, Inc. (US)Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Netherlands)PierianDx, Inc. (US)Translational Software, Inc. (US)Flatiron Health, Inc. (US)IBM Watson Group (US)Sanofi S.A.(France)Tempus Labs, Inc. (US)AstraZeneca plc(US)2bPrecise LLC (Israel)Qiagen(Germany)SOPHiA GENETICS SA (Switzerland)Human Longevity, Inc. (US)

Market Segment Analysis

By Types:


By Applications:

Healthcare providersResearch centers & Government institutesPharmaceutical & Biotechnology companiesOther end users

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Segments of the Precision Medicine Software Report:

Global Precision Medicine Software market report figure out a detailed analysis of key Precision Medicine Software market players by referencing their company profiles, supply/demand study, sales margin, gross margin and year to year revenue to have Precision Medicine Software industry better share over the globe. Precision Medicine Software market report also includes development.

The Global Precision Medicine Software industry research report analyses the supply, sales, production, and market status comprehensively. manufacturing market shares and sales market shares are analyzed along with the analysis of capacity, production, sales, and revenue.

Table Of Content Described:

1. Precision Medicine Software Industry Synopsis

2. Global Precision Medicine Software Market Size by Segmentation (2020-2027)

3. Precision Medicine Software Leading Manufacturers Company Profiles

4. Global Precision Medicine Software Market Competitive Study by Players

5. US Precision Medicine Software Market Development Status and Overview

6. Europe Precision Medicine Software Market Improvement Status and Overview

7. Africa Precision Medicine Software Market Development Status and Overview

8. South-America Precision Medicine Software Market Improvement Status and Overview

9. Asia-pacific Precision Medicine Software Market Development Status and Overview

10. Southeast Asia Precision Medicine Software Improvement Status and Overview

11. Precision Medicine Software Market Forecast by Regional Analysis, And By Segmentation (2020-2027)

12. Dynamics of Precision Medicine Software Market

13. Precision Medicine Software Market Growth Factors Study

14. Research Conclusions

15. Appendix

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Global Precision Medicine Software Market in-Depth Analysis, Key Players, Challenges, Segmentation and Forecasts to 2027. - The Think Curiouser

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The known unknowns of T cell immunity to COVID-19 – Science


Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the role of T cell immunity in acute and convalescent COVID-19 infection. Here we shed light on the known unknowns of pre-existing and acquired T cell responses in relation to acute and convalescent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The broad clinical spectrum of COVID-19 indicates widespread intraindividual differences in the host immune defense against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The underlying cause of disease heterogeneity is probably multifactorial. However, a rapid early host response is likely critical to generate control of SARS-CoV-2 viremia before spread to the lower respiratory tract and onset of damaging hyperinflammation. In this regard, the literature is full of examples where functional T cell responses can provide early control of acute viral infections, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (1, 2). Although multiple studies have indicated that T cells play a role in the early immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and can generate a functional memory pool, there are still multiple unanswered questions in the field (Box 1). Here, we summarize and speculate on a specific set of questions related to T cell immunity against respiratory viral infections, with a focus on COVID-19 severity, immunity, long-term consequences, and vaccination (Fig. 1).

What do acute SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses in the blood tell us about contemporaneous T cell responses in the lung?

Which host and viral factors regulate the strength and efficacy of the early antiviral T cell response?

Do CD4+ T cell responses to the virus predominate over CD8+ responses in the lung as well as the blood?

Do poor CD4+ TFH responses to the virus correlate with reduced longevity of antibody responses?

Is severe COVID 19 linked to an impaired development of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells?

(A) Clinical and virological factors likely to be related to the development and function of antigen-specific T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. The impact of factors including sex, age, chronic conditions affecting immune health, viral load dynamics, degree of lymphopenia, and risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, on the strength and efficacy of the early antiviral T cell response remains elusive. Furthermore, some individuals experience delayed viral clearance or other symptoms for an extended period (long COVID) despite viral clearance. (B) The broad clinical spectrum of acute COVID-19 includes asymptomatic, mild, severe, and fatal outcomes. Whether convalescent individuals will be protected against SARS-CoV-2 (re)infection and the longevity of this protection remain to be determined. (C) Immunological and virological factors influence generation of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and may influence the clinical manifestations and quality of the induced T cell response in acute and convalescent COVID-19 patients. Here, the ability of the host to generate efficient T cell responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection are likely to be dependent on the epitopes targeted, antigen abundance, involvement of resident memory T cells (TRM) at the site of infection, presence or absence of preexisting cross-reactive T cells, and host genetic factors such as HLA type and TCR repertoire. Furthermore, the level of inflammation and amount of proinflammatory cytokines are likely to be associated with T cell activation and exhaustion and subsequent T cell memory formation. (D) The potential link between vaccination outcome in relation to T cell immunity remains to be determined.

T cells are critical to generate early control and clearance of many viral infections of the respiratory system (3). Recent studies in transgenic mouse models provided evidence that T cells are also important for viral clearance and disease resolution after SARS-CoV-2 infection (4). As such, it is not surprising that T cell activation has emerged as a hallmark of acute COVID-19; probably as a consequence of an early SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immune response (59). Although early T cell responses may play a critical role in dampening disease severity, there are also reports describing a dysregulated and unchecked T cell activation pattern in severe cases (1012). Increased T cell activation in severe cases likely reflects increased antigen levels in the respiratory system, but whether the early T cell response reaches a state of exhaustion in subjects with severe hyperinflammation remains to be determined. Furthermore, given that COVID-19 is a disease of the respiratory tract it will be important to define if early detection of T cell activation in blood correlates with tissue-specific events. For instance, will delayed detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in blood reflect the later onset of cellular immunity in the respiratory tract or are these two compartments independent of each other in relation to disease severity?

If elicitation of an early T cell response would be beneficial to dampen COVID-19 severity, what might be the underlying causes and correlates of an early versus late onset of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell activity? Old age and male sex are both associated with increased risk of COVID-19 complications. Interestingly, females seem to mount a somewhat stronger T cell activation following SARS-CoV-2 infection (13) and disruption of T and B cell coordination has been implicated in elderly patients with severe COVID-19 (14). On the other end of the age spectrum, decreased frequencies of IFN-+CD4+ and CD25+CD4+ T cells have been described in hospitalized pediatric patients, who have shorter lengths of stay compared with their adult counterparts (15). In conjunction with age and sex, host and viral factors probably also play a role in the early immune defense and coordination of the early SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response. For instance, SARS-CoV-2 has mechanisms to antagonize proinflammatory signals, particularly type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling (16, 17). IFN-I proteins are key inflammatory mediators to initiate antiviral defense, from which viral evasion might lead to a delayed clearance of SARS-CoV-2 (4). This is supported by the observation that inborn errors of immunity and autoantibodies that diminish IFN-I activity are more commonly detected in patients with severe COVID-19 (18, 19). Concordantly, the early expansion and differentiation of antiviral T cells are dependent on the direct action of IFN-I. Given that activated T cells from older individuals exhibit reduced responses to IFN-I, it is tempting to speculate that higher risk elderly persons experience delayed activation of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells that may lead to reduced clearance of the virus and exacerbated COVID-19 severity. Collectively, more data are needed from mechanistic studies in animal models as well as large cohort studies on males and females in different age groups to identify beneficial and detrimental viral and host factors that have an impact on the early T cell response against SARS-CoV-2.

Generation of memory T cells can provide lifelong protection against pathogens (20). Previous studies have demonstrated that SARS-CoV- and MERS-CoV-specific T cells can be detected many years after infection (2123). Likewise, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are distinguished in a vast majority of convalescent donors (7, 9, 21, 2427). Studies using peripheral blood have reported stronger SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ than CD8+ T cell responses in most subjects. However, it is well established that CD4+ T cells experience a higher propensity to recirculate between tissues and blood than CD8+ T cells. As such, whether SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell responses also predominate in tissues, and particularly at barrier sites close to the epithelium, needs to be confirmed through studies on the upper and lower respiratory tract.

Similar to the CD4+ T cell polarized response to many other viral infections, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells mainly possess a Th1 or circulating T follicular helper (TFH) cell phenotype (79, 14, 28). Circulating TFH differentiation seems to be impaired in certain patients with severe COVID-19 (11, 29) and recent analysis of postmortem lymph nodes and spleen samples showed an absence of germinal centers along with a defect in Bcl6+ TFH differentiation in deceased COVID-19 patients (30). Whether these consequences are due to sampling from postmortem patients remains unknown, but further studies are needed to clarify whether TFH cell formation is impaired by SARS-CoV-2 and could have an impact on declining antibody responses in specific convalescent donors. Furthermore, more mechanistic studies are needed to understand if memory T cells can generate protective immunity to lethal challenge with SARS-CoV-2, as previously demonstrated in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV models (1, 2), in the presence or absence of high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Likewise, longitudinal human studies will also inform us of whether functional memory T cell responses are present many years after SARS-CoV-2 infection and correlate with protection from reinfection.

Several studies have demonstrated the presence of CD4+ and to a lesser extent CD8+ T cells recognizing SARS-CoV-2 peptides in a significant proportion of unexposed individuals (7, 21, 24, 26, 31). Mapping of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in unexposed blood donors revealed pre-existing T cell immunity, potentially induced by seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) causing common colds (27, 32). This is supported by a relatively high amino acid similarity between recognized SARS-CoV-2 epitopes and seasonal HCoVs such as HCoV-OC43, -HKU1, -229E and -NL63. The presence of cross-reactive cellular immune responses in the population generates an obstacle to the use of T cell-based assays to track SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in blood donors. Given that antibodies do not result in the same degree of cross-reactivity as T cells and are consequently easier to use in clinical diagnostic settings, serology will likely be a better readout for tracing the infection rate in the society. Nevertheless, more thorough studies are needed to better understand the full spectrum of cross-reactive versus newly-induced SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses.

A key question in the field is whether pre-existing T cell responses influence the severity of COVID-19. Pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are unlikely to provide sterilizing or herd immunity but may allow the host to bypass immune evasion mechanisms, for instance evasion from IFN-I, and generate early pressure on the virus. This concept is supported by studies in mice showing that airway memory CD4+ T cells recognizing a conserved SARS-CoV epitope provided protection from related CoVs (1). Similar scenarios in which pre-existing T cells may provide earlier viral clearance and thus less severe symptoms have been proposed elsewhere (33). Here, the level of conservation between antigens may have a substantial impact on whether pre-existing T cells are beneficial or detrimental for the host. On the other hand, the concept of original antigenic sin, in which earlier induced antibody or T cell responses influence the response against future viral infections, needs further evaluation (34). If pre-existing T cells are less effective in clearing viral infection upon activation but contribute to systemic and permanent increase in inflammatory signals, it might lead to increased hyperinflammation and COVID-19 severity. In a first analysis, comparing T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV sequences did not find any evidence of original antigenic sin (32). Again, the level of conservation of targeted epitopes is likely to impact the outcome, and further evaluation of this concept is needed. Collectively, further animal studies and human studies done before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection are needed to define the biological relevance of pre-existing T cell responses and their role as friends or foes in host defense against SARS-CoV-2.

Resident memory T cells (TRM) are a distinct memory T cell lineage. These cells reside within tissues, do not recirculate to peripheral blood, and have been defined as local sentinels mediating rapid protection from reinfection (35). In fact, a vast majority of T cells in nonlymphoid tissues, such as the respiratory tract, are considered to be TRM (36). In terms of respiratory infections, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating that TRM can provide protection against severe pulmonary disease (37, 38). Likewise, airway CD4+ T cells can generate cross-reactive immunity between human and bat coronaviruses (1), emphasizing that cross-reactive T cells in the respiratory tract can provide protection from lethal challenge with pathogenic coronaviruses. Whether cross-reactive TRM, induced by seasonal coronaviruses, can block transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the upper respiratory tract to the lung and thereby attenuate severe COVID-19 remains unanswered. This scenario, where TRM block the spread of viral disease from upper to lower respiratory tract, has been demonstrated in influenza A infection (37) and might account for partial immunity of secondary infection with heterologous strains (39, 40). Furthermore, whether SARS-CoV-2-specific TRM are induced after COVID-19 and whether these cells will provide protection in the long term also remains unknown (41). Although certain studies in mice have suggested that TRM in the lung are short-lived (42), there is evidence that their counterparts in the upper respiratory tract persist with minimal decay (37) and for more than a year in human lung (43). Altogether, there is currently no evidence supporting the provision of sterilizing immunity by TRM, but data presented above suggest that TRM could facilitate rapid control of upper respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 infection, replication, and spread. In this regard, further work in animal models may provide evidence for whether local immunity mediated by TRM can achieve this type of immunity.

A substantial number of COVID-19 patients experience heterogeneous symptoms that persist over a month and onward (4446). This heterogeneous phenomenon is being referred to as long COVID and affects around 10% of all COVID-19 patients (44, 45). Many symptoms can be attributed to persistent tissue damage in severe COVID-19. Nevertheless, the fact that many individuals with milder COVID-19 symptoms also experience chronic lingering symptoms, involving the cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory systems, indicates that persistent immune activation and/or inflammation may play a role in long COVID. Multiple mechanisms are probably involved in this condition and whether T cells play any role in long COVID is unknown. The higher incidence of long COVID in females than males, similar to autoimmune diseases (47), raises the question of whether T cells orchestrate long COVID through similar mechanisms as in autoimmune or inflammatory conditions (48, 49). One hypothetical underlying mechanism behind autoimmune-related conditions after COVID-19 could be molecular mimicry, given that HCoV-specific T cells can cross-react to myelin in multiple sclerosis patients (50). Whether SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have the ability to react against self-antigens remains to be determined. In line with a possible effect of HLA type on COVID-19 susceptibility/severity (51, 52), we believe that larger genetic studies are needed to clarify if HLA or other immune-related genes are associated with an increased risk of developing long COVID.

Based on the uncertainty of whether cross-reactive T cells or antibodies will provide protective or long-lasting immunity to COVID-19, it will become absolutely critical to administrate a safe and effective vaccine to the population to reach broad immunity and break the negative spiral of new infections. Ongoing vaccine efforts mainly target B cells to promote the induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 (53, 54). Although the induction of anti-spike nAbs is the key component for an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, it is well-known that T cells, and in particular TFH cells, are critical to generate antibody-producing plasma cells and long-lived memory B cells. In COVID-19 patients, high nAb titers correlated with strong CD4+ T cell responses, and the lack of functional TFH cells reacting against SARS-CoV-2 was shown to be detrimental (11, 29, 30). Preliminary results from the two major mRNA vaccine trials in humans have demonstrated potent Th1 responses (55, 56). However, previous studies have reported strong TFH responses against certain mRNA vaccines (57), and future trials should therefore include other activation induced markers, such as CD40L and/or CD200, in addition to IFN- ELISPOT assays to understand if potent B-helper mechanisms are induced by the current vaccine regimens. Other outstanding questions are whether vaccine-induced TFH responses will be equally induced in all age groups and how long these responses will persist in blood and vaccination site-draining lymph nodes. A final issue to consider is whether high quantities of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells at local sites need to be elicited by future vaccine candidates. If the initial group of vaccines in clinical trials that are primarily focused on generating an effective nAb response provide recipients with long-standing protection, it may not be necessary to invest in such efforts. However, if problems emerge in the vaccinated population with breakthrough infections, waning antibody levels after vaccination, and/or the emergence of new viral strains, it would be wise to reconsider vaccine approaches specifically designed to induce functional CD8+ TRM responses in the upper respiratory tract.

Collective efforts have greatly enhanced our scientific understanding of T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 but many unknowns remain to be resolved. Although it is clear that T cells play a central role in generating early control and clearance of many viral infections, their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection is only starting to be revealed. Specific T cells may even have a detrimental impact on the clinical outcome and contribute to long COVID symptoms. Currently, there is a need for deeper analysis using both animal models and longitudinal follow-up studies of large patient cohorts to define the beneficial versus detrimental aspects of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in acute, convalescent and vaccine settings of COVID-19.

Acknowledgments: Funding. A.C.K. was supported by the Swedish Research Council, the Karolinska Institutet, and The Center for Innovative Medicine. M.B. was supported by the Swedish Research Council, the Karolinska Institutet, the Jeansson Stiftelse, the ke Wibergs Stiftelse, the Swedish Society of Medicine, the Swedish Cancer Society, the Magnus Bergvalls Stiftelse, the Lars Hiertas Stiftelse, the Swedish Physician against AIDS Foundation, the Jonas Sderquist Stiftelse, and the Clas Groschinskys Minnesfond. Author contributions: A.C.K., M.H. and M.B. contributed to writing and drafting the illustration. A.C.K. and M.B. edited the manuscript. Competing Interests. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

The known unknowns of T cell immunity to COVID-19 - Science

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Human ageing process biologically reversed in world first –

The ageing process has been biologically reversed for the first time by giving humans oxygen therapy in a pressurised chamber.

Scientists in Israel showed they could turn back the clock in two key areas of the body believed to be responsible for the frailty and ill-health that comes with growing older.

As people age, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes called telomeres shorten, causing DNA to become damaged and cells to stop replicating. At the same time, "zombie" senescent cells build up in the body, preventing regeneration.

Increasing telemere length and getting rid of senescent cells is the focus of many anti-ageing studies, and drugs are being developed to target those areas.

Now scientists at Tel Aviv University have shown that giving pure oxygen to older people while in a hyperbaric chamber increased the length of their telomeres by 20 per cent, a feat that has never been achieved before.

Scientists said thegrowth may mean that the telomeres of trial participants were now as long as they had been 25 years earlier.

The therapy also reduced senescent cells by up to 37 per cent, making way for new healthy cells to regrow. Animal studies have shown that removing senescent cells extends remaining life by more than one third.

"Since telomere shortening is considered the 'Holy Grail' of the biology of ageing, many pharmacological and environmental interventions are being extensively explored in the hopes of enabling telomere elongation," said Professor Shai Efrati of the Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience at Tel Aviv University.

"The significant improvement of telomere length shown during and after these unique protocols provides the scientific community with a new foundation of understanding that ageing canindeedbe targeted and reversed at the basic cellular-biological level."

Many scientists now believe ageing itself is responsible for major conditions such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, arthritis, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes.

It is also known that obesity, smoking, lack of physical activity, vitamin deficiency and inflammation can speed up the shortening of telomeres, demonstrating that they have a major impact on longevity.

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Human ageing process biologically reversed in world first -

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

Now is the time for climate action –

If we were to hold another ballot measure next week, adopting an official statement of gratitude for the END of the election, that motion might pass with broad bipartisan support.

Regardless of outcome, campaign seasons are long and tiring, and I look forward to the more-casual conversations with all those neighbors who vote differently from me. And besides, this election was hardly a clean sweep for either wing, with strong conservative control remaining in both the Supreme Court and in the U.S. Senate. Things couldnt get much more even than they will be in 2021, and that makes working together the best path forward.

President-elect Biden was not the choice of the most progressive Democrats, representing more of a centrist ideology as compared with Elizabeth Warren, Bernie Sanders or Jay Inslee. But his election means significant consideration of progressive goals, including climate action.

In a campaign stop this past September, Biden said, Hurricanes dont swerve to avoid red states or blue states. Wildfires dont skip towns that voted a certain way. The impacts of climate change dont pick and choose. Its not a partisan phenomenon, and our response should be the same. He took a chance by making a televised climate speech and running similar ads in swing states, believing that members of both parties are concerned with this crucial issue, and that gamble paid off in victory.

Fortunately, there are plenty of conservative leaders who feel the same way; in October, Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) participated in a climate policy working group. After noting that bipartisanship gives longevity to policies, she asked colleagues to work in a way that is going to get the support that you need from both Republicans and Democrats.

But its not just politicians who are looking for climate action. According to the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication, most Mississippians are worried about the human impact on our global climate and believe Congress should act on this issue. In fact, nearly three-quarters of Mississippians want stricter regulation of CO2 pollution, and over 80% want more investments in renewable energy. And judging by the record-breaking 2020 hurricane season and the millions of acres of burned lands out west, these views are certainly justified. If we are to have any chance of turning the tide on this slowly developing disaster, quick action will be needed to curb excess greenhouse gas emissions.

There are many climate policies being debated domestically and internationally, but one of the most effective would be to enact a carbon fee. If Congress were to levy a fee on fossil fuels, they could steer our country toward sustainable energy, reducing dependence on unstable foreign energy sources and slashing emissions simultaneously. The revenues generated from the carbon fees could then be rebated to American families to spend as they see fit, reducing the burden on our consumers. There even are options to waive the carbon fees for our vital agricultural producers and place a border adjustment on foreign imports in order to protect more sustainably produced American goods.

Known as the Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Act and the Growing Climate Solutions Act, these types of bills are supported by such diverse groups as Farm Bureau, National Farmers Union and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Aside from reducing climate impacts, these bills will lead to job growth, economic advantages for American agricultural production, cleaner air and a healthier work force that is less in need of government support, and a more resilient Gulf that can continue to feed us and protect us from storms.

Mississippians are ready for Sen. Wicker and other elected representatives to support this type of legislation and help move our country forward to meet this challenge while we still have the chance.

Chris Werle of Lamar County is Mississippi state coordinator for the Citizens Climate Lobby. Write him at

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Now is the time for climate action -

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What must we teach The Next Generation? – The Business Times

Fri, Nov 20, 2020 - 5:50 AM

HOW can we prepare the next generation to handle the mind-bending changes that are taking place every day and every hour? Indeed, when is the next generation?

Much faster than you think. Best to view it as "now". So much technology involved in the way we live and work from today onwards. Bill Gates's magic all-electric house will be looking old already, I expect.

There is a lesson in that. Be thoughtful for your techie advances. Today's new connection wizard will often be tomorrow's has-been. You cannot judge all of the stayers and goers correctly, but you can be prudent about your investment in every new toy.

My advice is to shun the processes that make what is already being done adequately well simply faster with what appear to be more bells and whistles.

There are a thousand ways to have a diary. I find most of them excessively interrupting and admonishing. I prefer a simple word document to which I can add whatever I want whenever I want. I've been using one for years and it works very well.

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Of course, it doesn't send irritating messages to all those involved with me to remind them to jump to my commands. I think they quite like that. But each to his or her own.

Back to the basics

We obviously don't need to drill the next generation in the techie things they are already enthusiastically learning. It will be second nature to them to adopt a technologically advanced lifestyle. Chances are, however, that they will need some more fundamental disciplines. I rate the first of these the understanding that fundamental is itself important.

Certain basic rules of life get lost in the rush to adopt the next gizmo or philosophy that comes along. As an example of this I quote digitisation, which Wikipedia defines as "the process of converting information into a digital format, in which the information is organised into bits. The result is the representation of an object, image, sound, document or signal by generating a series of numbers that describe a discrete set of points or samples."

The use to which digitisation is put is another helpful way of looking at it. Digitisation is how we turn everything into numbers. Okay, but why do we want to do that? So that it is much easier to handle than words. What do we do once we have turned the imprecise words, senses, feelings into numbers? We then produce a process for handling them. And that process is fast and final, by which I mean definitive.

Absolutely fine for the hard data of life - how many bottles on the wall. But try to apply that numeracy to love, to pain, to a sunset, to beautiful music, to an unspoken relationship between two people. Of course, it can be done, we do it all the time. "Measure your degree of satisfaction with our service - one star or five stars or something in between."

I may have loved the person who dealt with me, hated the answer I got and longed for a wider range of prices from which to choose. The weary five stars don't give me much scope, so we resort to words - but only for those willing to take the trouble. Now we have biased any feedback in favour of the literate.

Measuring the unmeasurable

The quality of life is not easily digitised so we must be careful that we don't ruin top class music, for example, by digitising it, at least until we can do so with the fineness of the human ear and the feelings of the human heart.

How would you measure the characteristics of a potentially top leader? A lot of hard facts go into doing so. But so does a lot of judgment. Maybe one day we will be able to do it with a measure of success. For now, don't be fooled by the very arbitrary attributes we can specify. Teaching people to "read" others is one of the most difficult coaching jobs we are called on to do.

Understanding personality

I have spent some time on digitisation because measurement is one of the great achievements of the human species. But to allow it to overtake our sensitivities would be a major mistake. I have examples of where this has been done in our own business.

Measurement of personality needs to be carefully handled if it is not to have the opposite effect for which doing it is intended. When it is achieved exclusively by numbers it has the effect of putting people into strict, and very limiting, definitions.

This is not what we want personality measurement for. Our objective is not to "imprison" people but to "free" them. You don't do that by putting them into a box.

There are other fundamentals of life that are equally important and difficult to measure. Personal discipline is a good example. We can measure exercise, diet, sleep and time devoted to several useful life-supporting-and-lengthening activities.

It is much more difficult to measure a well-balanced person - and yet, that is the sort of person we want determining the basic rules of how we live our lives.

And when it comes to sustainability, in the interests of revitalising the planet, our measurements will likely suggest short-term solutions to our problems rather than long-term solutions, which are generally the only way to undo the damage we have done.

Sustainability - the long-term solution

Sustainability becomes particularly difficult in times of economic disaster like the current pandemic. Desperate to get the planet's economy back on line we will inevitably be searching for quick fixes.

This will apply especially to SMEs who don't have the cash reserves to sustain them through prolonged absence of business.

It is vital therefore that their mentors and coaches - probably the parents and family - teach them a company's responsibility towards the planet and their fellow human beings. Longevity of a business today means adaptability to the changing scene.

It also means sensitivity to the market and to all the changes taking place in an overcrowded and vulnerable living space. The next generation is already with us. It needs to be.

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What must we teach The Next Generation? - The Business Times

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