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Category : Veganism

Love Earth Cafe: A new vegan eatery dedicated to healthy choices –

STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. -- Love Earth gives a big, green hug to Staten Islanders, fresh on the food scene as the boroughs first and only dedicated vegan eatery.

Veganism is on the rise, said Danielle DiLillo with a broad smile. She owns the business along with Renee Raia and Anthony Gerardi.

Were just here to raise consciousness and awareness of high-vibration foods, said Di Lillo, over a mason jar of just-pressed, potent celery juice that the kitchen normally blends with lime. Its one of several Healing Nectars on the menu highlighted as Farmacy.

Love Earth, in Richmond Valley, also blends concoctions like Miracle Red Juice --- beets, carrots, apples, celery, limes and ginger -- and Anti Cancer elixir -- cucumber, celery, kale, spinach and lemons.

High-vibe foods are loaded with nutrients and very important ones that can heal physical and mental health, explained Di Lillo.

When you put dead animals in your body, youre legitimately killing your vibe, said Di Lillo. And out of respect for the Mother Earth, the business uses no plastic.

Love Earth vows a brand of bakery thats gluten-free, peanut-free, soy-free, dairy-free and egg-free. Food is baked, not fried. Cupcakes, chocolate chip cookies, muffins and cookie dough balls, part of its initial line of sweets, use organic sugar. Regular sugar, Di Lillo pointed out, uses animal bone char in the processing, which gives the granules their clean, white color.

Sugar is so bad for you. Here we do all these allergen-friendly desserts but what Im looking to do next is to bake everything with coconut sugar, said Di Lillo.

Although considered healthy, Raia said that food is not prepared with honey. It just is too controversial of a food among vegans, as the insects can be compromised and exploited by human harvesting. So the restaurant avoids using it.

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

Burgers are made with veggies like spinach and artichoke. Earth Love Cafe is a vegan-friendly restaurant that caters to various diet regimens because they use no animal products like dairy and eggs. (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

Also on the menu are five salads with various beds of greens and house versions dubbed Loving Kale, Love Spinach Salad and the Love Salad, the most basic with greens, cucumbers, red onions, olives and tomatoes with a roasted pepper vinaigrette.

Veggie-based burgers come on a bun (not gluten-free) with chips and a tussle of lettuce. Patties are made from portobello mushrooms, pea protein, chickpeas, black beans and sweet potato. An artichoke-spinach version is blended to toothsomeness with gluten-free flour, rice and nutritional yeast. It comes with a tomato and creamy pesto, one of Di Lillos signature sauces.

Soups on this inaugural menu include Coconut Thai Butter Bean, Vegetable Minestrone with red beans and Santa Fe, a chunky brew of garlic, onions, bell peppers, beans, sweet potato, cilantro and Ayurvedic spices.

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

The kitchen crew (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

There are veggie-centric sandwiches like the eggplant-driven ELT and apps like the fiery Buffalo Cauliflower, hummus and guacamole with chips. Raia is a two-time Staten Island Advance Cookbook and one of her award-winning dishes lands on this menu -- the mojito bean and plantain salsa served with tortilla chips.

Di Lillo and Raia are passionate about their vegan lifestyle.

Di Lillo introduced a vegan and Paleo-diet menu at a former venture, the now-closed Dominicks Bakery. Raia has self-published a book in 2017 on the subject, Heal the Planet. Heal Your Soul: Awaken Through Veganism." The restaurant has been years in the works. Di Lillo admitted it was hard to find investors who believed in the project. But Gerardi understood what the pair was trying to do. And the concept hit home since his son suffers from severe food allergies.

Love Earth will roll out cooking classes, yoga and Broga, a yoga tailored for men.

We have a space downstairs for anyone who wants to help humanity on a collective scale, said Di Lillo.

There are so so so many benefits when you eat from the sun and from our mother, she emphasized, adding, Love earth! Love your mamma!

Love Earth is located at 4916 Arthur Kill Rd., Richmond Valley; 646-960-6411. In the works is the website The cafe is kosher certified.

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

Burgers are made with pea protein, mushrooms, black beans, sweet potato or artichoke and spinach. (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

Celery juice with or without lime (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

Roasted red pepper pesto can to burgers (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

A chandelier at the front of Earth Love (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

Some of the greens in the decor (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

The dining room features sit-down service (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

(Staten Island Advance/Pamela Si

Cookie dough balls and chocolate chip cookies (Staten Island Advance/Pamela Silvestri)

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Love Earth Cafe: A new vegan eatery dedicated to healthy choices -

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

Movers & Thinkers: The Butcher, The Vegan Baker, The Potions Maker – WPLN

When we decide what to eat or drink, we're making choices that go beyond flavor. What we consume can be a tool for social change, a connection with generations past, and a major influence on our well-being.

In this lively episode, WPLN's Emily Siner talks to Chris Carter of Porter Road Butcher, Tiffany Hancock of The Southern V, and Leah Larabell of High Garden Tea three food entrepreneurs who are merging innovation and tradition. How did they start down the paths of local meat production, veganism and herbalism? And how do they navigate pushback from skeptical customers?

Support our podcasts by donating at and noting that you listen to Movers & Thinkers. Hear previous episodes of Movers & Thinkerson our website,Apple PodcastsorGoogle Play Music.

Leah Larabell grew up close to the land, and she began studying herbalism over a decade ago. She opened High Garden in East Nashville with her husband Joel in 2012. Through running the tea shop and offering classes, she is able to reintroduce many people to their forgotten green friends and a way of life full of joy, support and connection.Leah considers it her purpose to bring person and plant back together in the bonded relationship that it once was and can be.

Tiffany Hancock craved the flavors and seasonings from her past. She couldn't find them after she transitioned to veganism. But Tiffany loves a challenge, so she went to the kitchen and made magic. Now, you can find her sprinting back and forth, cooking and baking all the items for The Southern V in North Nashville. Her Southern take on vegan/plant-based dishes has provided many customers with a new perspective on the lifestyle, as well as given a nostalgic experience to longtime vegans.

Chris Carter made his entry into the restaurant industry as a busboy in high school and later studied culinary arts at Le Cordon Bleu Culinary Institute in Arizona. It was after culinary school, however, working at Flemings Steakhouse, where Chris came to appreciate high-quality meat and decided to create Porter Road Butcher. While not driving all over the region to pick up animals, processing and cutting meat in Princeton, Ky., or serving customers in the East Nashville shop, Chris enjoys going to a good concert, drinking several cold beers while fishing, roaming the aisles of Bass Pro Shop at Opry Mills and finding his center in a hot yoga class.

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Movers & Thinkers: The Butcher, The Vegan Baker, The Potions Maker - WPLN

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

Vegan Cafe Ready to Open in Wilkes-Barre – WNEP Scranton/Wilkes-Barre

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WILKES-BARRE, Pa. -- Dairy-free pizza, meatless burgers, and veggie buffalo wings are just some of the offerings at a new vegan restaurant that opens Tuesday in Wilkes-Barre.

Eden A Vegan Caf opens this week on South Main Street in downtown Wilkes-Barre and the owner tells us it's not like your typical vegan restaurant.

"We take traditional comfort foods that people already love and we veganize them, so we just use different proteins, so instead of animal products and dairy and eggs, we use proteins like soy, wheat, pea protein, and we make burgers and pizza and wraps and wings," Christian Pilosi explained.

"It's such a big trend right now," said employee Emily Brodhead. "A lot of people are into the whole veganism thing. A lot of people don't understand what it is, so it gives people a really prime opportunity to come in here and eat their everyday foods that they would usually get anywhere else to have it here."

Pilosi has had a location in downtown Scranton for more than a decade. He says he's thrilled to bring this option to people in Wilkes-Barre and excited to be so close to Wilkes University.

"It's all student apartments on the second and third floor. There's student apartments behind us, and they just wanted one storefront. They talked to a few people and they chose us and we couldn't be happier about it," Pilosi said.

Students at Wilkes University tell Newswatch 16 they think new restaurants and new businesses opening up nearby adds flavor to life on campus.

"I think it's a great opportunity. Obviously, it's a little bit more of a condensed campus and it's smaller, so it allows the students to go off and have more opportunities to enjoy different cuisine and enjoy different things to entertain themselves, so I think it's just one of those things to make their college experience more enjoyable," senior Eric Beideman said.

"I think that there's going to be a lot of people that come in just to see what it is, just to get the experience and kind of test their curiosity. I think we're going to get a lot of people really hooked on it. I think it's going to be a really, really, really busy day, a busy week, and just a busy future for us at Eden," Brodhead added.

Eden A Vegan Cafe opens Tuesday at 11:30 a.m. on South Main Street in Wilkes-Barre.


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Vegan Cafe Ready to Open in Wilkes-Barre - WNEP Scranton/Wilkes-Barre

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

The unstoppable rise of veganism: how a fringe movement went …

Late on a Thursday afternoon in early March, just off Brick Lane in the heart of Londons nightlife hotspot Shoreditch, 23-year-old Louisa Davidson is taking calls and co-ordinating cables and scaffolds, as shocking pink Vegan Nights banners are hung around the expansive courtyards of the Truman Brewery. There is a chill in the air, quickly warmed by a buzzing atmosphere more like a music festival than an ethical food fair, as BBC Radio 1Xtra and House of Camden DJs play records, cocktails are poured and entrepreneurs sell zines and street wear alongside the vegan sushi, patisserie and filthy vegan junk food.

Davidson had been running weekend markets at the venue when she noticed a sharp increase in the number of vegan food businesses and vegan menus on offer. So last September, with her colleagues, she decided to put on a one-off vegan night market, with music, drinks and food. On the day there were queues around the corner, she says. We were not prepared for it at all! There was so much interest that by Christmas we decided to make it a monthly thing. Its all happened very quickly. Inspired by its success, and the traders she was working with, Davidson switched from vegetarian to a vegan diet in January.

Were riding on that wave of veganism getting into the mainstream, Davidson says. People are curious about it and theyre finding out that vegan food is not just a boring salad, its experimental, and the food traders are amazing people can have a drink, listen to music and hang out. First and foremost, we want to offer a positive platform, whether youve never had a fried jackfruit before or youre a longstanding vegan. Many of the traders are new to it as well, with a couple of them having launched their businesses at Vegan Nights. It is a community and everyone supports each others businesses. Its great to be a part of it.


Rise in the number of vegans in Britain from 2006-2016; 542,000 people said they were vegans in 2016.


Veganuary 2018 participants, of which 60% were under 35, up from 3,300 on its 2014 launch.


Increase in vegan products launched in the UK between 2012 and 2016.


The year the term vegan was coined by woodwork teacher Donald Watson. Rejected words include dairyban, vitan and benevore.


Percentage of under-35s who have tried a vegan diet.

Veganism might have recently acquired a hipster cache at buzzy London events such as Vegan Nights and the weekly Hackney Downs market established by influential blogger Sean OCallaghan, AKA the Fat Gay Vegan, but its surging popularity is a national phenomenon, with plant-based food festivals and businesses booming from Bristol to Inverness.

The high street is adapting with incredible speed. Big chains such as Marks & Spencer and Pret a Manger have introduced vegan ranges, Wagamama has a new vegan menu, Pizza Hut recently joined Pizza Express and Zizzi in offering vegan pizzas, while last year Guinness went vegan and stopped using fish bladders in its brewing process, after two and a half centuries. Scrolling through Twitters popular #veganhour (an hour of online recipes and ideas running 7-8pm every Tuesday, and trending at number seven nationally when I looked), alongside less surprising corporate interventions from Holland & Barrett and Heavenly Organics is a tweet from Toby Carvery, trumpeting its vegan cherry and chocolate torte. Sainsburys and Tesco have introduced extended new ranges of vegan products, while the latter recently appointed American chef Derek Sarno to the impressive job title of director of plant-based innovation.

If this is the year of mainstream veganism, as every trend forecaster and market analyst seems to agree, then there is not one single cause, but a perfect plant-based storm of factors. People cite one or more of three key motives for going vegan animal welfare, environmental concerns and personal health and it is being accompanied by an endless array of new business startups, cookbooks, YouTube channels, trendy events and polemical documentaries. The traditional food industry is desperately trying to catch up with the flourishing grassroots demand. What do you mean, weak, limp and weedy? In 2017, the vegan category is robust, energetic, and flush with crowdfunding cash, ran an article headlined Vegan Nation in industry bible the Grocer in November, pointing to new plant-based burger company Vurger, which hit its 150,000 investment target in little more than 24 hours.

The rapid explosion of the annual Veganuary campaign, in which curious omnivores and vegetarians sign up to try out veganism for a month and are then plied with recipes and other advice, shows how fast veganism is growing. (The choice of January is significant, given the resonances of fresh starts, good intentions and post-Christmas diets.) Veganuary was launched in 2014, with 3,300 people signing up; by 2016, there were 23,000 participants, then 59,500 in 2017, and a staggering 168,000 this year and these are just the numbers that signed up officially online. Notably, 84% of this years registered participants were female, while 60% were aged under 35. Showbiz magazines and websites are full of lists of fully vegan celebrities Ellie Goulding, Natalie Portman, Ariana Grande, Woody Harrelson, JME, Ellen DeGeneres, Liam Hemsworth; we could go on all of them making Beyonc and Jay-Z look a bit wet, having tried a vegan diet for just 22 days.

A weekend outing to Blackpool in 2018 offers much of what it always did: seagulls, slot machines, big-screen sport, family meal deals, traditional fish and chips, pirate rides, poncho vendors, palm-readers and pound shops. But there are other, newer diversions, too. On a grey Saturday morning in low season, at St Thomas church, north of the city centre, the Blackpool Vegan and Green festival is humming with people. Something of the churchs evangelical spirit is alive here, too.

Were in a non-vegan world, says volunteer Elizabeth King, delivering her 10 steps to going vegan talk in a back-room. But things are changing rapidly and if youre trying to go vegan, youre a pioneer. She talks about shopping challenges and getting around social stigma, meal-planning and vitamin supplements, how to make holidays and dining out easier, how to check labels and online resources and the group of new vegans and could-be-vegans asks keen questions and shares local tips. People have an assumption you live off lettuce, dont they? But thats changing.

With almond milk and vegan ranges now available in supermarkets, its a testament to soaring public curiosity that people are being drawn to once specialist events in such numbers. Its jam-packed isnt it! says Michelle Makita, with a laugh, from the Little Blue Hen vegan soap stall. Over the course of the day, hundreds of people stream in; visitors from across Blackpool, the north-west, even Spain. There is an African superfoods stand, a Glaswegian jerk pie company, Turkish gzleme flatbreads, cakes, curries, wraps, sushi, vegan candles, vegan pet food, shlocky T-shirts and accessories (Zombies eat flesh, go vegan). Darting around in a high-vis jacket, organiser Roddy Hanson squeezes past the prams, teenagers, bearded veterans in earth-tone baja tops, normies and newbies.

Grabbing some air and calm when the lunch rush has finally subsided (at about 4pm), Hanson is a mine of information about vegan history and culture and has seen a tightly bound, activism-driven outsider community become an accepted phenomenon in a matter of a few years. When I went vegan in the 1980s, it was primarily two groups: hippies and punks. Some people who come to our events think its going to be wall-to-wall people with pink hair and piercings, but the whole culture has changed its a very broad crosssection.

He has been vegan for 30 years, a veteran of animal rights activism, but this convivial, family-day-out approach to winning converts is more his speed. Ive never been the sort of person who wants to stand outside fur shops and get into arguments with people. Its more positive this way and you can choose to engage with it if you want, rather than be confrontational. Ive been involved in anti-circus demos where fights have broken out with some of the protesters and the circus staff; that kind of thing was a lot bigger in the 80s. Now its based around vegan groups and fairs, which didnt really exist then.

Last summer, Paul White opened Faringos, the first vegan restaurant in Blackpool. Only a year ago, he was an omnivore, running a hotel with an Italian steakhouse attached in which he was also head chef. One weekend, they had a vegan guest staying, which prompted lots of lengthy conversations about veganism and he decided to try running a small vegan menu alongside the existing one. Within two weeks, we had more people eating vegan food than anything else, he recalls. What surprised us was people were coming from all over Blackpool. There were hidden vegans in Blackpool who were struggling in silence! That was June last year and at that point we decided to turn the restaurant 100% vegan and it just exploded on Facebook. I went vegan as well, as head chef, and I feel better for it. We have such a wide range of people coming in: well have a table of six people who are protesters from an anti-fracking demonstration [Preston New Road fracking site is just three miles away], sat next to a table of two people who are multimillionaires, sat next to international rugby players.

Whereas before, veganism may have been viewed like you were giving up something, now its been reframed as what you gain

Theres been a knock-on effect to their success, he says, with numerous other restaurants in the city beginning to offer vegan options on their menus and White is preparing to open the first vegan food shop in Blackpool, too. One of the main drivers, he says, is the critical mass of information available online, both motivating people to change in the first place and making it easier than ever to do so. When people see documentaries like Cowspiracy, one is enough. The fact social media is as big as it is now, it spreads things so much faster. I think thats why its mushrooming right now. And it is mushrooming.

In May 2016, the Vegan Society commissioned Ipsos Mori to poll 10,000 people on their dietary habits and found that Britains vegan population had increased from 150,000 to 542,000 in the space of a decade (alongside a vegetarian population of 1.14 million). Of those, 63% were female and, significantly for veganisms future growth, almost half were in the 15-34 age category. What is astonishing is that the pace of change in the two years since the survey was carried out has been seemingly exponential it seems plausible to speculate the number may have doubled again in that time.

Tim Barford, manager of Europes largest vegan events company, VegfestUK, has been vegan for three decades and points to the deeper roots of this recent explosion of interest. There is a big plant-based shift culturally, he says, a systemic change in the way that were approaching food and the way that we feed ourselves. Remember that successive governments over 15 years have been ploughing money into persuading people to eat more fruit and vegetables, with the five-a-day campaign. Then youve got a real cultural change among millennials, which is very much built around justice and the way we look at animals.

He also points to a new non-violent breed of millennial activist, such as James Aspey, who took a years vow of silence to raise awareness of animal rights issues. Thirty years ago, it was more balaclavas and intimidation, almost verging on terrorist activities. This new breed are not playing up to that stereotype they recognise the danger of it. Theres a real understanding and compassion among todays activists. Im a bit older and that wasnt there in the radical 70s and 80s, with the punk rock, fuck you kind of attitude its now more reflective and therefore more effective.

That less aggressive approach is winning a lot of new converts, but for veterans such as Barford its still an evangelical movement with an irreducible political message. Our challenge with VegFest is to combine the feelgood factor, the fun and sociable atmosphere, with quite a strong moral and ethical standpoint. We want to attract people in without putting them off, but then once weve got them in, we dont want them to walk away thinking this is just a health fad, just food and shopping and entertainment.

He thinks the rise of Jeremy Corbyn a vegetarian of almost 50 years, who has recently spoken about his admiration for his vegan friends has helped fuel a definite appetite for justice. Justice is no longer a dirty word, people can have a conversation about justice for the 70bn animals killed for food, without being shot down and screamed at as a radical extremist and I think Corbyn has helped a bit, with the way hes won over a bit of the middle ground.

One influential factor that comes up regularly when talking to new vegan converts is a series of polemical online documentaries, or advocacy films, many of them on streaming services such as Netflix, documenting the damage animal agriculture does to the environment, or meat-eating does to human health, or exposing gory scenes in slaughterhouses and factory farms. In Blackpool, Michelle Makita tells me the 2005 film Earthlings, with its harrowing, hidden-camera footage of animal suffering, was the epiphany that led her to switch to veganism. I think I cried for about three days I was hysterical, she says. The thriving sub-genres titles tell their story in microcosm: Vegucated, Planeat, Forks Over Knives, Live and Let Live, Peaceable Kingdom. A common trope among recent converts is that the revelations about the brutality of the meat, dairy and egg industries were hidden from view, until these documentaries exposed them.

The genres influential break-out hit was the 2014 documentary Cowspiracy, which looks at the environmental impact of animal agriculture, its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation and excessive water use. It is a film about climate crisis in the first place, which argues that meat and dairy farming is the hidden evil responsible for a dying planet. Made by Californian documentary-makers Keegan Kuhn and Kip Andersen, amiable frontman Andersen tells the story of how Al Gores film An Inconvenient Truth changed his life as a young man (It scared the emojis out of me) and committed him to an environmentally conscious lifestyle. With Kuhn, he has now no doubt changed the lives of countless others by persuading them that turning off the taps, cycling everywhere and home composting is not enough: that worldwide conversion to veganism is the only possible way to save the planet.

Cowspiracys marketing strapline claims it is the film environmental organisations dont want you to see. The alleged conspiracy of the title is that environmental groups such as Greenpeace, Sierra Club and the Rainforest Action Network are focusing all their efforts on fossil fuels and renewable energy, while ignoring the real threat from livestock farming. The evasiveness of their spokespeople on camera is often embarrassing, although perhaps the reason these NGOs wouldnt want people building their politics around the film is its fast-and-loose use of highly questionable statistics. The original version of the film claimed 51% of global greenhouse gases were produced by animal agriculture, based on a single, non-peer-reviewed academic paper the scientific consensus is closer to 15%. Dont use the 51% figure. Please. Youre making us all look bad, vegan author Danny Chivers wrote in the New Internationalist. If you want more people to understand that animal agriculture is a significant part of the climate change picture, bear in mind that there are lots of good reasons why many people are focusing on the fossil fuel industry and its not an either/or issue.

For the version that premiered on Netflix in 2015, Andersen and Kuhn changed the figure and Leonardo DiCaprio came onboard as executive producer. Since then, they have made an equally hard-hitting follow-up, What the Health, which looked at the effect of meat and dairy on human diseases. While their films have been controversial (registered dietician and vegan Virginia Messina called What the Health junk science), their impact as polemicists is undeniable in a world where different strategies of evangelism are always being debated. Cowspiracys original crowdfunding pitch speaks volumes about its appeal: Together, we arent just creating a movie, we are creating a movement.

Of course, the vegan movement already existed, but Cowspiracys success reflects a new emphasis on animal agriculture, in particular cattle farming, in the context of the deepening climate crisis. Critical in this refocusing from animal welfare as the primary motive for veganism was a 2006 report produced by the UN, Livestocks Long Shadow, which described the livestock sector as one of the most significant contributors to environmental degradation, both globally and locally. A follow-up UN report in 2010 warned that rising meat and dairy consumption, and a global population predicted to be 9.1 billion by 2050, meant a shift towards veganism was vital to save the world from climate catastrophe and food shortages. Overall, agriculture accounts for 70% of global freshwater consumption, 38% of total land use and 19% of the worlds greenhouse gas emissions; within this, the footprint of meat and dairy production is heavily disproportionate.

Oxford academic Dr Marco Springmann has attempted to model what a vegan planet would look like, especially as climate change, food shortages and population growth intensify. He projected that were the world to adopt a vegan diet by 2050, the global economy would benefit to the tune of $1.1tn savings in healthcare costs and environmental savings of $0.5tn and a cut in greenhouse gas emissions by two-thirds. Its quite hard to argue with numbers that speculative especially when one is not a fellow of the Oxford Martin Programme on the Future Of Food but what is certain is that the makers of Cowspiracy were right in their general argument, if not some of the key specifics.

Our motivation was that animal agriculture was so under-discussed, says Kuhn. We really felt promoting a plant-based lifestyle had to be at the forefront of the environmental movement and environmental veganism had to be a movement in itself, versus animal rights or health.

The speed of change they have witnessed since then has been exhilarating even in just four years. Information can pass so freely and easily now, Anderson says. It was only a matter of time before the truth about animal agriculture was revealed. Its not in your face like racism or sexism its deeply ingrained in our culture, and financially ingrained, but now that its revealed, people just dont want to be a part of that horrific industry. Its like a weight off their shoulders; getting clean of the lies and the destruction.

People feel empowered, it doesnt feel like a sacrifice. Thats a huge shift. Whereas before, veganism may have been viewed like you were giving up something, now its been reframed as what you gain: you gain health, you gain a greater sense of living in bounds with your values, you gain all the environmental benefits.

One can become vegan in stages there are no rules and you are only answerable to your own conscience

Kuhn says that consumer pressure from below will create a domino effect. These corporations are just going to follow the dollar, and follow consumer demand, which hopefully will force them to switch to sustainable, plant-based agriculture. The next step, he says, is to push governments to abandon tax breaks and subsidies to animal farmers. They are keeping the advocacy-via-documentary ball rolling. Currently in production are Seaspiracy, which focuses on the oceans and the myth of sustainable fishing, and Running for Good, a sports documentary following British marathon runner Fiona Oakes, to break the stereotypes that veganism holds you back from any kind of athletics.

Rapidly growing consumer awareness and changing eating habits have combined with a dawning realisation about the extent of the sustainability crisis to send shockwaves through the food production industries. With broad agreement that the future of animal agriculture has to change, the big money investors are moving quickly. Richard Branson announced last year that he was investing in a startup called Memphis Meats, which is developing lab-grown meat from animal cells as an alternative to animal agriculture, sometimes called clean meat. In 30 years or so, I believe we will be shocked [that] we killed animals en masse for food, he wrote. Tyson Foods, one of the biggest meat businesses in the world, has recently invested, joining the likes of Bill Gates and Cargill, the second-largest beef producer in the world. Its no surprise that the meat and dairy substitutes industry is predicted to be worth $40bn by 2020.

The executive vice president at Tyson, Justin Whitmore, made a telling comment in explaining the companys diversification in the face of a looming crisis of sustainability. We dont want to be disrupted, he said in February. We want to be part of the disruption. While clean meat is not vegan, by definition, it is a parallel response to the same problem and is accompanied by the soaring popularity of alternative vegan proteins such as tempeh, amaranth, seitan and nutritional yeast.

Even within the hard-headed world of big capital, there are serious manoeuvres afoot to push food production away from meat and dairy. In 2016, a group called Fairr (Farm Animal Investment Risk & Return) co-ordinated a group of 40 large institutional investment funds, including Swedish state pension funds, worth $1.25tn (almost 900bn) publicly to urge major food producers and retailers such as Kraft Heinz, Nestl, Unilever, Tesco and Walmart to develop alternative, plant-based sources.

Theres growing investor support, says Rosie Wardle, who worked on the project for Fairr. Across the board now, market research firms, food analysts, industry commentators, theyre all talking about alternative proteins and flexitarian diets theyre the key food trends for this year. The risks around intensive livestock production are becoming harder to ignore and people recognise that is going to impact business as usual.

Fairrs latest report, Plant-Based Profits, points to the rise of flexitarian diets among young adults who may not be full-time vegans. Fairrs head of research, Aarti Ramachandran, sees the industry moving only in one direction. Companies are investing in a lot of research and development because they know that todays millennials are tomorrows consumers and theyre going to be setting the stage in terms of future growth prospects. Thats a key point that our investors are interested in: this is a market thats not going to go away. Plant-based diets arent a trend or a fad; we see this very much being the basis of consumer growth.

The business world seems to agree. In the last few months, you can scarcely move on for articles with headlines such as Heres Why You Should Turn Your Business Vegan In 2018. With this kind of money swirling around, and a combination of hipster entrepreneurs, hedge funds and major supermarket chains defining veganism in 2018, its easy to see why some vegans feel that the movements traditional association with anti-capitalism is a position rapidly disappearing in a fog of marketing hype. Popular, youth-orientated vegan cookery startups such as Bosh.TV, which scored 1m followers on Facebook within a year of launching, as well as a Bosh! book deal, define the new spirit of veganism as a lifestyle, rather than the cornerstone of a political worldview. Just three years ago, we werent even vegan ourselves, wrote cheerful founders Henry Firth and Ian Theasby, recalling late-night kebabs on the way home from the pub. Back then, the V word had a touch of anger associated with it; it was loaded with political and ethical connotations.

The promotion of a flexitarian approach of reducing the use of animal products, without cutting them out altogether, has raised hackles among some activists. In 2014, the Vegan Society rebranded with a love vegan campaign to mark its 70th anniversary, which proposed a few small changes if full veganism seemed a step too far. This prompted a backlash among some animal rights activists and claims that the organisation was more interested in being a marketing body for vegan businesses than an ethically driven campaign group. Is veganism no more than a capitalist lifestyle choice? ran a rhetorical question on the Red Black Green blog. Veganism was for a long time associated with the counter-culture and seen as difficult, wrote Vegan Society CEO, Jasmijn de Boo, in 2013. She spoke of softening the movements image: One can become vegan in stages there are no rules and you are only answerable to your own conscience.

Veganisms mainstream rise has certainly benefited from this conscious rebranding: for better or worse, it is much cooler than it used to be. Its a lifestyle, a community, a culture, an ever-expanding club where the only price of entry is being mindful and making a positive change, goes the motto of the Young Vegans pie and mash shop in north London. Social media has spread the word with incredible speed, via Twitter hashtags, thriving wellness and cookery YouTube vloggers and Instagram influencers. Its not just the obvious clean-eating celebrities and channels that have taken up the subject: even Unilad, a site not exactly known as a bastion of compassion and political sensitivity, commissioned a powerful 20-minute documentary, Meat the End, about the horror and abuse of animal agriculture.

With a seemingly growing number of young people trying out vegan diets for personal health reasons (39% of the generally young, generally female Veganuary participants cited this as their motive), and its association with often controversial social media influencers, concerns have been raised that veganism provides a socially acceptable cover for disordered eating. Are you depriving yourself or finding plant-based alternatives? This is where a lot of my problems lay, wrote Lila Flint Roberts in an open letter on the Not Plant-Based blog. I was just another individual who turned veganism into an eating disorder.

British Dietetic Association spokeswoman and registered dietician Linia Patel is more than familiar with the problem. We do see this. Its very easy for people who have problems with disordered eating to take on veganism as a mask for something deeper thats going on, because its cutting out huge food groups and for them its a way to control their diet thats socially acceptable.

At the moment, its so faddy, and there are Instagram influencers who are becoming vegan, and maybe it works for them, in their specific scenarios. The key point is always individualisation and research to know why youre doing it and how to do it properly, rather than just jumping on a trend. People can run the risk of being deficient in b12, even protein and iron. She is keen to point out though that, done correctly, going vegan can be very good for health.

With a potential post-Brexit trade deal with the US threatening to flood the British market with farming practices currently prohibited in the UK by EU regulations chlorinated chicken, beef with growth hormones and bacon with banned additives the appeal of a plant-based diet could get another substantial spike in the near future. With or without such a trigger, a major shift in the way British people think about the food they eat and how it is produced is underway driven by an increasingly networked, savvy millennial generation who realise that the certainties of the world they are growing up in are deteriorating fast. Veganism is no longer niche or difficult and, as industrial agriculture bends to adapt to consumer demand and its own crisis of sustainability, it is only going to get more accessible and more popular.

Kishani Widyaratna, 32: My veganism fits in with the rest of my politics, which are very left-leaningWorks in publishing and runs the Tinie Tempeh vegan Instagram account

Ive been vegan 10 years. In 2008, Jamie Oliver made a TV show, Jamies Fowl Dinners, going behind the scenes of egg and chicken farming, and he showed male chicks that are useless for the egg industry being suffocated in a Perspex, oxygen-deprived box, live on television. It sounds like Black Mirror but it happened. Id been vegetarian since I was 13 and seeing that pushed me to look into how dairy and eggs are farmed on an industrial scale; it went from there. Its an extension of the basis of my vegetarianism: I didnt want to kill anything to live.

Ive always loved food and cooked from a broad range of cuisines. My heritage is Sri Lankan and food and eating are important elements of that. Starting my Tinie Tempeh Instagram, I wanted to do something that would encourage me to cook, but also I wanted to create something fun and positive. So hopefully you can look at my feed and see the variety in what I eat as an enthusiastic home cook with a big appetite. I wanted to help show how easy it has become [to be vegan]. The transparency of social media means its not so much of a leap of imagination for people any more.

A significant part of vegan Instagram has these unhealthy trappings of being super body-conscious and clean eating-focused: there are a lot of thin, lean, white bodies and, frustratingly, you dont have as high a visibility for the vegans who are people of colour or queer or fat or eating whatever they want. But things are slowly changing, with the vegan junk food movement for example and Im glad to add to the visible women of colour in that space.

Im also inspired by people such as Ruby Tandoh and Bethany Rutter and their desire to liberate our personal relationships to food and the body, so I wanted to showcase vegan food that was about enjoyment without shame. Ive also made a group of vegan friends through Instagram and Ive learned so much about places to eat, things that I can cook; its educational, too.

My veganism fits in with the rest of my politics, which are very left-leaning, informed by an intersectional feminist approach and also Im a person of colour moving through the world. So while I am passionate about animal welfare and the environment, there are other struggles that are equally important to me and each feeds into the other.

Jamie Kidd, 35: Glasgow is a great place to be vegan. Theres a real communityFounder, Cool Jerk Vegan Pies, Glasgow

I run a vegan scotch pie business. I always had a passion for food and being from Dundee, which is pie country in Scotland, I felt inspired and thought no one else was doing it. I started two and a half years ago and the response was great; we couldnt keep up with demand to begin with. The biggest seller here is the macaro-nae cheese pie because macaroni pies are a bit of a Scottish delicacy. I travel all around Scotland and north England, sometimes as far as Brighton and London to do vegan festivals. The haggis and mash always seems to do really well when I go down to England, maybe because haggis is seen as slightly exotic. Im really into Glasgows music scene and Im lucky that Ive got to sell pies to some of my musical heroes, such as Stuart Braithwaite from Mogwai, a couple of guys from Belle and Sebastian; Field Music seem to be particular fans.

Ive been vegan for five years and I was vegetarian for five years before that. I didnt really see the difference between being vegetarian and being a meat-eater, because youre still contributing towards animal suffering. I found it relatively easy to switch because I live in Glasgow, which is a great place to be vegan. There are a couple of long-term established vegan restaurants here and in the last few years at least half-a-dozen new vegan places have opened I think in total weve got about 12 now. A new one just opened last week.

The venues have been really supportive of vegan market stalls and startups such as mine. Theres a bar-restaurant venue called the Flying Duck that has a monthly vegan market and its free for the stallholders, which is great. Theres a real sense of community we all help each other out and share ideas. We dont see each other as being rival businesses; the ultimate aim is to grow the vegan movement.

Samantha Reidy, 27: I pretty much went vegan overnight after binge-watching Netflix documentariesArtist, Cleveleys, Lancashire

Ive been vegan for two years. Prior to that I wasnt even vegetarian but I spent one weekend binge-watching all the documentaries on Netflix Cowspiracy, Forks Over Knives and Earthlings and I pretty much went vegan overnight. I was really shocked by them and I thought: I cant eat meat any more, I cant eat dairy any more.

I found the transition really easy. There are a lot of foods that are accidentally vegan and there are so many alternatives now it doesnt have to be expensive. Even in quite a small town we have a massive Free From section in the supermarkets.

I watched a lot of vegan vloggers as well. I think YouTubes becoming bigger than TV and a lot of people my age watch that instead. It seems more genuine because its not edited by corporations; its done by somebody in their bedroom with a camera and you can relate to that person better.

I joined the Vegan Society as soon as I went vegan. I really like their magazine and they have loads of information. Then they asked me if I would like to be a representative for them. As an artist, I make some vegan stickers and badges it seems like a good way to express your beliefs. I also own a lot of vegan tote bags and I always use them when I go shopping; its a bit of subtle campaigning. Veganism is a community and its growing. Hopefully one day it wont be a community, it will be everyone.

Dan Strettle, 66: There is a domino effect within families parents are listening to their childrenOwner, Alternative Stores, Newcastle upon Tyne

I was in sixth-form at school, and I was anti-vivisection, and this lad in my class says: If you dont believe in experimenting on live animals, why do you eat them? So I thought about it, woke up the next morning and said: Im going vegetarian. But my concept of vegetarian was veganism; I didnt realise there was a halfway stage. I was fully vegan by 1969 next February it will be 50 years. Ive never felt better.

When I changed, they said: Oh, its a fad, give him six weeks, we dont even know any vegetarians, let alone vegans hes one of these hippies, I mean look at his hair. For school lunches I took in something called Nutmeat. It comes in a tin its nuts and flour, combined to make what looks like luncheon meat, and you slide it out of the tin, cut it into slices. You had to go to a health food shop and there was one called Milburns in Newcastle; we used to go there every week.

Theres a bunch of vegan places in Newcastle now; were catching up with Berlin thats the leader. Vegans have never had it so easy! I run a vegan shop. We have a little bit of opposition from the supermarkets now, but were all right because people go in the supermarkets, see theres one flavour of vegan cheese and then they come to my shop and see theres 12 flavours. We dont mind the supermarkets theyre like a gateway drug: weve got the variety that the vegans and vegetarians want. They come to us for perfume, soap powder, toothpaste, all the groceries and the whole foods. Our bestseller is probably Sosmix. We sold 4 tonnes this year thats the same stuff I was eating in the 1970s!

We must be getting half-a-dozen new people a week coming in and saying: Someone in my family has gone vegan and I dont know what to feed them; can you help? Or: My son went vegan three months ago and weve all joined him now. There is a domino effect within families and parents are listening to their children. There was a lad who came in who was 10 he had made his own decision to be vegan; he was so determined, and his parents were so supportive. Its great to see.

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Veganism: 20 Powerful Reasons People Become Vegans

Veganism is a great way to not only save sentient creatures from harm but also to improve your life. Dont waste time. Start to make the transition now.

Reading Time: 11 minutes

Veganism is a great way to not only save sentient creatures from harm but also to improve your life. Dont waste time. Start to make the transition now.

Veganism is one of the most powerful ways in which you can support animal rights, spare the planet, protect your body, and live without moral compromises. More people go vegan every day, and if youre committed to this dietary lifestyle, you wont find it as difficult to follow as you think. It is the single best action you can take.

Many still believe that veganism is unhealthy, unnatural, or impossible. None of those things are true. In fact, going vegan can actually make you healthier and keep you more in line with the natural order of things. Plus, if you think its impossible, maybe you should give yourself more credit.

Today, Im sharing with you 20 powerful reasons people choose veganism over any other diet. Ill explain why going vegan is important and how to make the switch.

You might not have noticed, but were in a bit of a crisis. Humanity is depleting the planets finite resources at a rapid rate, the environment is undergoing unnecessary changes, and people suffer from myriad diseases linked to their diets.

You cant fix all that by embracing veganism, but you can be one part of the solution.

People tend to follow those they admire. If you decide that veganism is for you, your friends, family members, and colleagues might follow suit just because you led by example.

Plus, when you stop eating meat, dairy, and eggs you wage war with your wallet. Companies that sell meat and animal by-products only do so because it makes them money. When their profits start to sour, they will consider other ways of being in business.

You know veganism is important after all, you hear celebrities always talking about it but why should you take the plunge? Ive come up with 29 compelling reasons to give up animals and animal by-products. Lets address them one by one.

When we lose compassion and empathy, we cant relate as well to other people and other thinking, feeling creatures. We turn animals into objects rather than understand them as the sentient beings they are.

Cows, pigs, sharks, fish, chickens, and other animals that often wind up on plates have emotions, just like you and me. They experience love, grief, and fear. They may not be able to verbalize their emotions but then again, not all humans can, either.

Imagining growing up in a steel cage with hundreds of other people. Youre crammed so tightly you cant even turn around. Youre denied sunlight, a kind word, and affection. Then, at the end of your plight, you and everyone around you is slaughtered for someone else to eat.

None of us would consider that a humane existence for a thinking being, yet animals experience it every day, and their numbers total in the billions.

There are some beautiful stories out there about why people become vegans. Glenn Greenwald, the Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, became a vegan and joined the ranks of vocal animal activists. In his talk below, Greenwald describes what it was (beyond a love for animals) that triggered the decision to become a vegan.

Its easy to grab a meal at a fast-food restaurant maybe a burger and fries or a beef taco or to throw a few chicken breasts in the oven when you get home from work. But what are those habits doing to your health?

Its true that animal flesh and by-products nourish our bodies, but they also contribute to disease and other problems, which Ill detail more below. If youre fighting to lose weight, overcome an inflammation-based diseased, or prolong your lifespan, veganism is the best first step on your path.

If you ask any nutritionist what people should focus on in their diets, he or she will say, Fruits and vegetables. Thats always top-of-mind for any professional who makes dietary recommendations.

No nutritionist would say, Steak and fried chicken. For a good reason those are much likelier to kill you early.

Factory farming contributes heavily toward environmental problems all over the world. Think about the number of animals that are slaughtered every day to fill supermarkets with sufficient stock. All of those animals have to be fed, watered, and housed before theyre destroyed. Deforestation across the world is driven by the gluttony for more pasturelands and animal feed, whereas feeding the world with plant-based foods would require only a fraction of that land.

Animals in the agriculture industry contribute to the contamination of the water table because of the fecal runoff. They consume tons of water and grain, which must be farmed using yet more water. Pesticides are added to the crops that feed the animals, and unhealthy hormones get injected into the animals.

Its a vicious circle that contributes to the degradation of our environment.

We also have to think about the natural resources that factory farming and crop raising deplete. Factory farms have to be powered, so they consume fossil fuels. The more finite resources we use, the less will be left over for our children.

The crucial point here is the long production chain of factory farming you need to put resources into growing the food for the animals, then growing the animals themselves, and then processing (just a pretty word for slaughter) the animals. By contrast, the plant-based food chain is much shorter and requires less natural resources.

Veganism is the practice of eliminating meat and animal by-products from your diet. That doesnt mean youll go undernourished. In fact, we dont need meat to survive.

A report in Medical News Today states:

From a medical point of view, we should only eat meat if it is healthful to do so. Over recent years, there has been a growing mountain of evidence in support of the health benefits of a vegetarian diet and the health risks of pounding too many burgers into our bodies.

We need neither meat nor animal by-products to survive. Quite the opposite, we can improve our health by abstaining from those types of foods and turning to a plant-based diet instead.

What many people dont realize is that veganism contributes to saving lives other than those of cows or chickens. These animals have natural predators, and farmers use cruel methods to trap and kill those predators.

Again, its all about preserving the source of their income.

Coyotes, wolves, and other predators get stuck in traps all the time. So do non-predators (at least of cows), such as birds who unwittingly fly into these traps.

Imagine if everyone embraced veganism at once. Nobody would need to breed cows and other animals for food because there would be no market (of course, wed take good care of the farm animals currently alive, dont worry).

The effects ripple far beyond that, though. Instead of shoveling grain and other crops into animals mouths, we could feed the hungry populations of the world.

Those populations could use the grains and other foods that factory farmers feed their animals. We could systematically provide relief to those in need. Perhaps we could also bring water to those who dont have it readily available since wed eliminate all the water that farm animals consume.

Some refer to humans as the ultimate apex predator. However, our anatomy doesnt bear that out. We dont have the long, sharp teeth required to tear into flesh, and our intestines often struggle to digest meat. Calling those little, pointed teeth at the corners of your mouth canines is quite the overstatement.

The same thing goes for dairy. Cows milk contains more protein and fat because its meant for calves, who grow rapidly from birth and who wind up weighing 1,000 or more pounds. Its not meant for human consumption and can contribute to weight gain among other problems.

If you are reading this and you are a baby cow, go ahead and continue drinking milk. Otherwise, its not really for you.

Its a lot easier to lose weight or maintain your ideal weight when youre not consuming fatty foods like meat and cheese. Veganism entails a diet rich in protein, carbohydrates, healthy fats, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

Women, in particular, can gain weight easily due to hormone imbalances. When this happens, any food that contributes to inflammation can cause a weight gain. Meat and animal by-products are inextricably linked with inflammation.

Youll also consume fewer calories on a plant-based diet as long as you stick to whole, natural foods. Dont shop the frozen aisle at the supermarket for vegan TV dinners. Fill your plate with nutritious fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds.

Were not just talking about salmonella and E. coli here, though those are certainly problematic. Foodborne illness can also result from the contamination of meat: feces, insect eggs, and other things you probably dont want in your mouth let alone your gut.

Related to this are illnesses that are not technically foodborne, but borne from the intensive factory farming practices that are needed to turn animals into human food. You may have heard of bird flu and swine flu they are called that because they were most likely originated in chicken factories and hog farms. Pathogens borne out of factory farming are one of the largest, most real existential threats to humanity.

Meat eaters often restrict their diets to the same meals over and over again. Not only can the monotony get boring, but it also reduces your exposure to foods that could improve your immune system, reduce digestive problems, and reverse vitamin deficiencies.

When you decide to turn to veganism, youll automatically get more creative with your meals. Adding color and texture to your plate can make it even more delicious, and youll have fun experimenting with new flavors that might go with favorite standbys.

Digestion is a complicated topic, but its also problematic for many people. More and more consumers are speaking out about ulcerative colitis and IBS, two digestive disorders that have their roots in inflammation of the digestive tract.

Plant-based diets are rich in fiber, which help aid digestion. Additionally, all that rich nutrition will help you build lean muscle and dissolve fat. Many people assume that theyll struggle to gain muscle after turning to veganism, but the opposite is often true. As long as you continue to work out and consume sufficient calories, you can train as well as or even better than you could before veganism.

Did you know that veganism can help reverse chronic psychological and emotional problems like anxiety and depression? A study suggests that a plant-based diet can improve not only our physiological health but also our mental health.

Millions of people struggle with mental health issues, ranging from the minor to the acute. By changing your diet and eliminating animal products, you can help better yourself psychologically.

Similarly, you might discover that you can concentrate for longer periods of time after you convert to veganism. Thats because youre consuming more healthy nutrients that improve cognition and productivity.

Youre likely to feel more rested, which well cover more below, and you might find that you get better performance reviews from your boss. Its amazing what eliminating meat and animal by-products from your diet can do for you.

Skin health is a common topic of discussion in dermatologists offices and at beauty stores. Men and women alike want to know how they can prevent evidence of aging. The answer: veganism.

Meat and animal by-products often lead to acne, facial swelling, and the development of wrinkles. They contain harmful chemicals, such as the pesticides mentioned above, and hormones that our bodies cant easily process. Your skin suffers as a result.

Experts havent yet agreed on whether veganism leads to longevity, but there are a few new sources of information to suggests that vegans live longer. One study suggests that, regardless of carbohydrate intake, people who eat plant-based diets have reduced mortality rates. Interestingly, per the study plant-based food becomes even more important when reducing carbs so if you are doing keto or paleo diets and eating animals, youre doubly shortening your life expectancy.

Again, animal by-product consumption contributes to inflammation, which makes inflammatory diseases worse. If you suffer from arthritis or any other condition that impacts your joints, you might get some relief from veganism.

When you have the right combination of vitamins, minerals, and macros in your body, your immune system is better equipped to fight disease. You might discover that colds and other minor illnesses last for shorter time frames.

The anti-inflammatory properties of many plant-based foods help, too. Inflammation is harmful to the body, whether it impacts the skin, organs, cartilage, or other body parts. That inflammation gets even worse when youre sick.

Maybe you have an I Dogs bumper sticker, or perhaps you volunteer every weekend at the local animal shelter. You love animals, dislike hunting, despise the cruel conditions in which factory farmers keep their animals, but you still eat meat, dairy, eggs, and honey.

That means youre not living your life in line with your beliefs. By embracing veganism, you live your beliefs instead of just espousing them. And, as mentioned above, others might follow in your footsteps. Getting rid of hypocrisy will feel good.

Share vegan meals on Instagram, talk about your favorite recipe over dinner with your family, give veganism credit when a colleague asks how you lost the weight. When other people can see the positive changes veganism has created in your life, theyll want to know more.

You dont have to push your veganism on everyone you meet, but if the opportunity arises, take advantage of it.

Youre convinced, right? You want all the benefits described above. So, how do you become a vegan?

Its not that hard, really. Focus on filling your shopping cart with items that contain no animal flesh or by-products. Look for vegan and cruelty-free labeling on consumer goods, and make sure you read labels when choosing processed foods.

Thats it. Eliminate the problem from your diet and become vegan.

Start by getting in touch with likeminded people. When you surround yourself with other people who have chosen veganism, you have a built-in support system. Plus, you wont have to fear listening to diatribes about how meat eating is good for you.

You might have friends and family members who disagree with your dietary choices but try to tune them out. You know whats best for your body, so stick to your guns.

You might not switch to veganism all at once. Maybe youll cut out red meat and pork first, then poultry. Move on to removing fish and shellfish. Some vegans remove dairy and eggs at the very end of the transition, but it all depends on your lifestyle and preferences.

Theres no rule that says you have to sign a blood oath to never consume X, Y, and Z products again. Just let your comfort zone guide you toward veganism. Eventually, itll feel as natural as eating a burger used to feel.

Make sure youre fully informed about your dietary choices. Veganism is about your health as well as the health of other sentient creatures. Reading articles by Sentient Media and other organizations can help you better understand your food choices.

Your mindset has to shift if youre contemplating veganism. Dont think about what youre giving up. Think about what youre giving to others.

You dont have to deprive yourself. In fact, you might find that veganism introduces more flavor and satiety into your life. You might crave a hamburger once in a while. Buy a vegan tofu patty. If youre dying for ice cream, choose a vegan alternative.

But dont rely too much on those processed options. Focus on creating delicious meals that include whole ingredients.

Veganism is a great way to not only save sentient creatures from harm but also to improve your life. Dont waste time. Start to make the transition now.

Sure, you might struggle to find good restaurants at first, and find some challenges in your grocery shopping, but youll get better at it the longer youre vegan. Its like any lifestyle change. It may not feel like it fits at first, but you gradually warm to it. Or maybe you, like many, quickly realize that youve finally made the right choice and it feels entirely right and natural from the beginning.

Are you thinking about going vegan? Have you tried veganism?

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Veganism: 20 Powerful Reasons People Become Vegans

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Aside from the typical recommendations (ex: do some research before you begin) here are a list of 12 recommendations (+ a bonus tip + resources!) for anyone venturing into the world of veganism. Hopefully it offers some inspiration and insights to those who are interested in adopting more of a plant-based lifestyle.

If you read this far, kindly comment that you will hereby solemnly swear to only share the message with love

FEATURED IN THE VIDEO Sadia's personal plant-based journey: Free grocery shopping list (PDF): PUL article for this video: PUL article "adequate vitamin B12 on a plant-based lifestyle": PUL article "vitamin D and nutrition - do you need supplements?": Resource "Becoming Vegan" book: Resource "NutritionFacts": + book Resource "Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine": Music "Frannie" & "1000 Words" by Josh Woodward. Free download:

MAKING PUL VIDEOS Film & photography gear I use:

WHAT WE USE @ THE PUL KITCHEN (2019) Blender: Food processor: Hand blender: Cast iron pot: Mini spice jars: Air-tight containers:

STAY CONNECTED Website: Instagram: Facebook: Pinterest: LinkedIn: Sadia

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Veganism | What is Veganism & How to Do More for Animals …

From DxEs perspective, veganism is the way of living that seeks to excludeas far as is possible and practicableany products or services derived from the exploitation of nonhuman animals. This includes any products made from the bodies or secretions of animals, as well as those developed using animal testing.

DxE fights against speciesism in society. Speciesism is the set of oppressive ideologies that perpetuates this violent exploitation of nonhuman animals. DxE regards living vegan as one crucial expression of anti-speciesist philosophy, but not the only one. To truly oppose speciesism, we must take comprehensive direct action to change the world for all animals, and living vegan is just part of this.

*The work of Gary Francione distinguishes between "lifestyle veganism," framed as a "personal choice" to not use animals, and "abolitionist veganism" defined as "the animal rights based opposition to all animal use by humans," which maintains that all sentient beings share a basic right not to be treated as the property of others.


Veganism | What is Veganism & How to Do More for Animals ...

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Veganism – Wikipedia

the practice of abstaining from animal products and a philosophy that rejects animal commodification

Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.[b] A follower of the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan.[c] Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans (also known as strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances.[d] The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and oppose the use of animals for any purpose.[e] Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.[22]

Well-planned vegan diets are regarded as appropriate for all stages of life, including during infancy and pregnancy, by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,[f] Dietitians of Canada,[24] Australian National Health and Medical Research Council,[25] New Zealand Ministry of Health,[26] Harvard Medical School,[27] and the British Dietetic Association.[28] The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend vegan diets for children or adolescents, or during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[g] In preliminary clinical research, vegan diets[clarification needed] lowered the risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and ischemic heart disease.[30][31][32][33] Vegan diets tend to be higher[clarification needed] in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and phytochemicals; and lower in dietary energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.[h] As with any poorly-planned diet, unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues.[34][35][36] Some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of fortified foods or the regular intake of dietary supplements.[34][37] Vitamin B12 supplementation is especially important because its deficiency causes blood disorders and potentially irreversible neurological damage.[36][38][39]

Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944 when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England. At first he used it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian",[40][41] and by May 1945 vegans explicitly abstained from "eggs, honey; and animals' milk, butter and cheese". From 1951 the Society defined it as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".[42] Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s,[43][44] especially in the latter half.[44] More vegan stores opened and vegan options became increasingly available in supermarkets and restaurants in many countries.

The term "vegetarian" has been in use since around 1839 to refer to what was previously described as a vegetable regimen or diet.[45] Modern dictionaries based on scientific linguistic principles explain its origin as an irregular compound of vegetable[46] and the suffix -arian (in the sense of "supporter, believer" as in humanitarian).[47] The earliest-known written use is attributed to actress, writer and abolitionist Fanny Kemble, in her Journal of a Residence on a Georgian plantation in 18381839.[i]

The practice can be traced to Indus Valley Civilization in 33001300 BCE in the Indian subcontinent,[50][51][52] particularly in northern and western ancient India.[53] Early vegetarians included Indian philosophers such as Mahavira and Acharya Kundakunda, the Tamil poet Valluvar, the Indian emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka; Greek philosophers such as Empedocles, Theophrastus, Plutarch, Plotinus, and Porphyry; and the Roman poet Ovid and the playwright Seneca the Younger.[54][55] The Greek sage Pythagoras may have advocated an early form of strict vegetarianism,[56][57] but his life is so obscure that it is disputed whether he ever advocated any form of vegetarianism at all.[58] He almost certainly prohibited his followers from eating beans[58] and from wearing woolen garments.[58] Eudoxus of Cnidus, a student of Archytas and Plato, writes that "Pythagoras was distinguished by such purity and so avoided killing and killers that he not only abstained from animal foods, but even kept his distance from cooks and hunters".[58] One of the earliest known vegans was the Arab poet al-Maarri (c.973 c.1057).[a][59] Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare, and the viewespoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium ("On Abstinence from Animal Food", c.268 c.270)that if humans deserve justice, then so do animals.[54]

Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States.[60] A minority of vegetarians avoided animal food entirely.[61] In 1813, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors", and in 1815, William Lambe, a London physician, claimed that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne.[62] Lambe called animal food a "habitual irritation", and argued that "milk eating and flesh-eating are but branches of a common system and they must stand or fall together".[63] Sylvester Graham's meatless Graham dietmostly fruit, vegetables, water, and bread made at home with stoneground flourbecame popular as a health remedy in the 1830s in the United States.[64] Several vegan communities were established around this time. In Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of the novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844,[65][j] and in England, James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common, in 1838.[4][67]

In 1843, members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food,[69] led by Sophia Chichester, a wealthy benefactor of Alcott House.[70] Alcott House also helped to establish the UK Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent.[71] The Medical Times and Gazette in London reported in 1884:

There are two kinds of Vegetariansone an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food products what-so-ever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish. The Vegetarian Society... belongs to the latter more moderate division.[61]

An article in the Society's magazine, the Vegetarian Messenger, in 1851 discussed alternatives to shoe leather, which suggests the presence of vegans within the membership who rejected animal use entirely, not only in diet.[72] By the 1886 publication of Henry S. Salt's A Plea for Vegetarianism and Other Essays, he asserts that, "It is quite true that mostnot allFood Reformers admit into their diet such animal food as milk, butter, cheese, and eggs..."[73] Russell Thacher Trall's The Hygeian Home Cook-Book published in 1874 is the first known vegan cookbook in America.[74] The book contains recipes "without the employment of milk, sugar, salt, yeast, acids, alkalies, grease, or condiments of any kind."[74] An early vegan cookbook, Rupert H. Wheldon's No Animal Food: Two Essays and 100 Recipes, was published in London in 1910.[75] The consumption of milk and eggs became a battleground over the following decades. There were regular discussions about it in the Vegetarian Messenger; it appears from the correspondence pages that many opponents of veganism came from vegetarians.[8][76]

During a visit to London in 1931, Mahatma Gandhiwho had joined the Vegetarian Society's executive committee when he lived in London from 1888 to 1891gave a speech to the Society arguing that it ought to promote a meat-free diet as a matter of morality, not health.[68][77] Lacto-vegetarians acknowledged the ethical consistency of the vegan position but regarded a vegan diet as impracticable and were concerned that it might be an impediment to spreading vegetarianism if vegans found themselves unable to participate in social circles where no non-animal food was available. This became the predominant view of the Vegetarian Society, which in 1935 stated: "The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."[78]

In August 1944, several members of the Vegetarian Society asked that a section of its newsletter be devoted to non-dairy vegetarianism. When the request was turned down, Donald Watson, secretary of the Leicester branch, set up a new quarterly newsletter in November 1944, priced tuppence.[7] He called it The Vegan News. He chose the word vegan himself, based on "the first three and last two letters of 'vegetarian'" because it marked, in Mr Watson's words, "the beginning and end of vegetarian",[7][80] but asked his readers if they could think of anything better than vegan to stand for "non-dairy vegetarian". They suggested allvega, neo-vegetarian, dairyban, vitan, benevore, sanivores, and beaumangeur.[7][81]

The first edition attracted more than 100 letters, including from George Bernard Shaw, who resolved to give up eggs and dairy.[8] The new Vegan Society held its first meeting in early November at the Attic Club, 144 High Holborn, London. Those in attendance were Donald Watson, Elsie B. Shrigley, Fay K. Henderson, Alfred Hy Haffenden, Paul Spencer and Bernard Drake, with Mme Pataleewa (Barbara Moore, a Russian-British engineer) observing.[82] World Vegan Day is held every 1 November to mark the founding of the Society and the month of November is considered by the Society to be World Vegan Month.[83]

The Vegan News changed its name to The Vegan in November 1945, by which time it had 500 subscribers.[84] It published recipes and a "vegan trade list" of animal-free products, such as Colgate toothpaste, Kiwi shoe polish, Dawson & Owen stationery and Gloy glue.[85] Vegan books appeared, including Vegan Recipes by Fay K. Henderson and Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children by Kathleen V. Mayo.[86]

The Vegan Society soon made clear that it rejected the use of animals for any purpose, not only in diet. In 1947, Watson wrote: "The vegan renounces it as superstitious that human life depends upon the exploitation of these creatures whose feelings are much the same as our own...".[87] From 1948, The Vegan's front page read: "Advocating living without exploitation", and in 1951, the Society published its definition of veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".[87][88] In 1956, its vice-president, Leslie Cross, founded the Plantmilk Society; and in 1965, as Plantmilk Ltd and later Plamil Foods, it began production of one of the first widely distributed soy milks in the Western world.[89]

The first vegan society in the United States was founded in 1948 by Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz in California, who distributed Watson's newsletter.[90][91] In 1960, H. Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS), linking veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit.[91][92][93] According to Joanne Stepaniak, the word vegan was first published independently in 1962 by the Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, defined as "a vegetarian who eats no butter, eggs, cheese, or milk".[94]

In the 1960s and 1970s, a vegetarian food movement emerged as part of the counterculture in the United States that focused on concerns about diet, the environment, and a distrust of food producers, leading to increasing interest in organic gardening.[95][96] One of the most influential vegetarian books of that time was Frances Moore Lapp's 1971 text, Diet for a Small Planet.[97] It sold more than three million copies and suggested "getting off the top of the food chain".[98]

The following decades saw research by a group of scientists and doctors in the United States, including physicians Dean Ornish, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal D. Barnard, John A. McDougall, Michael Greger, and biochemist T. Colin Campbell, who argued that diets based on animal fat and animal protein, such as the Western pattern diet, were detrimental to health.[99] They produced a series of books that recommend vegan or vegetarian diets, including McDougall's The McDougall Plan (1983), John Robbins's Diet for a New America (1987), which associated meat eating with environmental damage, and Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease (1990).[100] In 2003 two major North American dietitians' associations indicated that well-planned vegan diets were suitable for all life stages.[101] This was followed by the film Earthlings (2005), Campbell's The China Study (2005), Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin's Skinny Bitch (2005), Jonathan Safran Foer's Eating Animals (2009), and the film Forks over Knives (2011).[102]

In the 1980s, veganism became associated with punk subculture and ideologies, particularly straight edge hardcore punk in the United States;[103] and anarcho-punk in the United Kingdom.[104] This association continues on into the 21st century, as evinced by the prominence of vegan punk events such as Fluff Fest in Europe.[105][106]

The vegan diet became increasingly mainstream in the 2010s,[43][44][107] especially in the latter half.[44][108] The Economist declared 2019 "the year of the vegan".[109] The European Parliament defined the meaning of vegan for food labels in 2010, in force as of 2015[update].[110] Chain restaurants began marking vegan items on their menus and supermarkets improved their selection of vegan processed food.[111]

The global mock-meat market increased by 18 percent between 2005 and 2010,[112] and in the United States by eight percent between 2012 and 2015, to $553 million a year.[113] The Vegetarian Butcher (De Vegetarische Slager), the first known vegetarian butcher shop, selling mock meats, opened in the Netherlands in 2010,[112][114] while America's first vegan butcher, the Herbivorous Butcher, opened in Minneapolis in 2016.[113][115] By 2016, 49% of Americans were drinking plant milk, although 91 percent still drank dairy milk.[116] In the United Kingdom, the plant milk market increased by 155 percent in two years, from 36 million litres (63 million imperial pints) in 2011 to 92 million (162 million imperial pints) in 2013.[117] There was a 185% increase in new vegan products between 2012 and 2016 in the UK.[108] In 2011, Europe's first vegan supermarkets appeared in Germany: Vegilicious in Dortmund and Veganz in Berlin.[118][119]

In 2017, veganism rose in popularity in Hong Kong and China, particularly among millennials.[120] China's vegan market is estimated to rise by more than 17% between 2015 and 2020,[120][121] which is expected to be "the fastest growth rate internationally in that period".[120] This exceeds the projected growth in the second and third fastest-growing vegan markets internationally in the same period, the United Arab Emirates (10.6%) and Australia (9.6%) respectively.[121][122] In total, as of 2016[update], the largest share of vegan consumers globally currently reside in Asia Pacific with nine percent of people following a vegan diet.[121] In 2013, the Oktoberfest in Munich traditionally a meat-heavy event offered vegan dishes for the first time in its 200-year history.[123]

Vegans do not eat beef, pork, poultry, fowl, game, animal seafood, eggs, dairy, or any other animal products. Dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing (as leather, wool, and silk), toiletries, and similar. Ethical veganism extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or use of animal products, and rejects the commodification of animals altogether.[20]:62 The British Vegan Society will certify a product only if it is free of animal involvement as far as possible and practical, including animal testing,[146][147][148] but "recognises that it is not always possible to make a choice that avoids the use of animals",[149] an issue that was highlighted in 2016 when it became known that the UK's newly-introduced 5 note contained tallow.[150][151]

An important concern is the case of medications, which are routinely tested on animals to ensure they are effective and safe,[152] and may also contain animal ingredients, such as lactose, gelatine, or stearates.[149] There may be no alternatives to prescribed medication or these alternatives may be unsuitable, less effective, or have more adverse side effects.[149] Experimentation with laboratory animals is also used for evaluating the safety of vaccines, food additives, cosmetics, household products, workplace chemicals, and many other substances.[153]

Philosopher Gary Steiner argues that it is not possible to be entirely vegan, because animal use and products are "deeply and imperceptibly woven into the fabric of human society".[154] Animal products in common use include albumen, allantoin, beeswax, blood, bone char, bone china, carmine, casein, castoreum, cochineal, elastin, emu oil, gelatin, honey, isinglass, keratin, lactic acid, lanolin, lard, rennet, retinol, shellac, squalene, tallow (including sodium tallowate), whey, and yellow grease. Some of these are chemical compounds that can be derived from animal products, plants, or petrochemicals. Allantoin, lactic acid, retinol, and squalene, for example, can be vegan. These products and their origins are not always included in the list of ingredients.[155] Vegetables themselves, even from organic farms, may use animal manure; "vegan" vegetables use plant compost only.[156]

Some vegans will not buy woollen jumpers, silk scarves, leather shoes, bedding that contains goose down or duck feathers, pearl jewellery, seashells, ordinary soap (usually made of animal fat), or cosmetics that contain animal products. They avoid certain vaccines; the flu vaccine, for example, is usually grown in hens' eggs, although an effective alternative, Flublok, is widely available in the United States.[157] Non-vegan items acquired before they became vegan might be donated to charity or used until worn out. Some vegan clothes, in particular leather alternatives, are made of petroleum-based products, which has triggered criticism because of the environmental damage involved in their production.[158] Tencel, also known as Lyocell, is a popular alternative for cotton. It is made by extracting cellulose fiber from trees. Its manufacture is thought to use 95% less water than cotton processing.[159]

The main difference between a vegan and vegetarian diet is that vegans exclude dairy products and eggs. Ethical vegans avoid them on the premise that their production causes animal suffering and premature death. In egg production, most male chicks are culled because they do not lay eggs.[160] To obtain milk from dairy cattle, cows are made pregnant to induce lactation; they are kept lactating for three to seven years, then slaughtered. Female calves can be separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, and fed milk replacer to retain the cow's milk for human consumption. Most male calves are slaughtered at birth, sent for veal production, or reared for beef.[161][162]

Vegan groups disagree about insect products.[163] Neither the Vegan Society nor the American Vegan Society considers honey, silk, and other insect products as suitable for vegans.[164][148] Some vegans believe that exploiting the labor of bees and harvesting their energy source is immoral, and that commercial beekeeping operations can harm and even kill bees.[165] Insect products can be defined much more widely, as commercial bees are used to pollinate about 100 different food crops.[163]

Due to the environmental impact of meat-based pet food[166][167] and the ethical problems it poses for vegans,[168][169] some vegans extend their philosophy to include the diets of pets.[167][170][171][172] This is particularly true for domesticated cats[173] and dogs,[174] for which vegan pet food is both available and nutritionally complete,[167][170][171] such as Vegepet. However, this practice has been met with caution and criticism,[170][175] especially toward vegan cat diets due to felids being obligate carnivores.[169][170][175] Furthermore, although nutritionally complete vegan pet diets are comparable to meat-based ones for cats and dogs,[176] as of August2015[update] many commercial vegan pet food brands do not meet the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) regulations for nutritional adequacy.[177]

Vegan diets are based on grains and other seeds, legumes (particularly beans), fruits, vegetables, edible mushrooms, and nuts.[178]

Meatless products based on soybeans (tofu), or wheat-based seitan are sources of plant protein, commonly in the form of vegetarian sausage, mince, and veggie burgers.[179] Soy-based dishes are common in vegan diets because soy is a protein source.[180] They are consumed most often in the form of soy milk and tofu (bean curd), which is soy milk mixed with a coagulant. Tofu comes in a variety of textures, depending on water content, from firm, medium firm and extra firm for stews and stir-fries to soft or silken for salad dressings, desserts and shakes. Soy is also eaten in the form of tempeh and textured vegetable protein (TVP); also known as textured soy protein (TSP), the latter is often used in pasta sauces.[180]

Plant milkssuch as soy milk, almond milk, cashew milk, grain milks (oat milk, flax milk and rice milk), hemp milk, and coconut milkare used in place of cows' or goats' milk.[l] Soy milk provides around 7g (oz) of protein per cup (240mL or 8floz), compared with 8g (2/7oz) of protein per cup of cow's milk. Almond milk is lower in dietary energy, carbohydrates, and protein.[185] Soy milk should not be used as a replacement for breast milk for babies. Babies who are not breastfed may be fed commercial infant formula, normally based on cows' milk or soy. The latter is known as soy-based infant formula or SBIF.[186][187]

Butter and margarine can be replaced with alternate vegan products.[188] Vegan cheeses are made from seeds, such as sesame and sunflower; nuts, such as cashew,[189] pine nut, and almond;[190] and soybeans, coconut oil, nutritional yeast, tapioca,[191] and rice, among other ingredients; and can replicate the meltability of dairy cheese. Nutritional yeast is a common substitute for the taste of cheese in vegan recipes.[188] Cheese substitutes can be made at home, including from nuts, such as cashews.[189]

As of 2019 in the United States, there were numerous vegan egg substitutes available, including products used for "scrambled" eggs, cakes, cookies, and doughnuts.[192][193] Baking powder, silken (soft) tofu, mashed potato, bananas, flaxseeds, and aquafaba from chickpeas can also be used as egg substitutes.[188][193][194]

Raw veganism, combining veganism and raw foodism, excludes all animal products and food cooked above 48C (118F). A raw vegan diet includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, grain and legume sprouts, seeds, and sea vegetables. There are many variations of the diet, including fruitarianism.[195]

Proteins are composed of amino acids. Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third, and ovo-lacto vegetarians half.[196] Sources of plant protein include legumes such as soy beans (consumed as tofu, tempeh, textured vegetable protein, soy milk, and edamame), peas, peanuts, black (or pinto) beans, and chickpeas (the latter often eaten as hummus); grains such as quinoa, brown (or white) rice, corn, barley, bulgur, and wheat (the latter eaten as bread and seitan); and nuts and seeds. Combinations that contain high amounts of all the essential amino acids include rice and beans, corn and beans, and hummus and whole-wheat pita.[197]

Soy beans and quinoa are known as complete proteins because they each contain all the essential amino acids in amounts that meet or exceed human requirements.[198] Mangels et al. write that consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of protein0.8 g/kg (12gr/lb) of body weightin the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids.[180] In 2012, the United States Department of Agriculture ruled that soy protein (tofu) may replace meat protein in the National School Lunch Program.[199]

The American Dietetic Association said in 2009 that a variety of plant foods consumed over the course of a day can provide all the essential amino acids for healthy adults, which means that protein combining in the same meal may not be necessary.[200] Mangels et al. write that there is little reason to advise vegans to increase their protein intake; but erring on the side of caution, they recommend a 25 percent increase over the RDA for adults, to 1g/kg (15gr/lb) of body weight.[201]

Vitamin B12 is a bacterial product needed for cell division, the formation and maturation of red blood cells, the synthesis of DNA, and normal nerve function. A deficiency may cause megaloblastic anaemia and neurological damage, and, if untreated, may lead to death.[38][203][m] The high content of folacin in vegetarian diets may mask the hematological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, so it may go undetected until neurological signs in the late stages are evident, which can be irreversible, such as neuropsychiatric abnormalities, neuropathy, dementia and, occasionally, atrophy of optic nerves.[23][36][205] Vegans sometimes fail to obtain enough B12 from their diet because among non-fortified foods, only those of animal origin contain sufficient amounts.[36][205][n] The best source is ruminant food.[39] Vegetarians are also at risk, as are older people and those with certain medical conditions.[207][208] A 2013 study found that "vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegans should take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12."

B12 is produced in nature only by certain bacteria and archaea; it is not made by any animal, fungus, or plant.[39][210][211] It is synthesized by some gut bacteria in humans and other animals, but humans cannot absorb the B12 made in their guts, as it is made in the colon which is too far from the small intestine, where absorption of B12 occurs.[39] Ruminants, such as cows and sheep, absorb B12 produced by bacteria in their guts.[39]

Animals store vitamin B12 in liver and muscle and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk; meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of B12.[212][213]

It has been suggested that nori (an edible seaweed), tempeh (a fermented soybean food), and nutritional yeast may be sources of vitamin B12.[202][p][215][q] In 2016, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics established that nori, fermented foods (such as tempeh), spirulina, chlorella algae, and unfortified nutritional yeast are not adequate sources of vitamin B12 and that vegans need to consume regularly fortified foods or supplements containing B12. Otherwise, vitamin B12 deficiency may develop, as has been demonstrated in case studies of vegan infants, children, and adults.[37]

Vitamin B12 is mostly manufactured by industrial fermentation of various kinds of bacteria, which make forms of cyanocobalamin, which are further processed to generate the ingredient included in supplements and fortified foods.[217][218] The Pseudomonas denitrificans strain was most commonly used as of 2017[update].[219][220] It is grown in a medium containing sucrose, yeast extract, and several metallic salts. To increase vitamin production, it is supplemented with sugar beet molasses, or, less frequently, with choline.[219] Certain brands of B12 supplements are vegan.[203]

Calcium is needed to maintain bone health and for several metabolic functions, including muscle function, vascular contraction and vasodilation, nerve transmission, intracellular signalling, and hormonal secretion. Ninety-nine percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.[221][222][223]:3574 High-calcium foods may include fortified plant milk, and kale, collards and raw garlic as common vegetable sources.[224]

A 2007 report based on the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which began in 1993, suggested that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over meat eaters and vegetarians, likely because of lower dietary calcium intake. The study found that vegans consuming at least 525mg (8gr) of calcium daily have a risk of fractures similar to that of other groups.[r][227] A 2009 study found the bone mineral density (BMD) of vegans was 94 percent that of omnivores, but deemed the difference clinically insignificant.[228][s]

Vitamin D (calciferol) is needed for several functions, including calcium absorption, enabling mineralization of bone, and bone growth. Without it bones can become thin and brittle; together with calcium it offers protection against osteoporosis. Vitamin D is produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin; outdoor exposure is needed because UVB radiation does not penetrate glass. It is present in salmon, tuna, mackerel and cod liver oil, with small amounts in cheese, egg yolks, and beef liver, and in some mushrooms.[230]

Most vegan diets contain little or no vitamin D without fortified food. People with little sun exposure may need supplements. The extent to which sun exposure is sufficient depends on the season, time of day, cloud and smog cover, skin melanin content, and whether sunscreen is worn. According to the National Institutes of Health, most people can obtain and store sufficient vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer, and fall, even in the far north. They report that some researchers recommend 530 minutes of sun exposure without sunscreen between 10 am and 3 pm, at least twice a week. Tanning beds emitting 26% UVB radiation have a similar effect, though tanning is inadvisable.[230][231]

Vitamin D comes in two forms. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun or consumed from food, usually from animal sources. Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is derived from ergosterol from UV-exposed mushrooms or yeast and is suitable for vegans. When produced industrially as supplements, vitamin D3 is typically derived from lanolin in sheep's wool. However, both provitamins and vitamins D2 and D3 have been discovered in Cladina spp. (especially Cladina rangiferina)[232] and these edible lichen are harvested in the wild for producing vegan vitamin D3.[233] Conflicting studies have suggested that the two forms of vitamin D may or may not be bioequivalent.[234] According to researchers from the Institute of Medicine, the differences between vitamins D2 and D3 do not affect metabolism, both function as prohormones, and when activated exhibit identical responses in the body.[235]

In some cases iron and the zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.[34] There are concerns about the bioavailability of iron from plant foods, assumed by some researchers to be 515 percent compared to 18 percent from a nonvegetarian diet.[237] Iron-deficiency anemia is found as often in nonvegetarians as in vegetarians, though studies have shown vegetarians' iron stores to be lower.[238]

Mangels et al. write that, because of the lower bioavailability of iron from plant sources, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences established a separate RDA for vegetarians and vegans of 14mg (gr) for vegetarian men and postmenopausal women, and 33mg (gr) for premenopausal women not using oral contraceptives.[239] Supplements should be used with caution after consulting a physician, because iron can accumulate in the body and cause damage to organs. This is particularly true of anyone with hemochromatosis, a relatively common condition that can remain undiagnosed.[240]

High-iron vegan foods include soybeans, blackstrap molasses, black beans, lentils, chickpeas, spinach, tempeh, tofu, and lima beans.[241][242] Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time,[243] such as half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juice. Coffee and some herbal teas can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain tannins such as turmeric, coriander, chiles, and tamarind.[242]

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in walnuts, seeds, and vegetable oils, such as canola and flaxseed oil.[244] EPA and DHA, the other primary omega-3 fatty acids, are found only in animal products and algae.[245] Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain and Ireland, dairy products are relied upon for iodine delivery because of low levels in the soil.[246] Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.[247]

As of 2014[update], few studies were rigorous in their comparison of omnivore, vegetarian, and vegan diets, making it difficult to discern whether health benefits attributed to veganism might also apply to vegetarian diets or diets that include moderate meat intake.

In preliminary clinical research, vegan diets lowered the risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and ischemic heart disease.[30][31][32][33] A 2016 systematic review from observational studies of vegetarians showed reduced body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose levels, possibly indicating lower risk of ischemic heart disease and cancer, but having no effect on mortality, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and mortality from cancer.[248]

Eliminating all animal products may increase the risk of deficiencies of vitamins B12 and D, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids.[34] Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in up to 80% of vegans that do not supplement with vitamin B12.[249] Vegans might be at risk of low bone mineral density without supplements.[34][250] Lack of B12 inhibits normal function of the nervous system.[251][252]

The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada state that properly planned vegan diets are appropriate for all life stages, including pregnancy and lactation.[253] They indicate that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that its adoption may serve to camouflage a disorder rather than cause one. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council similarly recognizes a well-planned vegan diet as viable for any age,[254][255][25] as does the New Zealand Ministry of Health,[256] British National Health Service,[257] British Nutrition Foundation,[258] Dietitians Association of Australia,[259] United States Department of Agriculture,[260] Mayo Clinic,[261] Canadian Pediatric Society,[262] and Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.[263] The British National Health Service's Eatwell Plate allows for an entirely plant-based diet,[264] as does the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) MyPlate.[265][266] The USDA allows tofu to replace meat in the National School Lunch Program.[199]

The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend a vegan diet for babies, children and adolescents, or for women pregnant or breastfeeding.[29] Harvard Medical School has commented that "plant-based eating is recognized as not only nutritionally sufficient but also as a way to reduce the risk for many chronic illnesses".[27] Kaiser Permanente, the largest healthcare organization in the United States, has noted, Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates.[267] The American Institute for Cancer Research has stated, When focusing on specific types of vegetarian diets, the vegan diets showed protection for overall cancer incidence also.[268]

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada consider well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets "appropriate for individuals during all stages of the lifecycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes".[269] The German Society for Nutrition cautioned against a vegan diet for pregnant women, breastfeeding women, babies, children, and adolescents.[29] The position of the Canadian Pediatric Society is that "well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets with appropriate attention to specific nutrient components can provide a healthy alternative lifestyle at all stages of fetal, infant, child and adolescent growth. Attention should be given to nutrient intake, particularly protein, vitamins B12 and D, essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, and calcium.[262]

According to a 2015 systematic review, there is little evidence available about vegetarian and vegan diets during pregnancy, and a lack of randomized studies meant that the effects of diet could not be distinguished from confounding factors.[270] It concluded: "Within these limits, vegan-vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements."[270] A daily source of vitamin B12 is important for pregnant and lactating vegans, as is vitamin D if there are concerns about low sun exposure.[t] A different review found that pregnant vegetarians consumed less zinc than pregnant non-vegetarians, with both groups' intake below recommended levels; however, the review found no significant difference between groups in actual zinc levels in bodily tissues, nor any effect on gestation period or birth weight.[272]

Researchers have reported cases of vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that were linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.[273][274] A doctor or registered dietitian should be consulted about taking supplements during pregnancy.[275][276]

Vegan diets have attracted negative attention from the media because of cases of nutritional deficiencies that have come to the attention of the courts, including the death of a baby in New Zealand in 2002 due to hypocobalaminemia, i.e. vitamin B12 deficiency.[35]

Vegans replace personal care products and household cleaners containing animal products with products that are vegan, such as vegan dental floss made of bamboo fiber. Animal ingredients are ubiquitous because they are relatively inexpensive. After animals are slaughtered for meat, the leftovers are put through a rendering process and some of that material, particularly the fat, is used in toiletries.

Common animal-derived ingredients include: tallow in soap; collagen-derived glycerine, which used as a lubricant and humectant in many haircare products, moisturizers, shaving foams, soaps and toothpastes;[277] lanolin from sheep's wool is often found in lip balm and moisturizers; stearic acid is a common ingredient in face creams, shaving foam and shampoos, (as with glycerine, it can be plant-based, but is usually animal-derived); Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from animal milk, is used in moisturizers; allantoin from the comfrey plant or cows' urine is found in shampoos, moisturizers and toothpaste;[277] and carmine from scale insects, such as the female cochineal, is used in food and cosmetics to produce red and pink shades;[278][279]

Animal Ingredients A to Z (2004) and Veganissimo A to Z (2013) list which ingredients might be animal-derived. The British Vegan Society's sunflower logo and PETA's bunny logo mean the product is certified vegan, which includes no animal testing. The Leaping Bunny logo signals no animal testing, but it might not be vegan.[280][281] The Vegan Society criteria for vegan certification are that the product contain no animal products, and that neither the finished item nor its ingredients have been tested on animals by, or on behalf of, the manufacturer or by anyone over whom the manufacturer has control. Its website contains a list of certified products,[147][282] as does Australia's Choose Cruelty Free (CCF).[283]

Beauty Without Cruelty, founded as a charity in 1959, was one of the earliest manufacturers and certifiers of animal-free personal care products.[284] Several international companies produce animal-free products, including clothes, shoes, fashion items, and candles.[285]

Vegans avoid clothing that incorporates silk, wool (including lambswool, shearling, cashmere, angora, mohair, and a number of other fine wools), fur, feathers, pearls, animal-derived dyes, leather, snakeskin, and any other kind of skin or animal product. Most leather clothing is made from cow skins. Vegans regard the purchase of leather, particularly from cows, as financial support for the meat industry.[286]:115 Vegans may wear clothing items and accessories made of non-animal-derived materials such as hemp, linen, cotton, canvas, polyester, artificial leather (pleather), rubber, and vinyl.[286]:16 Leather alternatives can come from materials such as cork, pia(from pineapples), and mushroom leather.[287][288]

Ethical veganism is based on opposition to speciesism, the assignment of value to individuals on the basis of species membership alone. Divisions within animal rights theory include the utilitarian, protectionist approach, which pursues improved conditions for animals. It also pertains to the rights-based abolitionism, which seeks to end human ownership of non-humans. Abolitionists argue that protectionism serves only to make the public feel that animal use can be morally unproblematic (the "happy meat" position).[20]:6263

Law professor Gary Francione, an abolitionist, argues that all sentient beings should have the right not to be treated as property, and that adopting veganism must be the baseline for anyone who believes that non-humans have intrinsic moral value.[u][20]:62 Philosopher Tom Regan, also a rights theorist, argues that animals possess value as "subjects-of-a-life", because they have beliefs, desires, memory and the ability to initiate action in pursuit of goals. The right of subjects-of-a-life not to be harmed can be overridden by other moral principles, but Regan argues that pleasure, convenience and the economic interests of farmers are not weighty enough.[290] Philosopher Peter Singer, a protectionist and utilitarian, argues that there is no moral or logical justification for failing to count animal suffering as a consequence when making decisions, and that killing animals should be rejected unless necessary for survival.[291] Despite this, he writes that "ethical thinking can be sensitive to circumstances", and that he is "not too concerned about trivial infractions".[292]

An argument proposed by Bruce Friedrich, also a protectionist, holds that strict adherence to veganism harms animals, because it focuses on personal purity, rather than encouraging people to give up whatever animal products they can.[293] For Francione, this is similar to arguing that, because human-rights abuses can never be eliminated, we should not defend human rights in situations we control. By failing to ask a server whether something contains animal products, we reinforce that the moral rights of animals are a matter of convenience, he argues. He concludes from this that the protectionist position fails on its own consequentialist terms.[20]:7273

Philosopher Val Plumwood maintained that ethical veganism is "subtly human-centred", an example of what she called "human/nature dualism" because it views humanity as separate from the rest of nature. Ethical vegans want to admit non-humans into the category that deserves special protection, rather than recognize the "ecological embeddedness" of all.[294] Plumwood wrote that animal food may be an "unnecessary evil" from the perspective of the consumer who "draws on the whole planet for nutritional needs"and she strongly opposed factory farmingbut for anyone relying on a much smaller ecosystem, it is very difficult or impossible to be vegan.[295]

Bioethicist Ben Mepham,[296] in his review of Francione and Garner's book The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?, concludes that "if the aim of ethics is to choose the right, or best, course of action in specific circumstances 'all things considered', it is arguable that adherence to such an absolutist agenda is simplistic and open to serious self-contradictions. Or, as Farlie puts it, with characteristic panache: 'to conclude that veganism is the "only ethical response" is to take a big leap into a very muddy pond'."[297] He cites as examples the adverse effects on animal wildlife derived from the agricultural practices necessary to sustain most vegan diets and the ethical contradiction of favoring the welfare of domesticated animals but not that of wild animals; the imbalance between the resources that are used to promote the welfare of animals as opposed to those destined to alleviate the suffering of the approximately one billion human beings who undergo malnutrition, abuse, and exploitation; the focus on attitudes and conditions in western developed countries, leaving out the rights and interests of societies whose economy, culture and, in some cases, survival rely on a symbiotic relationship with animals.[297]

David Pearce, a transhumanist philosopher, has argued that humanity has a "hedonistic imperative" to not merely avoid cruelty to animals or abolish the ownership of non-human animals, but also to redesign the global ecosystem such that wild animal suffering ceases to exist.[298] In the pursuit of abolishing suffering itself, Pearce promotes predation elimination among animals and the "cross-species global analogue of the welfare state". Fertility regulation could maintain herbivore populations at sustainable levels, "a more civilised and compassionate policy option than famine, predation, and disease".[299] The increasing number of vegans and vegetarians in the transhumanism movement has been attributed in part to Pearce's influence.[300]

A growing political philosophy that incorporates veganism as part of its revolutionary praxis is veganarchism, which seeks "total abolition" or "total liberation" for all animals, including humans. Veganarchists identify the state as unnecessary and harmful to animals, both human and non-human, and advocate for the adoption of a vegan lifestyle within a stateless society. The term was popularized in 1995 with Brian A. Dominick's pamphlet Animal Liberation and Social Revolution, described as "a vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism".[301] Direct action is a common practice among veganarchists (and anarchists generally) with groups like the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and Revolutionary Cells Animal Liberation Brigade (RCALB) often engaging in such activities, sometimes criminally, to further their goals.

Some vegans also embrace the philosophy of anti-natalism, as they see the two as complementary in terms of "harm reduction" to animals and the environment.[302]

The Vegan Society has noted, by extension, [veganism] promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans.[303] Many ethical vegans and vegan organizations cite the poor working conditions of slaughterhouse workers as a reason to reject animal products.[304]

Environmental vegans focus on conservation, rejecting the use of animal products on the premise that fishing, hunting, trapping and farming, particularly factory farming, are environmentally unsustainable. In 2010, Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society called pigs and chicken "major aquatic predators", because livestock eat 40 percent of the fish that are caught.[22] Since 2002[update], all Sea Shepherd ships have been vegan for environmental reasons. This specific form of veganism focuses its way of living on how to have a sustainable way of life without consuming animals.[305]

According to a 2006 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization report, Livestock's Long Shadow, around 26% of the planet's terrestrial surface is devoted to livestock grazing.[306] The UN report also concluded that livestock farming (mostly of cows, chickens and pigs) affects the air, land, soil, water, biodiversity and climate change.[307] Livestock consumed 1,174 million tonnes of food in 2002including 7.6 million tonnes of fishmeal and 670 million tonnes of cereals, one-third of the global cereal harvest.[308] A 2017 study published in the journal Carbon Balance and Management found animal agriculture's global methane emissions are 11% higher than previous estimates based on data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.[309] A 2018 study found that global adoption of plant-based diets would reduce agricultural land use by 76% (3.1 billion hectares, an area the size of Africa) and cut total global greenhouse gas emissions by 28% (half of this emissions reduction came from avoided emissions from animal production including methane and nitrous oxide, and half came from trees re-growing on abandoned farmland which remove carbon dioxide from the air).[310][311]

A 2010 UN report, Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, argued that animal products "in general require more resources and cause higher emissions than plant-based alternatives".[313]:80 It proposed a move away from animal products to reduce environmental damage.[v][314] A 2007 Cornell University study concluded that vegetarian diets use the least land per capita, but require higher quality land than is needed to feed animals.[315] A 2015 study determined that significant biodiversity loss can be attributed to the growing demand for meat, which is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction, with species-rich habitats being converted to agriculture for livestock production.[316] A 2017 study by the World Wildlife Fund found that 60% of biodiversity loss can be attributed to the vast scale of feed crop cultivation needed to rear tens of billions of farm animals, which puts an enormous strain on natural resources resulting in an extensive loss of lands and species.[317] Livestock make up 60% of the biomass of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%). As for birds, 70% are domesticated, such as poultry, whereas only 30% are wild.[318][319] In November 2017, 15,364 world scientists signed a warning to humanity calling for, among other things, "promoting dietary shifts towards mostly plant-based foods".[320] The 2019 IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services found that industrial agriculture and overfishing are the primary drivers of the extinction crisis, with the meat and dairy industries having a substantial impact.[321][322] On August 8, 2019, the IPCC released a summary of the 2019 special report which asserted that a shift towards plant-based diets would help to mitigate and adapt to climate change.[323]

One of the leading activists and scholars of feminist animal rights is Carol J. Adams. Her premier work, The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (1990), sparked what was to become a movement in animal rights as she noted the relationship between feminism and meat consumption. Since the release of The Sexual Politics of Meat, Adams has published several other works including essays, books, and keynote addresses. In one of her speeches, "Why feminist-vegan now?"[324]adapted from her original address at the "Minding Animals" conference in Newcastle, Australia (2009)Adams states that "the idea that there was a connection between feminism and vegetarianism came to [her] in October 1974", illustrating that the concept of feminist veganism has been around for nearly half a century. Other authors have also paralleled Adams' ideas while expanding on them. Angella Duvnjak states in "Joining the Dots: Some Reflections on Feminist-Vegan Political Practice and Choice" that she was met with opposition to the connection of feminist and veganism ideals, although the connection seemed more than obvious to her and other scholars (2011).[325] Other scholars elaborate on the connections between feminism, such as Carrie Hamilton who makes the connection to sex workers and animal reproductive rights.[326] Many other scholars of feminist vegan philosophy continue to add to the arguments that Adams, Duvnjak, and Hamilton have brought forth.

Some of the main concepts of feminist veganism is that is the connection between the violence and oppression of animals. For example, Marjorie Spiegal compares the consumption or servitude of animals for human gain to slavery.[325] Animals are purchased from a breeder, used for personal gaineither for further breeding or manual laborand then discarded, most frequently as food. This capitalist use of animals for personal gain has held strong, despite the work of animal rights activists and ecofriendly feminists.

Similar notions that suggest animalslike fish, for examplefeel less pain are brought forth today as a justification for animal cruelty.[325] The feminist side of the argument, however, suggests that there is no rationalization for treating animal lives with lesser reverence than human lives, even if the theory that animals are less capable of pain is verifiable.[citation needed]

Another connection between feminism and veganism is the parallel of violence against women or other minority members and the violence against animals. Animal rights activists closely relates animal cruelty to feminist issues. This connection is even further mirrored as animals that are used for breeding practices are compared to human trafficking victims and migrant sex workers.[326] Hamilton points out that violent "rapists sometimes exhibit behavior that seems to be patterned on the mutilation of animals" suggesting there is a trend between the violence towards rape victims and animal cruelty previously exhibited by the rapist.[326]

Another way that feminist veganism relates to feminist thoughts is through the capitalist means of the production itself. Carol J. Adams mentions Barbara Noske talking about "meat eating as the ultimate capitalist product, because it takes so much to make the product, it uses up so many resources".[327] The capitalization of resources for meat production is argued to be better used for production of other food products that have a less detrimental impact on the environment.

Streams within a number of religious traditions encourage veganism, sometimes on ethical or environmental grounds. Scholars have especially noted the growth in the twenty-first century of Jewish veganism[328] and Jain veganism.[329] Some interpretations of Christian vegetarianism,[330] Hindu vegetarianism,[331] and Buddhist vegetarianism[332] also recommend or mandate a vegan diet.

Multiple symbols have been developed to represent veganism. Several are used on consumer packaging, including the Vegan Society trademark[147] and Vegan Action logo,[280] to indicate products without animal-derived ingredients.[333][334] Various symbols may also be used by members of the vegan community to represent their identity and in the course of animal rights activism,[citation needed] such as a vegan flag.[335]

It has been estimated that in one year, a vegan will save 1,519,823 litres of water, 6,607kg of grain, 1,022 square metres of forest cover, 3,322kg of CO2, and 365 animal lives compared to the average US diet.[336] According to a 2016 study, if everyone in the United States switched to a vegan diet, by 2050 the country would save $208.2 billion in direct health-care savings, $40.5 billion in indirect health-care savings, $40.5 billion in environmental savings, and $289.1 billion in total savings. The authors also found that if the world switched to a vegan diet, by 2050 the global economy would save $684.4 billion in direct health-care savings, $382.6 billion in indirect health-care savings, $569.5 billion in environmental savings, and $1636.5 billion in total savings.[337]

Gary Francione ("Animal Welfare, Happy Meat and Veganism as the Moral Baseline", 2012): "Ethical veganism is the personal rejection of the commodity status of nonhuman animals..."[11]

Vegetarian and vegan diets may be referred to as plant-based and vegan diets as entirely plant-based.[19]

This terminology is controversial within the vegan community. While some vegan leaders, such as Karen Dawn, endorse efforts to avoid animal consumption for any reason; others, including Francione, believe that veganism must be part of an holistic ethical and political movement in order to support animal liberation. Accordingly, the latter group rejects the label "dietary vegan", referring instead to "strict vegetarians", "pure vegetarians", or followers of a "plant-based" diet.[21]

Another early use was by the editor of The Healthian, a journal published by Alcott House, in April 1942: "To tell a man, who is in the stocks for a given fault, that he cannot be so confined for such an offence, is ridiculous enough; but not more so than to tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature, and contrary to reason."[49]

National Institutes of Health, 2013: "In the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, bone fracture risk was similar in meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, but higher in vegans, likely due to their lower mean calcium intake."[226]

Matthew Cole, "Veganism", in Margaret Puskar-Pasewicz (ed.), Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism, ABC-Clio, 2010 (239241), 241.

John Davis, "Prototype Vegans", The Vegan, Winter 2010, 2223 (also here).

Daniel A. Dombrowski, The Philosophy of Vegetarianism, University of Massachusetts Press, 1984, 2.

Percy Bysshe Shelley, A Vindication of Natural Diet, London: F. Pitman, 1884 [1813]; William Lambe, Joel Shew, Water and Vegetable Diet, New York: Fowler's and Wells, 1854 [London, 1815].

For Ornish, Campbell, Esselstyn, Barnard, and Greger: Kathy Freston, Veganist, Weinstein Publishing, 2011. Ornish, from 21; Campbell, 41; Esselstyn, 57; Barnard, 73; Greger, 109.

American Dietetic Association (2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (6): 748765. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID12778049.

For Esselystyn and Forks over Knives: Martin, David S. (25 November 2011). "The 'heart attack proof' diet?". CNN. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.

Cohen, Tova (21 July 2015). "In the land of milk and honey, Israelis turn vegan". Reuters. Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018. A study prepared for the Globes newspaper and Israel's Channel Two found 5 percent of Israelis identify as vegan and 8 percent as vegetarian while 13 percent are weighing going vegan or vegetarian. In 2010 just 2.6 percent were vegetarian or vegan.

Cheslow, Daniella (10 December 2015). "As More Israelis Go Vegan, Their Military Adjusts Its Menu". The Salt. NPR. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018. The Israeli military, it turns out, was surprisingly eager to help. A military spokesman tells The Salt that vegans serve in all capacities, including as combat soldiers. Vegan soldiers wear wool-free berets and leather-free boots, and they get an additional stipend to supplement their food, the military says.

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Veganism - Wikipedia

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What Is a Vegan? What Do Vegans Eat? –

Veganism is a type of vegetarian diet that excludes meat, eggs, dairy products and all other animal-derived ingredients. Many vegans also do not eat foods that are processed using animal products, such as refined white sugar and some wines.

Vegan refers to either a person who follows this way of eatingor to the diet itself. That is, the word vegan can be an adjective used to describe a food item, as in, "This curry is vegan", or, it can be used as a noun, as in, "Vegans like cookies, too."

Although there is some debate as to whether certain foods, such as honey, fit into a vegan diet, if you are cooking for other vegans, it is best to err on the side of caution and avoid these foods.Most vegans extend the definition of veganism to go beyond just food and will also avoid the use of all personal and household products tested on animals, and avoid purchasing and using all animal-derived, non-food products, such as leather,fur, and wool. There is some debate as to whether second-hand animal products, such as a leather jacket from a thrift store, can be included in a cruelty-free vegan lifestyle or not.

This is perhaps the most common question about veganism. A vegan diet includes all grains, beans, legumes, vegetables and fruits, and the nearly infinite number of foods made by combining them.

In addition, many vegan versions of familiar foods are available, so you can eat vegan hot dogs,ice cream,cheese,non-dairy yogurt andvegan mayonnaisealong with the more familiar veggie burgersand other meat substitute products like vegan chicken recipes.Many foods are associated with veganism, such as soy milk, non-dairy milk substitutes, and tofu, but many non-vegans also enjoy tofu.You certainly don't have to like tofu in order to eat vegan.

Vegans also eat many of the same common and familiar everyday foods that everyone else does, such as a green salad, spaghetti, peanut butter sandwiches, cornbread, and chips and salsa. For example, foods such as a vegetarian burrito without cheese or sour cream would be vegan. A vegetarian Thai curry made from coconut milk is vegan. Pasta with tomato sauce or another non-meat and non-dairy sauce is vegan. Most bread is vegan as well.

Some people easily go from eating meat to vegan right away, while others struggle with their new commitment, or choose to go vegetarian first and then slowly omit eggs and dairy. There's no right or wrong way to do it, but you may want to learn about what's worked for other people. However you do it, keep your goals in mind and remember why you are choosing to adopt a vegan diet.

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Definition of veganism | The Vegan Society

Veganism is a way of living which seeks to exclude, as far as is possible and practicable, all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose.

There are many ways to embrace vegan living. Yet one thing all vegans have in common isa plant-based diet avoiding all animal foods such as meat (including fish, shellfish and insects), dairy, eggs and honey - as well as avoiding animal-derived materials, productstested on animals and placesthat use animals for entertainment.

Although the vegan diet was defined early on in The Vegan Society's beginnings in 1944, it was as late as 1949 before Leslie J Cross pointed out that the society lacked a definition of veganism. He suggested [t]he principle of the emancipation of animals from exploitation by man. This is later clarified as to seek an end to the use of animals by man for food, commodities, work, hunting, vivisection, and by all other uses involving exploitation of animal life by man.

The society was first registered as a charity in August 1964 but its assets were later transferred to a new charity when it also became a limited company in December 1979.The definition of veganism and the charitable objects of the society were amended and refined over the years.By winter 1988 this definition was in use - although the phrasing has changed slightly over the years - and remains so today:

"A philosophy and way of living which seeks to excludeas far as is possible and practicableall forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of animals, humans and the environment. In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals."

To read more on the history of veganism, see here.

A great deal - you'll soon find a whole new world of exciting foods and flavours opening up to you. A vegan diet is richly diverse and comprises all kinds of fruits, vegetables, nuts, grains, seeds, beans and pulses - all of which can be prepared in endless combinations that will ensure you're never bored. From curry to cake, pasties to pizzas, all your favourite things can be suitable for a vegan diet if they're made with plant-based ingredients. Check out our vegan recipes for ideas.

Vegans avoid exploiting animals for any purpose, with compassion being a key reason many choose a vegan lifestyle. From accessories and clothing to makeup and bathroom items, animal products and products tested on animals are found in more places than you might expect. Fortunately nowadays there are affordable and easily-sourced alternatives to just about everything. With over 30,000 products and services registered with our Vegan Trademark alone, living a vegan lifestyle has never been easier. Browse online today.

Currently all medicine in the UK must be tested on animals before it is deemed safe for human use, but please note: The Vegan Society DOES NOT recommend you avoid medication prescribed to you by your doctor - a dead vegan is no good to anyone! What you can do is ask your GP or pharmacist to provide you, if possible, with medication that does not contain animal products such as gelatine or lactose. For more information visit the website, which contains information on medicines prescribed in the UK, including ingredients lists.

If you're a medical charity supporter you may wish to check whether your chosen charity performs tests on animals. There are many charities that don't currently conduct animal tests and many vegans prefer donating to charities that actively seek alternative methods of testing.

Vegans choose not to support animal exploitation in any form and so avoid visiting zoos or aquariums, or taking part in dog or horse racing. A great alternative is visiting and supporting animal sanctuaries that provide safe and loving homes for rescued animals.

Want to find out more about the vegan lifestyle? Sign up to the free Vegan Pledge today. There are hundreds of thousands of vegans across the globe - with you, we're that much stronger.

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