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Category : Protein Folding

Working In Science Was A Brutal Education. Thats Why I Left. – BuzzFeed News

Stephanie Singleton for BuzzFeed News

Do you miss being a scientist? some people ask.

Sometimes.

When people talk about science, they usually mean people in white lab coats doing things, like solving equations on the board or preparing solutions in beakers. What they mean is science as this crude mechanism of discovery by which humans refine over decades and centuries a small kernel of knowing. What they mean is grant dollars. What they mean is wild hair. What they mean is clean, aseptic, analytical. Brainy little robot people. White.

I try to be honest about my time in science about the feeling of satisfaction I had when I plotted all of my confocal data and there was a beautiful curve depicting the drop-off in signal as one moved further down the tissue of the gonad. I think about the calculations we did on scraps of paper to check the ratios of inheritance of the genes we introduced. I think of the little side room where we took our coffee and bagels. I think of the feeling of friendship and family that comes with being in a big lab, where everyone has a place, a role, an expertise, a skill. I remember the surprise I felt when people started to come to me because I knew something, because I could help. And how rare that was for me.

For the better part of several years, I saw my labmates every day. For hours and hours. Every holiday, every break, we stayed. We worked. We supported each other. We fought. We feuded. We gossiped. We threw parties for each other. We celebrated. We said goodbye at graduations and retirements. There were people who supported me and cherished me and looked after me. People who treated me like I mattered. A lab is a family. In a way.

Science was beautiful and it was wild and it was unknowable. Science was spending days and weeks on a single experiment with no way to know if it would work and no real way to tell if it had worked. Science was like trying to find your way to a dark forest only to realize that you had always been inside of the forest and that the forest is inside of another, greater, darker forest. Science was laughing with my labmates about television the night before, about the song of the summer, about tennis, about the unruly nature of mold growing on our plates, about cheap wings at Buffalo Wild Wings. Science was being taught to think. Taught to speak. Science was a finishing school. Science was a brutal education. Science made me ruthless. Science made me understand the vast beauty of the world.

But science was also working 15 hours a day for weeks or months. Science was working weekends and holidays. Science was being called lazy for taking a break. Science was the beat of doubting silence after I answered a question put to me. Science was being told that racism was not racism. Science was being told that I was fortunate that I had running water while growing up and that I was actually privileged because there are some places that do not. Science was being told that I was mistaken for a waiter at a party because I had worn a black sweater. Science was being told that I had to work harder despite working my hardest. Science was being told that I talked too much. Science was being told that I was too loud. Science was being told that I was behind, always behind. Science was being told that I had failed but had been gifted a pass by virtue of who you are. Science was being told that I had never once been to class despite attending every session and office hour because I was mistaken for someone else.

Science was being the only black person in the program for four years. Science was saying nothing because I was tired of being corrected about the particulars of my own experience. Science was being told that I should consider moving to the other side of town where more black people live. Science was someone suggesting that I find a church in order to find community. Science was having my hair stroked and touched. Science was being told that I was articulate. Science was watching peoples eyes widen slightly in surprise when I told them what program I was in. Science was the constant humiliation of wondering if I had justified my presence or if I had made it harder for the next black person to get admitted. Science was having to worry about that in the first place.

Science was a place I ultimately left, not so much because I wanted to, but because I had to. Science is not being able to say that because I reflexively feel the rebuttal waiting on the other end of that sentence: You could have made it work if you wanted it enough. Science is not knowing whether I wanted it enough.

Does science influence your writing?

Oh, sure. I guess.

Do you write science fiction?

No, I write domestic realism.

After the above exchange, people sometimes look at me like Im joking and at any moment will drop the faade to reveal that I do in fact write and love science fiction, after all.

But no, I do not write science fiction. I think that if people knew more scientists and spent significant time in their company, they would understand that the worst possible preparation for a career as a science fiction writer is an intensive science education. My training as a scientist makes it difficult to absent myself in the way I need to in order to write good fiction. I can never turn off the part of my brain that knows about protein folding or microscopy or tissue preparation or stem cells or physics or chemistry. Writing science fiction would be an extended exercise in pedantry.

People presume that science and writing are quite different. But they are both ways of knowing. They are ways of understanding the greater mystery of the world. They are systems of knowledge and inquiry. I do not understand something until I have written it, or more accurately put, until I have written my way through it.

Science was being the only black person in the program for four years. Science was saying nothing because I was tired of being corrected about the particulars of my own experience.

I think in many ways, the best preparation for a writer is a period of prolonged and rigorous thought about a difficult and complicated question. You learn to assemble your resources. You learn to fight with yourself. You learn to quarrel on the page with your worst ideas and with the ones you hold dearest. You treat your expectations with suspicion. You demand proof. You demand evidence. You think hard about the alternate hypothesis or other explanations, and you devise strategies to root these out. You learn to live with doubt. You try to prove yourself wrong. You look for places where you have been too soft. Too vague. You eliminate language that contains falsehoods. You eliminate language that can mislead your reader. You ask questions. You pursue answers with all the energy you can muster. You try to put language to what it is you observe. You develop a stamina for iteration. You develop a thick skin. You learn to seek criticism. You treat criticism like kindness. You churn the raw material of life into something that can be understood, and when you fail, you marvel at the mystery of things.

Do you miss science?

Yes. No. Yes. No.

Sometimes, when I dont feel well, I consider the question of how to derive an expression for the degradation of a molecular species in a particular tissue under a given set of circumstances. Old calculus. I turn to YouTube lectures from MIT about thermodynamics. I think of my first winter in Madison, Wisconsin.

The first snowfall was in October. It had been a hot, rainy summer, so much so that the weather seemed to turn all at once with very little warning. I was either in the middle or at the start of my second rotation as a biochemistry graduate student, working in a biophysical chemistry lab and spending most of my day in the windowless instrument facility in the basement. My project was to deduce the effect of protein concentration on the ability of a polymer of DNA to wind itself. I spent a lot of time pipetting various liquids into each other in little cuvettes, slotting them into a machine, and then waiting for the reading. It was the kind of work to which I felt ideally suited, and I could have gone on that way forever. I had recently moved to the Midwest from Alabama to pursue a PhD, and it seemed as likely as anything else that I would go on pipetting and measuring the effect of things like DNA polymer length and protein concentration on DNA winding. It was as removed from the circumstances of my previous life as anything else, and so I didnt have a compelling reason to doubt that this would be the shape my life held.

But I remember sitting down at the desk in the lab and looking out the broad window. There was a large tree at the center of the courtyard that had recently turned yellow. Fall was there in name, but not in temperature. The labs were kept quite cold, and so I wore a sweater indoors and shucked it as soon as I got outside. But that day, I looked out of the window and saw snow drifting down. The flakes were thick and fluffy, and they seemed almost fake. It was the first time I had seen snow in years, and I was totally enamored by it. The other people in the lab were on edge because snow in October portended something dark and awful a hard winter, a long, brutal freeze. Where they saw inconvenient travel and slushy roads, I saw something beautiful if frivolous, a minor novelty. Winter came early that year, and it didnt end until the very beginning of the following summer. When I went to the lake on my birthday in early June, there was still ice in the water.

People presume that science and writing are quite different. But they are both ways of knowing.

When people ask me about my time in science, it is this day which presents itself to me in jewel-like clarity. It is the day something about my life altered irrevocably. Or perhaps it is that the snow has accumulated, the way all such moments do in life, the weight of meaning, of prophecy. Inevitability is an artifact of retrospection. It is because the snow represented a stark deviation from the previous course of events in my life, at the precise moment when my life was changing so wildly, that I remember it. It is not that the snow changed me, but it came at a point when I was starting not to resemble myself. I cannot use the snow to explain to people what my life was like in science. It has the whiff of superstition, folklore. It feels too much like a memory and not enough like an answer. I do not tell them about the snow or how it seemed a benediction at the outset of something I needed desperately to work.

It was only later that I realized this was wishful thinking, and that the snow was just snow.

Do you think youd ever go back to science?

That part of my life is over now.

Ive come to understand that what people want in such a situation is to have their own conceptions of the world confirmed. That is, they want me to say that when you leave science because you have written a novel and a book of stories and have decided to attend an MFA program in creative writing, you are doing something that is antithetical to science. People presume that it is akin to picking up and leaving your home in the middle of the night under great duress, never to return. What they want is the spectacle of the forgotten treasured item, the confirmation that something has been lost, perhaps forever.

I think if people knew what it was that I left, then theyd know better than to ask. It would be like asking someone if they were sad to have left their home with no prospect of returning. It would be like asking someone if they were sad to have left their faith behind. It would be like asking someone if they were sad to have given up some fundamental idea about who they are. It would be like asking someone if they were sad to have watched their life burn to the ground. It would be like asking someone if they were sad to have left their family and friends.

They would mind their own business if they knew.

But they do not know, and so they say things like Science, wow, thats so cool, like, do you miss it?

And I smile because that is what I have learned to do. Because explaining is too hard. Too messy. There is no clean or easy or simple way to make it known to others that I left because I had to, because it was necessary to leave that I do miss it, but I also dont because Im still that person but not that person, that every day I remind myself less of the person I was then. Its sad, like losing a memory of myself, and all those years are lost to me now, all the little tricks and habits of home dropping down and away, as I become this other person known for this other thing, and its too much in the moment to say that I miss it both more and less every day, that I become a person more capable of appreciating what is lost in the grand scheme of things but less a person who knows what it is Ive actually lost, and that there is some painful, brutal, awful misalignment in the scale of those two losses.

When people ask if I miss science, the only answer available to me is an incomplete solution to the problem: Yes. No. Sometimes. Its over now.

Brandon Taylor is the senior editor of Electric Literatures Recommended Reading and a staff writer at Literary Hub. His writing has earned him fellowships from Lambda Literary Foundation, Kimbilio Fiction, and the Tin House Summer Writer's Workshop. He holds graduate degrees from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Iowa, where he was an Iowa Arts Fellow at the Iowa Writers Workshop in fiction. Learn more about his first novel Real Life here.

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Working In Science Was A Brutal Education. Thats Why I Left. - BuzzFeed News

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CryoEM of CBD Tau Suggests Another Unique Protofibril – Alzforum

14 Feb 2020

Evidence continues to pile up that filaments of aggregated tau form unique strains in different tauopathies. Why is that? A paper in the February 20 Cell suggests that post-translational modifications help decide a filaments ultimate shape. Investigators led by Anthony Fitzpatrick, Columbia University, New York, paired cryo-electron microscopy images of tau filaments from people with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and Alzheimers disease with mass spectrometry to identify amino acid adducts. They report unique modifications in the protofibril of each structure.

The powerful combination of cryo-EM with mass spectrometry gives a more complete representation of the aggregated tau protein as it actually exists in the diseased brain, said Lary Walker, Emory University, Atlanta.

Cryo-EM alone yields important insights into the core structure of tau tangles, but precisely localizing post-translational modifications adds flesh to the bones, he said.

Meanwhile, scientists led by Sjors Scheres and Michel Goedert at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, U.K., also used cryo-EM to resolve the structure of CBD fibrils. In the February 12 Nature, they report a mysterious molecule hiding in a fold in the protofibril, much like they found in tau protofibrils from a person with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Fitzpatricks group found a similar molecule. Scheres does not believe this is a post-translational modification because it does not seem covalently attached. Together, the two papers offer the first high-resolution view of tau fibrils in CBD.

Tau Doublet. CBD tau protofibrils comprise two monomers joined back-to-back. Each C-shaped monomer comprises 107 amino acids (circles), that form 11 -sheets (solid black lines). Non-tau moieties (pink) lie trapped within the fold or are covalently connected to the outside. [Courtesy of Arakhamia et al., 2020.]

In recent years, Scheres, Goedert, and colleagues have been methodically resolving the structures of tau filaments found in various tauopathies. They found that paired helical filaments and straight fibrils of tau from AD brain contained the same C-shaped protofibril structure (Jul 2017 news). Protofibrils in tau filaments from Picks disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy assumed different J- and C-shaped structures (Aug 2018 news; Mar 2019). No one had yet examined filaments from CBD, which form from a tau isoform containing all four microtubule-binding domains. Tau can be alternatively spliced to have either three (3R) or four (4R) of these repeats. Fibrils in Picks disease incorporate only 3R tau, those in both AD and CTE have 3R and 4R forms.

Previous structural analyses of tau fibrils with cryo-EM focused on its fibril-forming core. To isolate that, researchers used the enzyme pronase to remove the fuzzy outer coat of the fibril, revealing the more stable interior of the filament. However, pronase can strip away post-translational modifications as well, and tau accrues a whole host of them, some being disease-dependent (Jul 2015 news; Sep 2015 news). The group wondered if these alterations explain the unique structures of fibrils found in different tauopathies.

To find out, co-first authors Tamta Arakhamia, Christina Lee, and Yari Carlomagno used cryo-EM to examine the undigested tau fibrils taken postmortem from the brain of a person with CBD. As has been reported previously, the sarkosyl-insoluble material was made up of both twisted and straight filaments (Ksiezak-Reding et al., 1996). The former was twice as wide and abundant as the latter.

The two fibrils were made of the same conformer of misfolded tau. While straight fibrils comprised just one column of monomers, each rung of the twisted fibril consisted of a linked pair (see image above). For both, the core-forming protofibril spanned amino acids 274 to 380. It included the last residue of R1, all of R2, R3, and R4, and 12 residues after R4. These regions formed 11 -sheetsthree from R2, three from R3, four from R4, and one formed by the last 13 amino acids. The sheets folded into four layers, forming a C-shaped loop (see image above).

Scheres and Goedert also analyzed undigested CBD tau fibrils using cryo-EM. First author Wenjuan Zhang and colleagues found essentially the same -sheet configuration and fold as did Fitzpatrick and colleagues. Zhang also found a molecule inside the fold of the protofibril. It was not covalently attached to any amino acid. Based on the positively charged amino acids that surround it, Zhang predicted this molecule to have a net negative charge of -3, and be 4 x 9 ngstroms in size. Scheres had reported a similarly mysterious molecule inside the fold of CTE protofibrils, but that one was hydrophobic.

Arakhamia also found a large density inside the molecule, deep within a hydrophilic cavity formed by amino acids 281296 and 358374. It was not covalently bound, and so does not appear to be an amino acid modification. However, they found other large, non-tau densities adorning the outside of the fibrils. On the straight fibrils, these were attached to lysines 321, 343, 353, and 369, and to one histidine, H362. On the twisted form, they linked to K321, K353, and H362.

To identify these non-tau densities, Arakhamia and co-authors analyzed fibrils from several people with CBD by mass spectrometry, then mapped the identified PTMs onto the cryo-EM structure (see image below). The authors found numerous phospho, trimethyl, acetyl, and ubiquitin additions. Some amino acids were either acetylated or ubiquitinated. Strikingly, while a few phospho groups attached to the superficial fuzzy outer coat, acetyl and ubiquitin groups predominated in the fibril-forming core.

PTM Map. Mass spectrometry identified modifications on amino acid sidechains of tau monomers from CBD (left) and AD (right). For the most part, acetylation (blue), ubiquitination (orange), and trimethylation (red) modified the fibril-forming cores, while phosphorylation (green) took place outside. [Courtesy of Arakhamiaet al., 2020.]

I found that to be surprising, said Li Gan, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York. I would have assumed that the tau fibrils in the diseased brain would be hyperphosphorylated.

Do these modifications affect folding of tau fibrils? That acetyl and ubiquitin groups bound to the core suggested to the authors that these were present as tau fibrils formed and played a hand in their aggregation. Acetylation may make tau protein less soluble, as it neutralizes positive charges on side chains and reduces their repulsion, predicted the authors. Ubiquitin may stabilize stacks of -sheets by providing more surfaces for hydrogen bonding. Likewise, Zhang and colleagues think the mysterious hydrophilic molecule inside the fold might also be important in formation of the filament. That it is buried inside each monomer suggests that it is continuously incorporated during fibrillization and may stabilize the CBD fold during filament assembly, they wrote.

Could modifications of tau dictate which type of fold, and therefore which strain, accumulates in the brains of different diseases? Arakhamia and colleagues compared CBD tau PTMs with those on tau fibrils from AD. Again, they mapped mass spectrometry data from many fibrils onto the cryoEM structure. As in the CBD fibril, phosphoryl groups attached mainly beyond the protofibril core of AD tau, while acetyl and ubiquitin groups bound to the core. However, the amino acids modified were different in the different protofibrils and in the filaments they formed. In CBD, ubiquitinated K353 and acetylated K343 were found in twisted fibrils. The reverse, acetylated K353 and ubiquitinated K343, modified straight filaments. Similarly, acetyl groups bound K311 and K317/K321 in AD paired helical filaments, but ubiquitin occupies each of those sidechains in straight filaments. The results hint that PTMs influence the shape of aggregating tau fibrils.

This finding implies that ubiquitin ligases and acetyltransferases modulate the behavior of tau, potentially tuning the ratio of fibril subtypes in tau inclusions, Fitzpatrick wrote to Alzforum. It will be informative to use our approach of combining cryo-EM with PTM mapping by mass spectrometry to determine the additional structural role played by PTMs in tau oligomer formation and template-based seeding.

This paper illustrates, on a single-molecule level, that the interplay between acetylation and ubiquitination could play a role in tau fibrillization and strain properties, Gan told Alzforum. If PTMs play such an important role in fibril formation, the recombinant seeds people have been using may not be as biologically relevant, she added. Goedert emphasized this at the Tau2020 meeting held in Washington, D.C., February 1213. He noted that tau structures formed from recombinant protein using heparin are different from those isolated from brain tissue, particularly with respect to the fourth repeat and the 12 amino acids that come after it. Cryo-EM findings cast a lot of doubt on work using recombinant tau structures, he said.

Gan noted that the physiological consequences of the different tau strainsor whether they are even toxicis unclear. Before we develop strain-specific approaches, we need to understand what the strains do. On that note, Marc Diamond, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, wondered whether PTMs were causal or incidental. He suggested that researchers find out by removing PTMs from fibrils before seeding. If that does not change the strain output, it would imply that they were not required for strain identity.Gwyneth Dickey Zakaib

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CryoEM of CBD Tau Suggests Another Unique Protofibril - Alzforum

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Study Shows How Soap Molecules Alter the Protein Structure – AZoM

Written by AZoMFeb 10 2020

During the production of cosmetics and detergents, it is important to control the structure of proteins. But so far, there has been no clear understanding of how both proteins and soap molecules work together to alter the structure of proteins.

Scientists at Aarhus University have successfully produced a comprehensive picture of how soap molecules are able to refold and unfold the proteins on the millisecond timescale.

Figuring out the interactions between soap molecules (surfactants) and proteins has traditionally been significant for the industry, specifically within cosmetics and detergents.

It is known that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)an anionic surfactantunfolds globular proteins, whereas octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8)a non-ionic surfactantdoes the reverse, that is, it helps proteins to refold into a shape.

If washing powders had to work efficiently, then it should be ensured that the surfactants do not alter the structure of proteins or enzymes. This is because any changes in the structure of the enzymes destroy their potential to remove dirt or break down stains.

A majority of the washing powders contain a combination of surfactants that enable the enzymes to stay active. Moreover, certain biotechnologies tend to manipulate the surfactants along with proteins.

Generally, membrane proteins are present in the cell membrane. To extract these membrane proteins from this setting for various analyses, they need to be solubilized by the surfactant. This surfactant should be sufficiently gentle and only enclose the membrane-inserted portion of the proteins, so that their structure is not disturbed.

On the other hand, when the molecular weight of proteins is being characterized in the laboratory, one typical method is to unfold these proteins by SDS, which happens to be the aggressive negatively charged surfactant, and track how these proteins move in a polymer gel within an electric field. But this method works only when the surfactant fully unfolds the proteins and damages their structure.

A debate is still going on about which kind of interactions between the surfactant and the protein is most significant. Is it the electrostatic interactions that occur between the protein and the surfactant charges, or is it only the characteristics of the interface of the aggregates (micelles) that the surfactants form in water, which account for protein unfolding?

Despite a thorough analysis of the unfolding processes at the protein level, a clear picture of the communication between surfactant and protein is not available in these processes. This lack of understanding has been addressed in the present work by utilizing the globular protein -lactoglobulin, or bLG, as a model protein.

A better understanding of the refolding and unfolding of proteins was achieved by plotting the numerous steps of protein-surfactant interactions as a function of time.

At first, bLGthe model proteinwas combined with the anionic surfactant SDS and, at the same time, the time evolution of the development of complexes between surfactant and protein molecules was tracked on the time scale ranging from milliseconds to minutes.

This method allowed the scientists to establish the structure of the emerging complexes. The team then plotted the time course of the refolding process when C12E8, a non-charged surfactant, was introduced to a sample comprising complexes of protein and SDS.

To visualize the way the protein reassembles during the course of the refolding and unfolding process caused by surfactants, complementary spectroscopic methods like tryptophan fluorescence and Circular Dichroism were employed together with time-resolved Small-angle X-ray scattering, or SAXS.

While variations in the bLG structure were tracked by both tryptophan fluorescence and Circular Dichroism, variations in the total shape of the complexes of protein and surfactant were monitored by synchrotron SAXS. Earlier, such kinds of combined techniques have never been used to analyze these processes.

Protein unfolding by SDS was a uniform process, in which all the molecules of proteins follow the same path of unfolding. The SDS complexes, or micelles, directly attack the protein molecules and then slowly unfold the protein so that it creates a shell over the SDS micelle. The refolding process begins when C12E8 micelles form mixed SDS-C12E8 micelles by sucking out the SDS from the protein-SDS complex.

But the actual refolding process appears to follow a number of paths, as numerous structures were observed to form simultaneously, such as mixed micelles of C12E8 and SDS, protein-surfactant complexes (perhaps comprising both C12E8 and SDS), properly folded proteins, and naked proteins that unfolded just like long polymeric chains.

The experiment made it possible to track the inter-conversion between these species, so that the type of processes that are fast and the ones that are slow can be determined.

The folded protein is likely to form from the naked unfolded proteins (quickly) and also from the complexes of protein and surfactants (more gradually). Hence, the most optimal way where surfactants can assist in the protein folding process is to essentially get out of the way and allow the protein to trace its own way back to the folded state.

The outcomes have given a better understanding of the structural variations that take place at the proteinsurfactant level. The results also demonstrated that refolding and unfolding of proteins mediated by surfactants are intricate processes of rearrangements that take place on time scales from less than milliseconds to minutes and also involve a close association between proteins and surfactant complexes.

The Independent Research Fund Denmark funded the study. The study was performed by scientists from Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, and Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Aarhus University, in association with scientists from ESRFThe European Synchrotron in Grenoble (France).

Professor Jan Skov Pedersen (iNANO and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University) and Professor Daniel E. Otzen (iNANO and Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University) were in charge of the research group.

Source:https://international.au.dk/

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Study Shows How Soap Molecules Alter the Protein Structure - AZoM

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The keto diet: Its highs and lows plus 5 recipes – The Gazette

By Daniel Neman, St. Louis Post-Dispatch

My friends Mike and Robin have been on the keto diet for a couple of years. They lost a ton of weight, and they look fit and trim better than Ive ever seen them, and Ive known them more than 30 years.

Their results are not unusual. The keto diet often leads to rapid weight loss.

The trick lies in keeping it off. Mike and Robin have done it well, but a lot of people cant. And therein lies a problem, according to Jennifer McDaniel, a registered dietitian and the owner of McDaniel Nutrition Therapy in St. Louis.

While you might gain benefits in the short term just like any other restrictive diet, most people like, 90% of the people have trouble staying on it. When they lose the weight and they cant maintain the weight that they attained, thats just another failed diet, she said.

The keto diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrates diet its like the Atkins diet on steroids, McDaniel said. People on the diet strive to consume 70% to 80% of their calories through fats, as little as 5% through carbohydrates and the rest through protein.

This helps us lose weight because it forces our bodies to burn fat for energy instead of its preferred fuel, carbohydrates.

McDaniel recommends that her clients not go on the keto diet. The diet changes the microbiome in their bodies (the bacteria, fungi and more that live inside us). It is difficult for people on the diet to consume enough fiber, which can lead to constipation and other gastrointestinal nastiness. And because carbohydrates hold onto water, people on the diet are often dehydrated, she said.

And yet, as Mike and Robin and thousands of others can attest, it works. So I decided to try a few recipes to see how they tasted.

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The rules of the keto diet are highly restrictive, which can make cooking difficult. You need to avoid fruit, sugars, grains, beans and legumes, rice, potatoes, candy and juice.

Ingredients to be encouraged include meat, fatty fish, eggs, butter and cream, cheese, nuts and seeds, certain oils (olive, avocado, coconut) and low-carb vegetables most green vegetables, tomatoes, onions, peppers and the like.

Its a lot to take in, so I began with a simple and entirely wonderful dish of Citrus-Marinated Olives. These are a marvelous treat, combining the heady earthiness of olives with bright notes of orange and lemon. Though the flavors are disparate, they work surprisingly well together.

Best of all, you make them in mere minutes.

Another winner was Keto Egg Cups, a dish that concisely presents everything that is good about keto cooking: Little cups made from prosciutto hold eggs mixed with cream, spinach, roasted red peppers and mozzarella and Parmesan cheeses.

Its a delightful conglomeration of high-fat goodies that come together into a hand-held snack. And its just as fun at room temperature as it is warm.

Two entrees came next. First, I took a recipe for Instant-Pot Keto Mediterranean Chicken and made it a recipe for Keto Mediterranean Chicken Without an Instant Pot. It only took about five minutes longer than the Instant-Pot version, and it was deeply satisfying.

Ill admit, though, that I could not commit to full keto cooking with this one. As written, the recipe calls for searing six chicken thighs and then cooking the dish in the resulting fat.

My six thighs rendered out a half cup of fat. I just couldnt do it. I couldnt cook with and I certainly couldnt eat that much fat. I know the keto diet requires what seems like a shocking amount of fat to work, but I just couldnt see it. I poured out half of the fat, and the dish still felt greasy to me.

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Greasy, but delicious. Meaty chicken thighs are paired with olives, capers, oregano and a cutting splash of vinegar. Its presented with a fresh-tasting yogurt sauce, making an impressive presentation. Id happily eat it anytime, especially if I poured out all but one tablespoon of that fat.

The other entree, Keto Breaded Chicken Cutlets, isnt bad but Id only make it again if I were on the keto diet. The chicken is dredged through almond flour before frying, which gives it a duller flavor than wheat flour.

With wheat flour, the same recipe would be excellent, if familiar. If youre on the keto diet, almond flour is definitely the way to go. Just be sure to use a lot of salt.

The last dish I made was a dessert called Black and White Keto Fat Bombs. Seriously, thats the name, and seriously, thats what they are. They are chocolate-and-vanilla candies that are made with coconut oil and almonds, plus low-carb, powdered sweetener, sugar-free vanilla extract and unsweetened cocoa powder.

How did they taste? Not bad, actually, or at least not too bad. But the texture was so oily and off-putting that most taste testers threw away their samples. One said it was like eating butter.

If youre on the keto diet and youre looking for an extra infusion of fat, then Id say to go ahead and make it. Otherwise, this is one to avoid.

My friend Robin swears by the keto diet and says she is passionate about it. Her health indicators are all great, and she says she has higher energy and alertness. And though the diet is restrictive, she likes what she can eat: cheese, olive oil, butter, nuts and dark chocolate.

The biggest thing she misses is fruit, but she does not miss the 40 pounds she lost.

Then again, I have another friend, Roger, who lost 65 pounds. He just eats more healthfully and mindfully, and walks every day. That sounds easier.

BLACK AND WHITE KETO FAT BOMBS

Yield: 15 servings

2 cups slivered almonds

1 cup coconut oil

1 to 2 tablespoons of your favorite low-carb powdered sweetener

1 teaspoon orange zest

2 teaspoons vanilla extract (sugar-free if on keto diet)

Small pinch salt

2 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder

Line a mini-muffin tin with mini liners.

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Pulse and then process the almonds, oil, sweetener, vanilla, zest and salt until smooth except for small chunks of almond (like chunky peanut butter). Remove half to a small bowl and stir in the cocoa powder.

Fill half of one liner with the vanilla mixture and then quickly fill the other half with the chocolate mixture (it should remind you of a black-and-white cookie). Repeat with the remaining vanilla and chocolate mixtures. Tap the tin on the counter a few times.

Freeze until solid, about 30 minutes. You can remove the liners if youd like. Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to 5 days.

Per serving: 243 calories; 24 g fat; 13 g saturated fat; no cholesterol; 4 g protein; 5 g carbohydrate; 1 g sugar; 3 g fiber; 155 mg sodium; 53 mg calcium

Source: Food Network

KETO MEDITERRANEAN CHICKEN

Yield: 4 servings

1 tablespoon olive oil

8 bone-in, skin-on chicken thighs

Salt and pepper

3 garlic cloves, thinly sliced

1 cup pitted kalamata olives

2 tablespoons capers

2 tablespoons white wine vinegar

1 1/2 teaspoons dried oregano

1 cup whole-milk Greek yogurt

1/4 cup fresh flat-leaf parsley, roughly chopped

2 tablespoons fresh mint leaves, roughly chopped

1 teaspoon lemon zest

1 tablespoon lemon juice

Heat oil in a large pot or Dutch oven over medium heat. Liberally sprinkle chicken with salt and pepper and cook half of the pieces, skin-side down, until the skin is deeply browned, 6 to 8 minutes. Flip and cook until the other side is deeply browned, 4 to 6 minutes. Transfer to a plate and repeat with remaining pieces of chicken.

Pour out all but 1 tablespoon of the fat (if on the keto diet, keep all the fat in the pot). Return pot to heat and add garlic; cook until golden brown, about 1 minute. Add the olives, capers, vinegar, oregano and 1/2 cup water; stir to combine and to scrape up any browned bits at the bottom of the pot. Return chicken pieces to pot and stir to mix.

Cover and cook at a simmer until chicken is done, about 30 minutes. Remove the chicken and boil the sauce to reduce it by half.

Meanwhile, mix the yogurt, parsley, mint, lemon zest and lemon juice, plus a large pinch of salt and pepper. Stir to combine. Taste and season with more salt and pepper, if needed.

Serve the chicken with its sauce, and the yogurt sauce on the side.

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Per serving (nutrition calculated using all the fat from step 2): 627 calories; 48 g fat; 12 g saturated fat; 285 mg cholesterol; 42 g protein; 5 g carbohydrate; 1 g sugar; 2 g fiber; 1,146 mg sodium; 91 mg calcium

Source: Adapted from a recipe by the Food Network

KETO EGG CUPS

Yield: 3 servings

1 tablespoon butter, see note

6 large, thin slices of prosciutto

1/3 cup shredded mozzarella cheese

1/4 cup grated Parmesan

1/4 cup packed baby spinach leaves, chopped

1/4 cup roasted red peppers, chopped

6 large eggs

1/4 cup heavy cream

Salt and pepper

Note: To make this recipe even more keto-friendly, instead of greasing the muffin tin with 1 tablespoon of butter, melt 2 tablespoons and brush the tin with it. It will pool in the bottom of each cup, but that is OK.

Position an oven rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 400 degrees.

Grease the cups of a muffin tin with the 1 tablespoon of butter (or brush with 2 tablespoons of melted butter). Line each cup with a slice of prosciutto, folding and overlapping so that the entire surface of the cup is covered and no metal is peeking through. Divide the mozzarella evenly among the cups. Repeat with the Parmesan, spinach and roasted red peppers.

Whisk the eggs and cream in a large measuring cup or small pitcher; add some salt and a few grinds of pepper. Pour the egg mixture in each cup, making sure not to overfill.

Bake until the eggs are set and wobble only slightly, 10 to 12 minutes (the eggs will continue to cook after they come out). Let cool 5 minutes, then use a thin knife or offset spatula, if necessary, to loosen the prosciutto from the edges of each cup. Transfer to a plate for serving.

Per serving: 321 calories; 22 g fat; 10 g saturated fat; 426 mg cholesterol; 28 g protein; 4g carbohydrate; 1 g sugar; 1 g fiber; 1,779 mg sodium; 272 mg calcium

Source: Food Network

CITRUS-MARINATED OLIVES

Yield: 4 to 6 servings

1/4 cup olive oil

1/4 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes

2 sprigs fresh thyme

1 garlic clove, thinly sliced

1 strip lemon zest, removed with a vegetable peeler

1 strip orange zest, removed with a vegetable peeler

Salt and pepper

1 cup Castelvetrano olives

1 tablespoon lemon juice

1 tablespoon orange juice

Heat the olive oil in a small saucepan over medium heat. Add the red pepper flakes, thyme, garlic, lemon zest, orange zest, salt and pepper to taste and cook, stirring occasionally, until garlic is pale golden, about 2 minutes. Stir in olives and cook until just warm, 2 minutes. Remove from heat and stir in lemon juice and orange juice. Serve warm or at room temperature.

Per serving (based on 4): 167 calories; 18 g fat; 3 g saturated fat; no cholesterol; 1 g protein; 4 g carbohydrate; 1 g sugar; 2 g fiber; 829 mg sodium; 39 mg calcium

Read the original post:
The keto diet: Its highs and lows plus 5 recipes - The Gazette

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

Phyllo, cheese, heaven: Balkan women have been making these treats for centuries – Waterbury Republican American

For many Balkan women, making the dish is like a reflex. Its technique gets passed down from generation to generation.

For my baba, gibanica is a cheese and phyllo-dough creation she lovingly feeds (overfeeds?) her family. For Loryn Nalic of Balkan Treat Box, the same dish is called sirnica, one of the first Balkan recipes she learned. For me, its the cheese-filled wonder Id always hoped to learn how to make, partly as a way of carrying on my familys heritage, partly because its just so delicious.

Even though my name might seem foreign to some (its O-BRAD-o-vic, and its Serbian), the food that derives from the culture of it might not. St. Louis has quickly become a haven for Balkan cuisine. With the influx of immigrants over the past 20 years, Balkan foods and restaurants such as the acclaimed Balkan Treat Box have become a part of St. Louis food culture.

My dads family came to the U.S. when he was 8. He later married my Italian mother. Unfortunately, not many of my dads Serbian traditions were handed down to my two brothers and me. We dont speak Serbian (except for curse words thanks, Uncle Dennis), we dont go to Serbian church, and we definitely dont roast a whole pig on a spit in our front yard.

But what we do have is gibanica.

Gibanica is to Serbs what pizza is for Americans. Its a simple dish consisting mostly of eggs, cheese and oil sandwiched between layers of phyllo dough. People eat it for breakfast, lunch, dinner, a snack, to fix hangovers.

Every time my family goes to visit my Serbian grandmother, or Baba, we joke how the whole neighborhood smells like Serbian food. No matter how much my father stresses that were just stopping by, Baba will make enough food to feed a small village. Theres never enough gibanica, though.

Its the first food my family eats at gatherings, and its the first food to disappear.

Everything about it evokes nostalgia in me: the gooey, cheesy texture; the crunch of the outside layers. Besides the calories, you cant go wrong with gibanica.

Theres no one way to make gibanica, the same way there isnt a single way to make a hamburger. Almost every Balkan or Slavic country has a version of the dish or something similar to it. Many countries make Burek, a phyllo dough-based pie stuffed with beef and sometimes cheese. Greeks have their spinach pie, spanakopita.

The word gibanica itself is a combination of two separate languages: the Croatian verb gbati and Serbian verb ??????, meaning to fold, sway, rock. Altogether, it means folded pie.

When I asked Balkan Treat Boxs owner and chef Loryn Nalic about the dish, she knew it as sirnica.

Its one of my kids favorite dishes, Nalic says. It was the first thing I learned to make when Edo and I were together because he loves it so much.

Loryn and her husband, Edo, turned their food truck into a brick-and-mortar restaurant last year to national acclaim. They invited me into their restaurant on a Monday afternoon, when the day was dim but the wood fire in their oven burned bright.

Everyone makes gibanica and its variants differently. Nalic makes hers with fresh dough and cheese she makes herself. I use store-bought phyllo dough and cottage cheese. Loryn lines dollops of cheese and rolls the filling with the dough into one big coil. I sprinkle oil and cheese on layer after layer of dough.

Its a pretty universally loved dish, Nalic says.

Despite that, its not on the menu at Balkan Treat Box yet. Nalic says the restaurant recently got a few new ovens and may start serving it. As a special treat, the restaurant will serve it Wednesday and Thursday.

Its a very simple dish once you get the technique down. Theres a certain way to handle the dough, whether youre making it yourself or buying it from a store.

Nalic says the first time she watched someone make phyllo dough from scratch, it brought tears to her eyes. It is an art form, she says.

When I saw Nalic and her mother-in-law, Zeta, make and stretch the phyllo dough, I was near tears, too. The way she expertly expanded the dough on a table brought to my mind the countless generations of Balkan women teaching their daughters how to make it and how that knowledge spread to my Baba through a great-grandmother I never met, and now me.

Each time I ask Baba for a written recipe (there have been many times), shell recite the ingredients and say, Just make it. I asked her to teach me how to make it again for this article, with pen and paper in hand.

Now, Im the one making the neighborhood smell like Serbian food.

GIBANICA

Yield: 10 servings

2 pounds phyllo dough, preferably the thickest, country style type

7 eggs

1 1/2 pounds cottage cheese

1 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon baking powder

1/2 pound farmers cheese or feta, crumbled

3 tablespoons soda water

2/3 cup corn oil, divided

Notes: Use the deepest metal baking pan you have, preferably at least 21/2 inches.

1. Thaw phyllo dough according to package instructions. Grease bottom of an extra-large baking pan, preferably 11-by-16-inches (available at European markets). Preheat oven to 425 degrees.

2. Whisk eggs in a large bowl, then stir in the cottage cheese, salt, baking powder and farmers cheese. Stir in the soda water.

3. Cover the bottom of the pan with a single layer of phyllo dough, making sure some of the pieces hang over the sides. Evenly sprinkle 1 tablespoon oil over the dough.

4. Take a piece of phyllo dough and wrinkle it into the dish with as many bumps as possible so it doesnt lie flat. Depending on the size of your pan, use 2 to 3 pieces of dough for each layer. Evenly sprinkle 1 tablespoon oil on the dough, including the sides and corners. Do not allow the oil to pool.

5. Sprinkle 1/2 to 3/4 cup egg-and-cheese mixture on the dough, including the sides, enough to make sure the edges and crevices are covered. Do not allow the mixture to pool.

6. Repeat laying down 2 to 3 pieces of wrinkled dough and sprinkling them with oil and the egg-and-cheese mixture until you have 1 layer of dough left. Cover the top of the dish with that last remaining layer, folding in any excess on the sides. Cover the top with a final layer of the egg-and-cheese mixture and oil, but do not dump any mixture leftovers on top.

7. Bake 40 minutes or until the top turns golden brown and the sides separate from the pan.

Per serving: 568 calories; 30 g fat; 9 g saturated fat; 43 mg cholesterol; 21 g protein; 53 g carbohydrate; 4 g sugar; 2 g fiber; 1,139 mg sodium; 260 mg calcium

Recipe by Monica Obradovic

Related

Continued here:
Phyllo, cheese, heaven: Balkan women have been making these treats for centuries - Waterbury Republican American

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

AI has great potential in transforming the world: Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai – YourStory

In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has become the talk of the town. No forum seems to be complete without talking about how technology is going to impact the world.

In a conversation with Professor Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of World Economic Forum, Sundar Pichai, CEO of Google and Alphabet shared some valuable insights on the age of AI, the future of the open web, and technology's impact on society at the recently concluded WEF summit at Davos, Switzerland.

While several may argue that technology is negatively impacting the world by taking away jobs and comprising the safety and security of individuals, Pichai calls himself a technology optimist and believes that despite its disadvantages, AI has great potential in reforming the world from climate to healthcare.

Credit: World Economic Forum

Edited excerpt from the interview:

Professor Klaus Schwab (PKS) - Welcome Sundar Pichai. My first question is, you have called yourself a technology optimist, and we hear a lot of concerns about technologies. What makes you an optimist?

Sundar Pichai (SP) - What makes me a technology optimist?I think it's more about how I got introduced to technology. Growing up, I think, I had to wait for a long time before I got my hands on either a telephone or television when it came to our household. I discreetly remember how it changed our lives. TV allowed me access to world news, football, and cricket. So I always had this first-hand experience of how gaining access to technology changes people's lives.

Later on, I was inspired by the One Laptop per Child project, where the school was giving $100 laptops to children. They quite didn't get there. But I think it was a very inspiring goal and made a lot of progress in the industry. Later, we were able to make progress with Android. Each year, millions of people get access to computing for the first time. We do this with low-cost affordable Chromebooks. And seeing the difference it has made in people's lives, it gives me great hope for the path ahead. And more recently with AI, just in the last month, we have seen how it can help doctors better detect breast cancer with more accuracy.

We also launched a better rainfall prediction app. Over time, AI can play a role in climate change. So when you see these examples firsthand, I'm clear-eyed about the risks with technology. But the biggest risk with AI may be failing to work on it and make more progress with it because it can impact billions of people.

PKS - Can you explain what we can expect from quantum computing?

SP - Its an extraordinarily important milestone we achieved last year, something thats known in the field as quantum supremacy. It is when you can take quantum computers and they can do something which classical computers cannot. To me, nature at a fundamental level works in a quantum way. At a subatomic level, things can exist in many different states at the same time. Classical computers work in ones and zeros, so we know that's an imperfect way to simulate nature. Nature works differently. What's exciting about quantum computing and why we are so excited about the possibilities is it will allow us to understand the world more deeply. We can simulate nature better. So that means simulating molecular structures to discover better drugs, understanding the climate more deeply to predict weather patterns and tackle climate change, etc. We can design better batteries, nitrogen fixation the process by which we make the world's fertilisers, and accounts for two percent of carbon emissions. And the processes have not changed for a long time because it's very complicated.

Quantum computers will allow us the hope that we can make that process more efficient. So it's very profound. We've all been dealing in technology with the end of Moore's law. It's revolutionised in the past 40 years, but it's levelled off. So when I look at the future and say how do we drive improvements, quantum will be one of the tools in our arsenal by which we can keep something like Moore's Law continuing to evolve. The potential is huge and we'll have challenges. But in five to 10 years, quantum computing will break encryption as we know it today. But we can work around it. We need to do quantum encryption. There are challenges as always with any evolving technology. But I think the combination of AI and quantum will help us tackle some of the biggest problems we see.

PKS - And also to a certain extent, genetics. I think quantum computing and biology will have great potential positive or negative impacts.

SP - The positive one, as you're saying, rightly is to simulate molecules, protein folding, etc. It's very complex today. We cannot do it with classical computers. So with quantum computers, we can. But we have to be clear about all these powerful technologies. And this is why I think we need to be deliberate and regulate technologies like AI, and as a society, we need to engage in it.

PKS - And this leads me to the next question, actually because in an editorial in the Financial Times, which I read just before the annual meeting, you stated and I quote, Google's whole starts with recognising the need for a principle and regulated approach for applying artificial intelligence. What does it mean?

SP - You know, I've said this before that AI is one of the most profound things we are working on as humanity. It's more profound than fire, electricity, or any of the other bigger things we have worked on. It has tremendous positive sides to it. But it has real negative consequences. When you think about technologies like facial recognition, it can be used to benefit. It can be used to find missing people, but it can (also) be used for mass surveillance. And as democratic countries with a shared set of values, we need to build on those values and make sure when we approach AI we're doing it in a way that serves society. And that means making sure AI doesn't have a bias that we build and test it for safety. We make sure that there is a human agency that is ultimately accountable to people.

About 18 months ago, we published a set of principles under which we would develop as Google. But it's been very encouraging to see the European Commission has identified AI and sustainability as their top priorities. And the US put out a set of principles last week. And, be it the OECD or G20, they're all talking about this, which I think is very encouraging. And I think we need a common framework by which we approach AI.

PKS - How do you see Google in five years from now?

SP - We know we will do well, only if others do well along with us. That's how Google works today through search. We help users reach the information they want including businesses and businesses grow along with search. In the US, last year, we created $335 billion of economic opportunity. And that's true in every country around the world. We think with Alphabet, there's a real chance to take a long-term view and work on technology which can improve people's lives. But we won't do it alone. In many other bets, which we are working on where we can, we take outside investments. These companies are independent, so you can imagine we'll do it in partnerships with other companies. And Alphabet gives us the flexibility to have different structures for different areas in a way we need them to fix healthcare, and we can deeply partner with other companies. Today, we partner with the leading healthcare companies as we work on these efforts.

So we understand for Alphabet to do well, we inherently need to do it in a way that works with other companies, creating an ecosystem around it. This is why last year, just through our venture arm, we invested in over 100 companies. We are just investors in these companies, and they're going to be independent companies. We want them to thrive and succeed. And so, you know, that's the way we think about it. But I think it gives us a real chance to take a long-term view, be it self driving cars or AI.

PKS - So last question. You said you are an optimist. When you wake up at night and you cannot sleep anymore, what worries you at some time?

SP - You were pretty insightful. That is true. Yeah, I do wake up at night. What worries me at night? I think technology has a chance to transform society for the good, but we need to learn to harness it to work for society's good. But I do worry that we turn our backs on technology. And I worry that when people do that they get left behind too. And so to me, how do you do it inclusively? I was in Belgium and I went to MolenGeek, a startup incubator in Molenbeek. In that community, you see people who may not have gone to school, but when you give them access to digital skills, they're hungry for it. People want to learn technology and be a part of it. That's the desire you see around the world when we travel. When I go to emerging markets, it's a big source of opportunity. And so I think it's our duty and responsibility to drive this growth inclusively. And that keeps me up at night.

(Edited by Suman Singh)

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AI has great potential in transforming the world: Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai - YourStory

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

Phyllo, cheese, heaven: Balkan women have been making these treats for centuries – The Gazette

By Monica Obradovic, St. Louis Post-Dispatch

ST. LOUIS For many Balkan women, making the dish is like a reflex. Its technique gets passed down from generation to generation.

For my baba, gibanica is a cheese and phyllo-dough creation she lovingly feeds (overfeeds?) her family. For Loryn Nalic of Balkan Treat Box, the same dish is called sirnica, one of the first Balkan recipes she learned. For me, its the cheese-filled wonder Id always hoped to learn how to make, partly as a way of carrying on my familys heritage, partly because its just so delicious.

Even though my name might seem foreign to some (its O-BRAD-o-vic, and its Serbian), the food that derives from the culture of it might not. St. Louis has quickly become a haven for Balkan cuisine. With the influx of immigrants over the past 20 years, Balkan foods and restaurants such as the acclaimed Balkan Treat Box have become a part of St. Louis food culture.

My dads family came to the U.S. when he was 8. He later married my Italian mother. Unfortunately, not many of my dads Serbian traditions were handed down to my two brothers and me. We dont speak Serbian (except for curse words thanks, Uncle Dennis), we dont go to Serbian church, and we definitely dont roast a whole pig on a spit in our front yard.

But what we do have is gibanica.

Gibanica is to Serbs what pizza is for Americans. Its a simple dish consisting mostly of eggs, cheese and oil sandwiched between layers of phyllo dough. People eat it for breakfast, lunch, dinner, a snack, to fix hangovers.

Every time my family goes to visit my Serbian grandmother, or Baba, we joke how the whole neighborhood smells like Serbian food. No matter how much my father stresses that were just stopping by, Baba will make enough food to feed a small village. Theres never enough gibanica, though.

Its the first food my family eats at gatherings, and its the first food to disappear.

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Everything about it evokes nostalgia in me: the gooey, cheesy texture; the crunch of the outside layers. Besides the calories, you cant go wrong with gibanica.

Theres no one way to make gibanica, the same way there isnt a single way to make a hamburger. Almost every Balkan or Slavic country has a version of the dish or something similar to it. Many countries make Burek, a phyllo dough-based pie stuffed with beef and sometimes cheese. Greeks have their spinach pie, spanakopita.

The word gibanica itself is a combination of two separate languages: the Croatian verb gibati and Serbian verb ??????, meaning to fold, sway, rock. Altogether, it means folded pie.

When I asked Balkan Treat Boxs owner and chef Loryn Nalic about the dish, she knew it as sirnica.

Its one of my kids favorite dishes, Nalic says. It was the first thing I learned to make when Edo and I were together because he loves it so much.

Loryn and her husband, Edo, turned their food truck into a brick-and-mortar restaurant last year to national acclaim. They invited me into their restaurant on a Monday afternoon, when the day was dim but the wood fire in their oven burned bright.

Everyone makes gibanica and its variants differently. Nalic makes hers with fresh dough and cheese she makes herself. I use store-bought phyllo dough and cottage cheese. Loryn lines dollops of cheese and rolls the filling with the dough into one big coil. I sprinkle oil and cheese on layer after layer of dough.

Its a pretty universally loved dish, Nalic says.

Despite that, its not on the menu at Balkan Treat Box yet. Nalic says the restaurant recently got a few new ovens and may start serving it. As a special treat, the restaurant will serve it Wednesday and Thursday.

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Its a very simple dish once you get the technique down. Theres a certain way to handle the dough, whether youre making it yourself or buying it from a store.

Nalic says the first time she watched someone make phyllo dough from scratch, it brought tears to her eyes. It is an art form, she says.

When I saw Nalic and her mother-in-law, Zeta, make and stretch the phyllo dough, I was near tears, too. The way she expertly expanded the dough on a table brought to my mind the countless generations of Balkan women teaching their daughters how to make it and how that knowledge spread to my Baba through a great-grandmother I never met, and now me.

Each time I ask Baba for a written recipe (there have been many times), shell recite the ingredients and say, Just make it. I asked her to teach me how to make it again for this article, with pen and paper in hand.

Now, Im the one making the neighborhood smell like Serbian food.

GIBANICA

Yield: 10 servings

2 pounds phyllo dough, preferably the thickest, country style type

7 eggs

1 1/2 pounds cottage cheese

1 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon baking powder

1/2 pound farmers cheese or feta, crumbled

3 tablespoons soda water

2/3 cup corn oil, divided

Notes: Use the deepest metal baking pan you have, preferably at least 2 1/2 inches.

Thaw phyllo dough according to package instructions. Grease bottom of an extra-large baking pan, preferably 11-by-16-inches (available at European markets). Preheat oven to 425 degrees.

Whisk eggs in a large bowl, then stir in the cottage cheese, salt, baking powder and farmers cheese. Stir in the soda water.

Cover the bottom of the pan with a single layer of phyllo dough, making sure some of the pieces hang over the sides. Evenly sprinkle 1 tablespoon oil over the dough.

Take a piece of phyllo dough and wrinkle it into the dish with as many bumps as possible so it doesnt lie flat. Depending on the size of your pan, use 2 to 3 pieces of dough for each layer. Evenly sprinkle 1 tablespoon oil on the dough, including the sides and corners. Do not allow the oil to pool.

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Sprinkle 1/2 to 3/4 cup egg-and-cheese mixture on the dough, including the sides, enough to make sure the edges and crevices are covered. Do not allow the mixture to pool.

Repeat laying down 2 to 3 pieces of wrinkled dough and sprinkling them with oil and the egg-and-cheese mixture until you have 1 layer of dough left. Cover the top of the dish with that last remaining layer, folding in any excess on the sides. Cover the top with a final layer of the egg-and-cheese mixture and oil, but do not dump any mixture leftovers on top.

Bake 40 minutes or until the top turns golden brown and the sides separate from the pan.

Per serving: 568 calories; 30 g fat; 9 g saturated fat; 43 mg cholesterol; 21 g protein; 53 g carbohydrate; 4 g sugar; 2 g fiber; 1,139 mg sodium; 260 mg calcium

Source: Monica Obradovic

The rest is here:
Phyllo, cheese, heaven: Balkan women have been making these treats for centuries - The Gazette

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

High Focus on Product Innovation & Development to Assist the Growth of the Folding Cartons Market between and . 2017 2025 Dagoretti News -…

The market report envelopes an all-in information of the global Folding Cartons market and the nature of the market growth over the foreseeable period. The report provides a comprehensive elaboration of the positives and negatives of the global Folding Cartons market with DROT and Porters Five Forces analysis. With SWOT analysis, the report offers detailed insights about different players operating within the Folding Cartons market. In addition, the analysts of the report have served the qualitative and quantitative scrutinizing of different micro- and macro-economic factors influencing the global Folding Cartons market.

The Folding Cartons market report examines the consumption patter of each segment and the factors affecting the pattern. In addition, the report focuses on the production footprint of each segment in various industries and regions across the globe.

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segmentation to vendor landscape, the report offers a detailed study of critical aspects of the market. Buyers of the report are expected to receive a comprehensive guideline that could lead them to their peak success when operating in the market.

Global Ethanol Market: Dynamics

The world ethanol market is prophesied to be strong against tough conditions that could paralyze its growth. Despite challenging production economics due to low oil prices, ramping up of opponents against the RFS, and uncertainty because of regulatory indecision, the market survived pretty well in 2015. The year showcased the resolve and strength of the ethanol sector. Producers were able to ride out the storm with the help of the indispensable value of ethanol as a low-cost, clean octane booster and thriving export demand. In the U.S., millions of metric tons of high-protein animal feed and billions of gallons of high-octane renewable fuel were produced in ethanol bio-refineries of several states.

Global Ethanol Market: Segmentation

The international ethanol market is forecasted to be classified according to two classes, viz. type of feedstock and end use. As per the classification by feedstock, the market could see a segmentation into coarse grain-based, sugarcane-based, and wheat-based ethanol. Although there could be different markets for ethanol in terms of feedstock type, one is expected to garner a larger share in the coming years. The analysts foresee the market to be dominated by coarse grain-based ethanol, which represented a 53.0% share in 2017.

On the basis of end-use segmentation, the international ethanol market is predicted to be segregated into fuel, industrial solvents, beverages, and cosmetics.

Regionally, North America could set the tone for a staggering growth in the international ethanol market while collecting a revenue of US$48.3 bn by the end of 2022. Another attractive region for the market is prognosticated to be Europe. However, there could be other geographies such as Japan showcasing a slower growth in the near future. Asia Pacific except Japan (APEJ) and the Middle East and Africa (MEA) drew a greater revenue than Japan in 2017.

Global Ethanol Market: Competition

The competition in the worldwide ethanol market is elaborately explained in the publication while profiling key players such as Archer-Daniels-Midland Company, Cargill, Incorporated, Solvay Group, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Pacific Ethanol, Inc., Green Plains, Inc., The Andersons, Inc., Valero Energy Corporation, POET, LLC, and Flint Hill Resources LP.

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High Focus on Product Innovation & Development to Assist the Growth of the Folding Cartons Market between and . 2017 2025 Dagoretti News -...

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Folded, frozen, and faster: JUST Egg is now more convenient, and cheaper, to enjoy – FoodNavigator-USA.com

The folded version of the JUST Egg comes frozen and can be prepared in a few ways: toaster oven, skillet, or for the time-strapped, the standard toaster where the company suggests selecting the bagel setting for about 6.5 minutes.

"The genesis of it really was, how do we figure out a little bit of a faster way for people to enjoy it?We got really excited about this idea of folding and what that means from a texture perspective. It feels more like as if you made an omelette and put it in a biscuit," Tetrick told FoodNavigator-USA.

2019 was the first full year JUST Egg was in retail and the results surpassed both the company's and Tetrick's internal goals for the product.

"Last year we managed to get into most of the major retailers, most of them in the egg set and have managed to become the No. 1 liquid egg," said Tetrick who added that the company has sold the equivalent of 20 million eggs in its first year.

What was even more encouraging, and unexpected, was that the majority of consumers buying JUST Egg are not vegan or vegetarian, and 20% to 22% are buying the product not just as an egg replacement, but as their main source of protein, said Tetrick.

"We didnt expect that was going to happen.Even saying it out loud, you have a hard time wrapping your brain around it."

Tetrick noted that the new folded egg is a different, fluffier version than the patty plant-based egg product JUST Egg supplies to the foodservice channel.

The product will begin rolling out in April in the freezer section of Whole Foods Markets; select Albertsons Safeway stores; Gelsons Markets in Southern California; Stop & Shop in the Northeast, Kings Food Markets in the New York metro area and Giant Martin's in the Mid-Atlantic, with more to come.In all, it will be sold in approximately 5,000 stores at launch and will be available for restaurants and other foodservice destinations from major distributors.

"There are millions of shoppers going to the frozen set who have probably never heard of us, probably never heard of JUST Egg, and now theyll be able to see it," said Tetrick.

Retail frozen food alone is a $57bn business annually, with the category growing in both dollar and units in 2018, according to the American Frozen Food Institute and Food Marketing Institute.

The folded egg, which was developed with breakfast sandwiches in mind, has potentially much broader, all-day appeal with consumers, says the firm. According to arecent survey, conducted by the company of nearly 1,000 consumers, 50% would use the fold-over egg replacement as a general sandwich ingredient and 40% would add it to other dishes such as salads or fried rice, underscoring its appeal as a convenient protein source.

As a frozen product, the JUST Egg contains the same base ingredients (i.e. mung bean protein) but is free-from the preservatives of the liquid egg product, noted Tetrick. At retail, the products will be placed either next to traditional frozen breakfast sandwiches or in the plant-based protein alternatives section.

"It will next It will be good for us, because you can hypothesize about which set works best," Tetrick said. With the company's liquid JUST Egg product, the products perform better when placed next to conventional eggs than when put next to chilled alternative proteins.

"People are not just looking at this as a way to replace an egg, thats an element of it, but theres a big percentage of people that are looking at this as clean, healthy, sustainable protein,"he noted.

Opening up its own dedicatedproduction facility in Western Minnesota at the end of last year, means that JUST Egg can start reducing costs and make the products accessible to all, not just high-income shoppers.

"Our objective ultimately is to be the most cost effective protein source human beings consume, not just the most cost efficient egg source," Tetrick said. The average cost of an egg, globally, is about USD$0.08. Through efficient production and ingredient sourcing of the mung bean, JUST Egg has been able to reduce its cost to just over USD$0.20/egg, while still more than double the cost, it is much more cost effective than when the company first launched seven and a half years ago, said Tetrick.

According to the company, it has cut its cost of the final JUST Egg product to $4.99 SRP a bottle, down from $7.99. Its folded egg product is also $4.99 SRP, with four folded eggs to a box.

"Its not just the taste and texture, we need to hammer on this cost piece so that the folks that I grew up with in Birmingham, Alabama, can not just afford, but easily afford," added Tetrick.

More here:
Folded, frozen, and faster: JUST Egg is now more convenient, and cheaper, to enjoy - FoodNavigator-USA.com

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

The DeepMind algorithm to solve two complex problems of biology – The Times Hub

The algorithm was developed by experts of the company DeepMind, solve two complex tasks in the field of biology. The network will investigate the processes of protein folding and the operation of the human brain.

Scientists believe that some of the program, based on machine learning can, like the human brain, to work on the reward system. Usually it is based on the production of dopamine. Experiments on mice showed that the probable scheme of award to build certain neurons.

The neural network also needs to predict a proteins fold. The work is to understand the structures of the compounds with amino acid composition. The problem is particularly acute in medicine and biology so as to identify all configurations of the protein, scientists will need at least 13.8 billion years.

Demis of Hassabis created DeepMind to develop algorithms to beat people in chess. Now the company has delivered more challenging goal is the use of artificial intelligence to solve difficult problems with science.

Natasha Kumar is a general assignment reporter at the Times Hub. She has covered sports, entertainment and many other beats in her journalism career, and has lived in Manhattan for more than 8 years. She studies in University of Calcutta. Natasha has appeared periodically on national television shows and has been published in (among others) Hindustan Times, Times of India

Excerpt from:
The DeepMind algorithm to solve two complex problems of biology - The Times Hub

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson


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