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Category : Human Longevity

LyGenesis Closes $4 Million Convertible Debt Financing to Begin Clinical Development of its Liver Regeneration Technology – PRNewswire

PITTSBURGH, Oct. 21, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- LyGenesis, Inc., a biotechnology company focused on organ regeneration, announced today that they have completed a total of $4 million in private financing of convertible notes from Juvenescence, Ltd. and Longevity Vision Fund. Their technology uses lymph nodes as bioreactors to regrow functioning organs within a patient's own body. This financing will enable LyGenesis's lead program in liver regeneration to transition into clinical development, beginning with a Phase 2a clinical trial for patients with end stage liver disease in 2020.

"We have advanced our liver regeneration program through preclinical trials and this financing will help us to rapidly transition into a clinical-stage biotechnology company," said Michael Hufford, PhD, Co-Founder and CEO of LyGenesis. "Our ability to use the lymph node as a bioreactor for organogenesis is also generating interest from partner companies looking for an enabling technology so that their genetically modified cell therapies are able to engraft, proliferate, vascularize, and produce a therapeutic effect in patients."

"We are thrilled to continue our financial support of LyGenesis as they transition into clinical development," said Greg Bailey, MD, Co-Founder and CEO of Juvenescence, and a member of LyGenesis's Board of Directors. Sergey Young, founder of Longevity Vision Fund, said "The ability to regenerate functioning ectopic organs was science fiction just a few short years ago. The progress of LyGenesis's technology is emblematic of the rapid advances we are witnessing as biotechnology transitions from bench research, to preclinical models, and now into the clinic."

About LyGenesis, Inc.LyGenesis is a biotechnology company with an organ regeneration technology platform enabling a patient's lymph nodes to be used as bioreactors to regrow functioning ectopic organs. LyGenesis's lead allogeneic cell therapy program is focused on liver regeneration for patients with end stage liver disease. Its drug development pipeline includes thymus, pancreas, and kidney regeneration. Privately held, LyGenesis is headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. To learn more, please visit lygenesis.com.

About Juvenescence, Ltd.Juvenescence Limited is a life sciences company developing therapies to increase healthy human longevity. It was founded by Jim Mellon, Dr. Greg Bailey and Dr. Declan Doogan. The Juvenescence team are highly experienced drug developers, entrepreneurs and investors with a significant history of success in the life sciences sector. Juvenescence will create, partner with or invest in new companies with longevity-related therapeutics, by in-licensing compounds from academia and industry, or forming joint ventures to develop therapeutics for longevity. Juvenescence believes that recent advances in science have greatly improved our understanding of the biology of aging and seeks to develop therapeutics with the possibility of slowing, halting or potentially reversing elements of aging. To learn more, please visit juvenescence.ltd.

About Longevity Vision FundLongevity Vision Fundis a $100M life extension-focused investment fund dedicated to making longevity affordable and accessible to all. Founded by Sergey Young, the fund accelerates breakthroughs in longevity by investing in start-ups and companies that develop technologies, products, and services that extend human lifespans and overcome the negative effects of aging. The Fund provides funding to biotech and life extension-focused companies developing early diagnostics, AI in healthcare, and therapies addressing age-related diseases. To learn more, please visit lvf.vc.

Media Contact:Michael Hufford, PhD+1.858.603.2514226496@email4pr.com

SOURCE LyGenesis, Inc.

http://www.lygenesis.com

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LyGenesis Closes $4 Million Convertible Debt Financing to Begin Clinical Development of its Liver Regeneration Technology - PRNewswire

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Global Longevity & Anti-Senescence Therapy Market Review 2017-2018 and Forecast to 2023 – ResearchAndMarkets.com – Business Wire

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Global Longevity and Anti-Senescence Therapy Market" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

Global longevity and anti-senescence market will witness rapid growth over the forecast period (2018-2023) owing to an increasing emphasis on Stem Cell Research and increasing demand for cell-based assays in research and development.

An increasing geriatric population across the globe and rising awareness of antiaging products among generation Y and later generations are the major factors expected to promote the growth of global longevity and anti-senescence market. Factors such as a surging level of disposable income and increasing advancements in anti-senescence technologies are also providing traction to the global longevity and anti-senescence market growth over the forecast period (2018-2023).

Senolytics, placenta stem cells and blood transfusions are some of the hot technologies picking up pace in the longevity and anti-anti-senescence market. Companies and start-ups across the globe such as Unity Biotechnology, Human Longevity Inc., Calico Life Sciences, Acorda Therapeutics, etc. are working extensively in this field for the extension of human longevity by focusing on the study of genomics, microbiome, bioinformatics, and stem cell therapies, etc. These factors are poised to drive market growth over the forecast period.

The report provides analysis based on each market segment including therapies and application. The therapies segment is further sub-segmented into Senolytic drug therapy, Gene therapy, Immunotherapy, and Others. Senolytic drug therapy held the largest market revenue share in 2017. The fastest growth of the gene therapy segment is due to the Large investments in genomics.

Report Scope

The scope of this report is broad and covers various therapies currently under trials in the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market. The market estimation has been performed with consideration for revenue generation in the forecast years 2018-2023 after the expected availability of products in the market by 2023.

The global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market has been segmented by the following therapies: Senolytic drug therapy, Gene therapy, Immunotherapy and Other therapies which includes stem cell-based therapies, etc.

Revenue forecasts from 2028 to 2023 are given for each therapy and application, with estimated values derived from the expected revenue generation in the first year of launch.

The report also includes a discussion of the major players performing research or the potential players across each regional longevity and anti-senescence therapy market. Further, it explains the major drivers and regional dynamics of the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market and current trends within the industry.

The report concludes with a special focus on the vendor landscape and includes detailed profiles of the major vendors and potential entrants in the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market.

The report includes:

Key Topics Covered

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Summary and Highlights

Chapter 3 Market Overview

Chapter 4 Global Longevity and Anti-senescence Market by Therapy

Chapter 5 Global Longevity and Anti-senescence Market by Application

Chapter 6 Global Longevity and Anti-senescence Market by Region

Chapter 7 Industry Structure in Longevity and Anti-senescence Market

Chapter 8 Company Profiles

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/zy7jt

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Global Longevity & Anti-Senescence Therapy Market Review 2017-2018 and Forecast to 2023 - ResearchAndMarkets.com - Business Wire

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Media Advisory: Artificial Intelligence in Health Care, Healthy Longevity, and Human Genome Editing Among Topics at Meeting of Nation’s Top Health…

Artificial Intelligence in Health Care, Healthy Longevity, and Human Genome Editing Among Topics at Meeting of Nations Top Health Leaders and Scholars Oct. 21

The National Academy of Medicines (NAM) 49th Annual Meetingwill include a scientific symposium Oct. 21 featuring a keynote address by Keith A. Wailoo, professor of history and public affairs at Princeton University, and panel discussions on data sharing and patient privacy; artificial intelligence in health care delivery; and the ethics and governance of human genome editing.

Following the symposium, NAM President Victor J. Dzau will moderate a Presidents Forum on the societal implications of emerging science and technology in health and medicine and the need for a future multisectoral, collective governance framework to guide the development and adoption of new technologies. The forum begins at 4:30 p.m. EDT and willfeatureremarks byRobert Cook-Deegan(Arizona State University),Scott Gottlieb(American Enterprise Institute),Vivian S. Lee(Verily),Alondra Nelson(Institute for AdvancedStudy), andElias A. Zerhouni(Johns Hopkins University).

Beginning at 6 p.m. EDT, NAM will celebrate the launch of its Healthy Longevity Global Competition, a multiyear, multimillion-dollar international competition hosted jointly by the National Academy of Medicine and global collaborator organizations. The competition will seek breakthrough innovations to extend human health and function later in life and will follow a unique model built on a foundation of catalyst and proof-of-concept awards to attract bold ideas and to advance successful pilots and prototypes, followed by major inducement prizes. In addition to Dr. Dzau, speakers at the reception include:

Details:Monday, Oct. 21, 10:15 a.m. - 7 p.m. EDT, Fred Kavli AuditoriumNational Academy of Sciences building2101 Constitution Ave., N.W.Washington, D.C.Agenda|WebcastReporters who wish to attend the meeting in person should register in advance.

Contact:Dana Korsen, Media Relations ManagerOffice of News and Public Information202-334-2138; e-mail news@nas.edu

Twitter: @theNAMedicineFacebook: @NAMedicineInstagram: thenamedicineFollow the conversation using #NAMmtg

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Media Advisory: Artificial Intelligence in Health Care, Healthy Longevity, and Human Genome Editing Among Topics at Meeting of Nation's Top Health...

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Overthinking Can Shorten Your Life, Says New Study – International Business Times

Although it is one natural ability of human beings to think and it is what sets us apart from animals, but when you get overboard with thinking, it can get detrimental. A new study suggests that overthinking can shorten your lifespan.

The study conducted by the researchers at Harvard Medical School has found that excessive brain activity could decrease ones lifespan. It involved individuals aged 60-70 years whose brains were compared to those who lived until they were 100 or more.

Their findings suggested that people who died at younger ages had significantly lower levels of the protein REST (RE-1 silencing Transcription)- one that silences your brain activity. Precisely, the study showed that overthinking causes excessive brain activity which in turn leads to depletion in ones REST protein levels and shortened lifespan. And that suppressing such overactivity extends life. Several other studies have also proved that REST protein offers protection against Alzheimers disease.

This is the first study to prove that the activity of the nervous system affects the longevity of human beings. Though several studies have previously reported the phenomenon among animals, the role of neural activity in human aging has remained murky until now.

The lead author Bruce Yankner, professor of genetics at HMS and co-director of thePaul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Agingsaid,An intriguing aspect of our findings is that something as transient as the activity state of neural circuits could have such far-ranging consequences for physiology and life span. He added that they now have several individuals enrolled in such studies to partition the aging population into genetic subgroups. He also opines that this information is invaluable and makes it evident as to why it's so important to support the future of human genetics.

The study has paved the way for designing new therapies for health conditions that are associated with neural overactivity including Alzheimers disease and bipolar diseases. The study results also create the possibility that meditation or medicines that can target REST protein could extend the human life span by modulating neural activity.

"The possibility that being able to activate REST would reduce excitatory neural activity and slow aging in humans is extremely exciting," said the study co-authorMonica Colaicovo, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School.

Overthinking Photo: Jambulboy, Pixabay

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Overthinking Can Shorten Your Life, Says New Study - International Business Times

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Opinion: Entrepreneurs and Their Startup Businesses Need San Diegos Support – Times of San Diego

Share This Article:Startup teams at an EvoNesus incubator in downtown San Diego. Photo by Chris JenneweinBy Duane Cameron

Everyone in business and economic development agree that startups are great for citiesbut how can communities and leaders do more than just tout the benefits of startups, and actually help pave the way for entrepreneurs to bring their business ideas to life?

Support Times of San Diego's growthwith a small monthly contribution

One way of getting behind San Diego startups is through celebrating the innovation and creativity being brought to our region. This month Cox Business, Tech Coast Angels and the San Diego Venture Group are doing exactly that by sponsoring and organizing the John G. Watson Quick Pitch Competition.

The Quick Pitch Competition on Oct. 29 gives 10 local startups the opportunity to compete for grants of up to $50,000 to further develop their idea. Its one of several others like it throughout the year here in our region.

However, we can always do more to support our startup ecosystemespecially if we want to hang on to our distinction as one of the best cities in America to launch a business. Moreover, San Diego in particular has a number of very good reasons to do so:

Small businesses, including startups, are the backbone of our regional economy. Small businesses, defined as those with 100 employees or fewer, employ697,000 people, or 59 percentof San Diegos workforce. If we were to attract fewer talented entrepreneurs, opportunities for both our long-time residents and recent transplants would dry up, and our economy would suffer.

Theyve given us our reputation as a life sciences and biotechnology innovation hub. Aside from the San Francisco Bay Area and the Boston-Cambridge region, were one of the top cities for manufacturing, testing and research in the fields of biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Several of the top employers in this area are, of course, large companies like Illumina, but a vast majority of the more than 1,100 life and sciences biotech businesses in San Diego began life as small startups with an idea.

They encourage competition. Competition is a good thing and spurs innovation, and a competitive business ecosystem makes our city stand out as a dynamic source of tech solutions. As Ben Yoskowitz, an angel investor and founding partner at Year One Labs puts it, Any reasonably good idea has 10,000 people working on it right now.

A few local startups have made it big already. Thanks to our large pool of talent both local and transplanted (the perks of being a major center for universities) as well as a good network of accelerators that coach startups on how to prepare for a successful launch, many of our startups have emerged as major players on the national scene. Think GoFundMe, Classy, Brain Corp, and Human Longevity. Imagine how many more ideas like these are currently incubating among San Diegos startup founders.

They employ talent from other tech hubs, especially recent graduates. The job market may have improved greatly since the 2008-2009 recession, and unemployment may be low, but its still challenging to get your foot in the door as a recent college graduate. In cities like San Diego, though, where theres a strong pool of startups, these young professionals can easily find employment that develops them professionally into the future talent that our city will need to continue to grow.

San Diego has steadily climbed higher on lists of top U.S. cities for startups over the past few years, but that didnt happen in a vacuum. Every big company started small, and its important that larger companies encourage startups, and help provide funding through programs such as the Quick Pitch Competitionespecially if theyre in your field. Its good for business and for everyone who lives and works in Americas finest region.

Duane Cameron has more than 30 years of experience in the telecommunications industry. He is vice president for Cox Business, helping to bring innovative products and services to Southern California businesses.

Opinion: Entrepreneurs and Their Startup Businesses Need San Diegos Support was last modified: October 17th, 2019 by Editor

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Opinion: Entrepreneurs and Their Startup Businesses Need San Diegos Support - Times of San Diego

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To Love and Mourn an Animal – Sentient Media

October 21, 2019

Companion animals affect us in unique ways. They dont judge us. They dont compete with us like other humans. They provide us with emotional support, and in return, we love them dearly.

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Companion animals affect us in unique ways. They dont judge us. They dont compete with us like other humans. They provide us with emotional support, and in return, we love them dearly.

My feline companion of almost twenty years recently died. Silos lived a good, loved life and had a peaceful death at home, with my husband, Patrick, and me there with him. Nevertheless, for some time after Silos death, I felt utterly destroyed. Even though I have many times mourned the death of close grandparents, cousins, and friends, after Siloss death, I sank into depths of despair I have never felt before in my life.

Should I be ashamed to admit this? Should I be embarrassed? Our society would have me think that I should not grieve the death of an animal more than that of a human. Indeed, in my conversations with many patients and non-patients who lost companion animals, I have found that most people have felt pressured to downplay their love for those animals. Although this is gradually changing, too often, instead of giving compassion and empathy, colleagues, friends, and even family members tell those who mourn an animal that they are being silly to care so much after all, they are just animals. Get over it, they say. Buck up!

We laugh together and cry alone. Grief is even lonelier when an animal dies because its less valued than grief over the death of another human. Sociologists, psychologists, and psychiatrists have been slow to appreciate the impact of the loss of an animal. But studies show that an animals death can cause poor sleep, missed days from work, significant distress, and depression. Among those who lose animals they deeply love, the extent of their grief is similar to that of those mourning the death of a cherished person.

It should not come as a surprise that humans are capable of deep affection and love for other animals, be they dogs, cats, or rescued pigs, raccoons, chickens or horses. In the early 1980s, biologist Edward O. Wilson recognized and defined the human innate desire to connect with other living beings as biophilia. It is the hypothesis that humans naturally connect with nature and animals and that our affinity is rooted in our biology. It is a love of life in its simplest definition. It is part of who we are as fellow animals on this planet. Wilson wasnt necessarily arguing that we all seek a bond with animals, but I believe that it is in our relationships with animals where our biophilia is especially evident.

Almost two-thirds of American households include animals as part of their families. And when we cant bring animals into our homes, we look for them elsewhere. We visit wildlife sanctuaries, we join bird watching clubs, we take safaris in Africa, and we watch countless YouTube videos of animals doing things and behaving in ways we thought only humans do. We seek a bond with animals. Our need to be with animals is so deep and instinctively strong that our biology is not just biophilia. It is animalphilia.

We choose to connect with animals. When we encounter another animal, no matter how fleeting that moment may be, we know that we are not alone. And that is comforting.

In fact, how we experience empathy toward animals may not be so different from how we experience it toward other humans. Researchers from the Department of Psychology at Brandeis University and the Pennsylvania State University found that when we are shown pictures of either humans suffering or dogs suffering, there is a great deal of overlap in our neural responses to both.

When we empathize with and connect with animals, we expand our social circle beyond our species. This expansion can lead to remarkable, and often startling, benefits. Studies are showing that animal companionship can reduce our risk of heart disease, increase longevity, lower our cholesterol levels, boost our mental health, and reduce stress. When you walk through your front door at the end of a stressful day and your critter greets you, cant you just feel your blood pressure lowering? Stroking an animal relaxes our autonomic systems, as measured by blood pressure, cortisol, and epinephrine levels, and by respiratory rates and skin temperature.

And heres an important thing to note: Other species arent just substitutes for humans. The social support animals provide is independent of human social support. Animals seem to affect us in unique ways. They dont judge us (except by how kind we are to them). They dont compete with us like other humans and they offer us emotional and psychological release. As a result, animals defuse a lot of the human-generated pressure in our lives. Animals remind us that the world is larger than us. They can teach us to look beyond the racism, poverty, and cruelty in our lives to step out of our daily struggles and see the beauty that surrounds us.

Perhaps its now time to acknowledge freely and openly that loving another animal is a unique and wonderful experience that should never be dismissed as insignificant. The animals in our lives are not mere shadows of human companionship. Animals are individuals in their own right; unique beings who enrich our lives with their friendships. Rather than discounting the innate human bond with other species, we should embrace it for the wonderful gift it is.

Silos gifted Patrick and me daily. He helped us experience the pure joys of just being silly, of feeling unconditional love, and of being completely in the moment. I miss his chasing the laser light around the house. I miss his nightly operas. I miss his drooling when he is kneading my stomach. I miss his yelling at me to get up when I sleep in on weekends. I miss his warm body next to mine when we sleep. I miss him. I miss Silos so deeply; it hurts. And I say this without any shame.

I dont miss my pet. I dont miss my cat. I miss my Silos.

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To Love and Mourn an Animal - Sentient Media

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Longevity claims – Wikipedia

This article is about modern, or complete, unvalidated supercentenarian claims up to the age of 130 years. For validated specific supercentenarian claims by modern standards, see List of the verified oldest people. For historical, incomplete claims, including all claims over 130 years, see Longevity myths.

Longevity claims are unsubstantiated cases of asserted human longevity. Those asserting lifespans of 110 years or more are referred to as supercentenarians. Many have either no official verification or are backed only by partial evidence. Cases where longevity has been fully verified, according to modern standards of longevity research, are reflected in an established list of supercentenarians based on the work of organizations such as the Gerontology Research Group (GRG) or Guinness World Records. This article lists living claims greater than that of the oldest person whose age has been independently verified, Kane Tanaka at 116years, 274days, and deceased claims greater than that of the oldest person ever whose age has been verified, namely Jeanne Calment who died at the age of 122 years, 164 days. The upper limit for both lists is 130 years.

Prior to the 19th century, there was insufficient evidence either to demonstrate or to refute centenarian longevity.[1] Even today, no fixed theoretical limit to human longevity is apparent.[2] Studies[1] in the biodemography of human longevity indicate a late-life mortality deceleration law: that death rates level off at advanced ages to a late-life mortality plateau. This implies that there is no fixed upper limit to human longevity, or fixed maximum human lifespan.[3]Researchers in Denmark have found a way to determine when a person was born using radiocarbon dating done on the lens of the eye.[4]

In 1955, Guinness World Records began maintaining a list of the verified oldest people.[5] It developed into a list of all supercentenarians whose lifespan had been verified by at least three documents, in a standardized process, according to the norms of modern longevity research. Many unverified cases ("claims" or "traditions") have been controverted by reliable sources. Taking reliable demographic data into account, these unverified cases vary widely in their plausibility.

In numerous editions from the 1960s through the 1980s, Guinness stated that

No single subject is more obscured by vanity, deceit, falsehood, and deliberate fraud than the extremes of human longevity.[7]

Despite demographic evidence of the known extremes of modern longevity, stories in otherwise reliable sources still surface regularly, stating that these extremes have been exceeded. Responsible, modern, scientific validation of human longevity requires investigation of records following an individual from birth to the present (or to death); purported longevity far outside the demonstrated records regularly fail such scrutiny.

Actuary Walter G. Bowerman stated that ill-founded longevity assertions originate mainly in remote, underdeveloped regions, among non-literate peoples, with only family testimony available as evidence.[8] This means that people living in areas of the world with historically more comprehensive resources for record-keeping have tended to hold more claims to longevity, regardless of whether or not individuals in other parts of the world have lived longer.

In the transitional period of record-keeping, records tend to exist for the wealthy and upper-middle classes, but are often spotty and nonexistent for the middle classes and the poor. In the United States, birth registration did not begin in Mississippi until 1912 and was not universal until 1933. Hence, in many longevity cases, no actual birth record exists. This type of case is classified by gerontologists as "partially validated".[citation needed]

Since some cases were recorded in a census or in other reliable sources, obtainable evidence may complete full verification.

In another type of case, the only records that exist are late-life documents. Because age inflation often occurs in adulthood (to avoid military service or to apply for a pension early), or because the government may have begun record-keeping during an individual's lifetime, cases unverified by proximate records exist. These unverified cases are less likely to be true (because the records are written later), but are still possible. Longevity narratives were not subjected to rigorous scrutiny until the work of William Thoms in 1873. Thoms proposed the 100th-birthday test: is there evidence to support an individual's claimed age at what would be their centenary birthday?[10][11] This test does not prove a person's age, but does winnow out typical pension-claim longevity exaggerations and spontaneous claims that a certain relative is over 150.

These are standardized lists of people whose lifespans remain unverified by proximate records, including both modern (Guinness-era) and historical cases. All cases in which an individual's supercentenarian lifespan is not (yet) backed by records sufficient to the standards of modern longevity research are listed as unverified. They may be factually true, even though records do not exist (or have not yet been found), so such lists include these grey-area cases.

These living supercentenarian cases, in descending order of claimed age, with full birth and review dates, have been updated within the past two years, but have not had their claimed age validated by an independent body such as the Gerontology Research Group or Guinness World Records. Only claims greater than the oldest verified living person, Kane Tanaka, who is aged 116years, 274days, but under 130 years are included in the list.

This table contains supercentenarian claims with either a known death date or no confirmation for more than 2 years that they were still alive. Only claims greater than that of Jeanne Calment who died at the age of 122 years, 164 days, but under 130 years are included. They are listed in order of age as of the date of death or date last reported alive.

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Longevity claims - Wikipedia

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Is longevity determined by genetics? – Genetics Home …

The duration of human life (longevity) is influenced by genetics, the environment, and lifestyle. Environmental improvements beginning in the 1900s extended the average life span dramatically with significant improvements in the availability of food and clean water, better housing and living conditions, reduced exposure to infectious diseases, and access to medical care. Most significant were public health advances that reduced premature death by decreasing the risk of infant mortality, increasing the chances of surviving childhood, and avoiding infection and communicable disease. Now people in the United States live about 80 years on average, but some individuals survive for much longer.

Scientists are studying people in their nineties (called nonagenarians) and hundreds (called centenarians, including semi-supercentenarians of ages 105-109 years and supercentenarians, ages 110+) to determine what contributes to their long lives. They have found that long-lived individuals have little in common with one another in education, income, or profession. The similarities they do share, however, reflect their lifestylesmany are nonsmokers, are not obese, and cope well with stress. Also, most are women. Because of their healthy habits, these older adults are less likely to develop age-related chronic diseases, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, than their same-age peers.

The siblings and children (collectively called first-degree relatives) of long-lived individuals are more likely to remain healthy longer and to live to an older age than their peers. People with centenarian parents are less likely at age 70 to have the age-related diseases that are common among older adults. The brothers and sisters of centenarians typically have long lives, and if they develop age-related diseases (such as high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer, or type 2 diabetes), these diseases appear later than they do in the general population. Longer life spans tend to run in families, which suggests that shared genetics, lifestyle, or both play an important role in determining longevity.

The study of longevity genes is a developing science. It is estimated that about 25 percent of the variation in human life span is determined by genetics, but which genes, and how they contribute to longevity, are not well understood. A few of the common variations (called polymorphisms) associated with long life spans are found in the APOE, FOXO3, and CETP genes, but they are not found in all individuals with exceptional longevity. It is likely that variants in multiple genes, some of which are unidentified, act together to contribute to a long life.

Whole genome sequencing studies of supercentenarians have identified the same gene variants that increase disease risk in people who have average life spans. The supercentenarians, however, also have many other newly identified gene variants that possibly promote longevity. Scientists speculate that for the first seven or eight decades, lifestyle is a stronger determinant of health and life span than genetics. Eating well, not drinking too much alcohol, avoiding tobacco, and staying physically active enable some individuals to attain a healthy old age; genetics then appears to play a progressively important role in keeping individuals healthy as they age into their eighties and beyond. Many nonagenarians and centenarians are able to live independently and avoid age-related diseases until the very last years of their lives.

Some of the gene variants that contribute to a long life are involved with the basic maintenance and function of the bodys cells. These cellular functions include DNA repair, maintenance of the ends of chromosomes (regions called telomeres), and protection of cells from damage caused by unstable oxygen-containing molecules (free radicals). Other genes that are associated with blood fat (lipid) levels, inflammation, and the cardiovascular and immune systems contribute significantly to longevity because they reduce the risk of heart disease (the main cause of death in older people), stroke, and insulin resistance.

In addition to studying the very old in the United States, scientists are also studying a handful of communities in other parts of the world where people often live into their nineties and olderOkinawa (Japan), Ikaria (Greece), and Sardinia (Italy). These three regions are similar in that they are relatively isolated from the broader population in their countries, are lower income, have little industrialization, and tend to follow a traditional (non-Western) lifestyle. Unlike other populations of the very old, the centenarians on Sardinia include a significant proportion of men. Researchers are studying whether hormones, sex-specific genes, or other factors may contribute to longer lives among men as well as women on this island.

Martin GM, Bergman A, Barzilai N. Genetic determinants of human health span and life span: progress and new opportunities. PLoS Genet. 2007 Jul;3(7):e125. PubMed: 17677003. Free full-text available from PubMed Central: PMC1934400.

Sebastiani P, Gurinovich A, Bae H, Andersen S, Malovini A, Atzmon G, Villa F, Kraja AT, Ben-Avraham D, Barzilai N, Puca A, Perls TT. Four genome-wide association studies identify new extreme longevity variants. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Oct 12;72(11):1453-1464. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glx027. PubMed: 28329165.

Sebastiani P, Solovieff N, Dewan AT, Walsh KM, Puca A, Hartley SW, Melista E, Andersen S, Dworkis DA, Wilk JB, Myers RH, Steinberg MH, Montano M, Baldwin CT, Hoh J, Perls TT. Genetic signatures of exceptional longevity in humans. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29848. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029848. Epub 2012 Jan 18. PubMed: 22279548. Free full-text available from PubMed Central: PMC3261167.

Wei M, Brandhorst S, Shelehchi M, Mirzaei H, Cheng CW, Budniak J, Groshen S, Mack WJ, Guen E, Di Biase S, Cohen P, Morgan TE, Dorff T, Hong K, Michalsen A, Laviano A, Longo VD. Fasting-mimicking diet and markers/risk factors for aging, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Feb 15;9(377). pii: eaai8700. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aai8700. PubMed: 28202779.

Young RD. Validated living worldwide supercentenarians, living and recently deceased: February 2018. Rejuvenation Res. 2018 Feb 1. doi: 10.1089/rej.2018.2057. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed: 29390945.

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Is longevity determined by genetics? - Genetics Home ...

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Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS …

WELCOME! The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) has been supported by NIA/NIH grants R01 AG023627-01 (PI: Zeng Yi) (Grant name: Demographic Analysis of Healthy Longevity in China) and P01 AG 008761 (PI: Zeng Yi; Program Project Director: James W. Vaupel), awarded to Duke University, with Chinese matching support for personnel costs and some local expenses. UNFPA and the China Social Sciences Foundation provided additional support for expanding the 2002 CLHLS survey. The Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research has provided support for international training since the CLHLS 1998 baseline survey. Finally, in December 2004 the China Natural Sciences Foundation and the Hong Kong Research Grants Council (RGC) partnered with NIA/NIH, providing grants to partially support the CLHLS project.

Until present, the CLHLS conducted face-to-face interviews with 8,959, 11,161, 20,428, 18,549 and 20,366, 10,188, and 7,192individuals in 1998, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008-09, 2011-12, and 2014, respectively, using internationally compatible questionnaires. Among the 96,843interviews conducted in the sevenwaves, 16,547were with centenarians, 22,232with nonagenarians, 25,719with octogenarians, 19,884with younger elders aged 65-79, and 11,461 with middle-age adults aged 35-64. At each wave, survivors were re-interviewed, and deceased interviewees were replaced with new participants. Data on mortality and health status before dying for the 26,236elders aged 65-110 who died between waves were collected in interviews with a close family member of the deceased.

The CLHLS has the largest sample of centenarians in the world according to a report in Science (see the report). Our general goal is to shed new light on a better understanding of the determinants of healthy longevity of human beings. We are compiling extensive data on a much larger population of the oldest-old aged 80-112 than has previously been studied, with a comparison group of younger elders aged 65-79. We propose to use innovative demographic and statistical methods to analyze longitudinal survey data. Our goal is to determine which factors, out of a large set of social, behavioral, biological, and environmental risk factors, play an important role in healthy longevity. The large population size, the focus on healthy longevity (rather than on a specific disease or disorder), the simultaneous consideration of various risk factors, and the use of analytical strategies based on demographic concepts make this an innovative demographic data collection and research project.

Our specific objectives are as follows:

The organizational framework of the CLHLS is summarized as follows:

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Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS ...

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