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Category : Vegetarianism

Three easy recipes to try if you want to give vegetarianism a go – The Independent

By trade, Im an omnivore. The only food rule I follow is that I eat everything, because anything can lead to deliciousness. Maybe its goat meat on the bone, cooked low and slow and served in a dark pool of its own cooking juices. Maybe its a bloomy wheel of cheese made from cashew milk, dense and creamy in the middle. If its good, I want it, and then I want seconds.

But when I cook at home, what I want more and more of is vegetables. Right now, this instant, I want long, skinny tongues of charred aubergine dressed in soy sauce and maple syrup, over rice. I want bright tomato pulp pured with bread and olive oil, right from the lip of the bowl. I want a big pile of lettuce leaves filled with Hetty McKinnons sweet and spicy tofu larb.

When the weather cools down? I want a hot pot of winter greens and chewy noodles in miso broth. I want my favorite toor dal with whole boiled peanuts. I want sweet-edged, wrinkly roasted root vegetables over heaps of cheesy polenta, swimming in olive oil.

I dont know exactly when my appetite became so intensely focused on vegetarian foods in my own kitchen. It happened slowly, then all at once, like a custard thickening on the stovetop. I revised my food shopping, and my home cooking followed, branching out and expanding. I went back to old, favourite cookbooks that included meat and fish only occasionally, or not at all, like River Cafe Cook Book Green, by Rose Gray and Ruth Rogers, and Classic Indian Vegetarian Cookery, by Julie Sahni.

Maybe youre drawn to vegetarian food for ethical reasons, for health reasons, for ecological reasons, for reasons you cant quite explain just yet. Maybe youre trying to get out of a kitchen rut. Maybe, like me, you really love to eat well, and you want to cook with vegetables more.

I still smoke a lamb shoulder in the backyard or roast a salmon now and then, but when I plan a meal, its more often around vegetables than meat or fish. I shop once or twice a week, either at the supermarket or the farmers market, and later I study my cupboards and drawers, considering it all strategically a glut of Persian cucumbers, a bunch of fading dill, some green onion.

I rummage through my ice-crusted freezer drawer, wondering what that unlabelled container is filled with (leftover cannellini beans and greens?) and reach for a half bag of frozen peas. And despite my own inconsistencies when it comes to shopping and planning (and labelling leftovers), vegetables always lead me to something delightful and satisfying.

Frozen peas, brought up in hot, salted water, then roughly pured with some chilli flakes, lemon juice and zest, are positively springy when spread onto a thick piece of sourdough thats been crisped under the broiler and rubbed with a clove of garlic. Or, simmered with a little cream, they can dress a big bowl of pasta, with black pepper and grated cheese on top.

Persian cucumbers, roughly peeled, chopped and plopped into a blend of buttermilk and yogurt, quickly form the base of Naz Deravians abdoogh khiar, an Iranian chilled soup, crunchy with walnuts, which is quick to make, and life-affirming in this late summer heat.

Im energised by cooks who coax the best out of vegetables, and not only professionals restaurant cooks, recipe developers, cookbook authors whove been working with vegetarian food for far longer than me but also friends, family and other home cooks who have patiently walked me through a technique, or documented their work online.

Just when I thought I might be getting a little bit sick of salads, for example, Ali Slagle went and put one on a pizza. And not just any pizza, but a super thin-crust pizza covered entirely with a crisp, lacy layer of parmesan cheese.

Piling salad on a cheesy, thin-crust pizza is the kind of smart, simple technique I know Ill practice again, not only exactly as written, with baby rocket and white beans on top, but maybe with crunchy lettuce in a tahini dressing, or lots of sauted summer squash. Or maybe with some cherry tomatoes, roasted until they burst, tossed with olive oil and big pieces of torn basil. Its official, salad pizza is now a part of my repertoire.

And thats the thing about a good vegetarian recipe: it leads you to a delicious meal, then makes hundreds more possible.

Tofu larb

Hetty McKinnons sweet and spicy tofu larb is perfect for summer


Total time: 20 minutes

Makes: 4 servings


For the tofu:

3 tbsp uncooked glutinous (sticky) or jasmine rice

2 (400g) packs extra-firm tofu, drained and patted dry

1 tbsp neutral oil, such as grapeseed or vegetable

1 lemongrass stem, outer layer removed, tender stem finely chopped

1 shallot, halved and thinly sliced

4 makrut lime leaves (optional), thinly sliced

1 cup mixed soft herbs, such as mint, Thai basil, basil, cilantro and chopped spring onions

1 tsp salt, plus more as needed

1 head butter lettuce, leaves separated

50g shop-bought crispy fried shallots or onions

For the dressing:

4 tbsp fresh lime juice (from about 2 limes)

3 tbsp dark or light brown sugar

2 tbsp soy sauce

tsp red-pepper flakes or to 1 red chilli, such as birds eye, finely chopped


1. Make the toasted rice powder: heat a medium (25cm) frying pan over medium-high. Add the rice and stir constantly for 4 to 6 minutes until golden, with a nutty aroma. Transfer rice to a mortar and pestle or spice grinder and grind until it is a coarse powder (you dont want it too fine; some texture is nice). You should have about 3 tablespoons. Set rice powder aside.

2. Make the dressing: in a small bowl, combine the lime juice, brown sugar, soy sauce and red-pepper flakes; whisk until the sugar is dissolved.

3. Crumble the tofu into small chunks and place in a large bowl.

4. Heat the medium frying pan over medium-high and add 1 tablespoon oil. Add the lemongrass and shallot and cook, stirring constantly, until softened and aromatic, about 2 minutes. Remove from heat and add to the tofu, along with the lime dressing, rice powder, makrut lime leaves, herbs and salt. Taste and add more salt if needed.

5. To serve, spoon the tofu larb into the lettuce leaves and garnish with crispy fried shallots.

Salad pizza with white beans and parmesan

Piling salad on a pizza is a simple technique youll want to recreate again and again


Total time: 45 minutes

Makes: 4 servings


1 (425g) can white beans, such as cannellini or Great Northern, rinsed

30g sliced pickled pepperoncini (about 6 to 8 peppers), plus 2 tablespoons brine

2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil, plus more for greasing

Salt and black pepper

450g shop-bought or homemade pizza dough, at room temperature, divided into two 225g portions

90g freshly grated parmesan, plus more for serving

85-140g ounces baby rocket


1. Heat the oven to 260C. Place a baking tray in the oven to heat.

2. In a large bowl, stir together the white beans, pepperoncini, pickle brine and 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil. Season with salt and pepper; set aside.

3. Place a kitchen towel on a work surface, then place an upside-down baking tray or cutting board on the towtl (This will serve as your pizza peel; the towel stabilises the setup as you roll the dough). Lightly grease a piece of parchment with olive oil and place on top of the upside-down baking tray. With a lightly greased rolling pin, roll one half of the dough on the parchment as thin as you can, about 0.3-0.6cm thick (if the dough retracts, let it rest a few minutes before continuing).

4. Sprinkle the parmesan over the dough. Remove the preheated tray from the oven, and carefully slide the parchment with the dough onto the hot baking tray. Cook until golden brown on the top and bottom, 10 to 12 minutes. Meanwhile, roll out the remaining dough on a second piece of greased parchment and cover with the remaining parmesan. Transfer the first pizza to a cooling rack to crisp, then repeat with the second piece of dough.

5. Add the rocket to the bean mixture, season with salt and pepper, and stir gently to combine. Top each pizza with the salad, plus more grated or shaved parmesan.

Abdoogh khiar (chilled buttermilk cucumber soup)

Iranian chilled soup is quick to make and life-affirming in late summer heat


Total time: 15 minutes, plus chilling

Makes: 2 to 4 servings


1 tsp dried edible Damask rose petals (optional, see tip)

475ml buttermilk, plus more if desired

123g cup plain yogurt


3 Persian cucumbers (200g), cut into 0.5cm pieces, plus more for garnish

50g golden or black raisins, plus more for garnish

40g walnut halves, coarsely chopped, plus more for garnish

1 tsp finely chopped fresh dill, plus sprigs for garnish

1 tsp finely chopped chives or green onion

1 tsp dried mint, plus more for garnish

lavash rectangle or 1 large slice bread of choice (such as sourdough)

4 ice cubes

Fresh mint leaves, for garnish


1. If using dried rose, crumble a few petals coarsely for garnish and set aside. Place the rest on a cutting board and chop as finely as possible.

2. Place the buttermilk, yogurt and 1 teaspoon salt in a blender and blend until frothy, about 30 seconds, or whisk together in a large bowl until smooth and frothy. If you used a blender, pour the mixture into a large bowl. Add the cucumbers, raisins, walnuts, dill, chives, dried mint and teaspoon of the finely chopped rose petals. Stir well to combine and season to taste with more salt. Cover and refrigerate to chill and allow the flavours to come to life, at least 1 hour and up to overnight.

3. Just before serving, toast the lavash or bread until crisp but not burned, and break into pieces. Stir the soup to mix. It should be the consistency of a thin, runny soup. If its too thick, thin it out with water or more buttermilk, 1 tablespoon at a time. Keep in mind that you will be adding ice cubes, which will also thin out the soup as they melt. Divide the soup among serving bowls and add the ice cubes. Garnish the top as creatively as you like with crumbled dried rose petals, cucumber, dried mint, dill sprigs, raisins, walnuts and fresh mint leaves. Add the bread pieces right before serving or serve on the side.

Tips: Dried edible Damask rose petals, available in Middle Eastern markets and online, are used in various Iranian dishes as a fragrant and savoury spice. Theyre worth seeking out, grinding to a powder (whole petals are pretty as a garnish but tough to chew) and adding to your spice cabinet. Feel free to swap out for more of the fresh herbs, as you like.

The New York Times

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Three easy recipes to try if you want to give vegetarianism a go - The Independent

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

Book Review: Moving Away From the Popular and Simplistic Narratives About Beef – The Wire

In an important article on beef festivals, Balmurli Natarajan called for reframing beef festivals as antagonistic moments that challenge the degradation of outcaste labour and articulate an anti-caste identity heralding a politics of multiculturalism against caste. Sacred Cows and Chicken Manchurian by James Staples cautions us against such an approach. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in coastal Andhra Pradesh, this book moves away from the popular and simplistic binary of cow protectionists versus pro-beef Dalit activists to explore the overlooked ambivalences that exist between these two poles. This book pursues and makes a case for in-depth ethnographic research on dietary politics and processes. It adds nuance to existing accounts on the politics of consuming meat and non-meat diets in contemporary India.

James StaplesSacred Cows and Chicken Manchurian: The Everyday Politics of Eating Meat in IndiaUniversity of Washington Press (November 2020)

Staples explores the meanings attributed to food as a continually changing process and not merely influenced by political ideologies (for example, the BJP), but also shaped through changing technologies of producing and processing meat, environmental and health concerns, class position and gender. Theoretically, this book complements scholarship that makes a critical contribution to the anthropology of food beyond structural Marxism and Louis Dumonts domineering influence on food studies in India.

Chapter One is a brief engagement with history (differential histories of meat-eating in India), where cattle in Vedic texts and manipulation of bovine history in colonial times are discussed together to understand the bovine politics in post-Independence India. The Vedic past was recast continually in colonial times for nationalist politics and now this manipulation of bovine history (where beef eating and cow protectionism are reanimated), continues in post-Independence India with the clear political purpose of othering Muslims, Christians and Dalits.

Chapter Two engages with the complexity of food preferences and ensuing changes in coastal Andhra. The dichotomy of vegetarian and non-vegetarian means little in the peoples lives as vegetarian diet dominates in most peoples lives and the symbolic is to a large extent preconfigured by material (p. 54). This chapter maps dietary changes and how economic liberalisation has changed the Andhra cuisine and a critique of modernity too is now pushed through, speaking of a past where food was authentic. Though eating outside has increased, this change is however gendered as eating out is still not considered respectable for women.

Chapter Three and Four explore the meaning of beef consumption in the context of polarised binaries of those who celebrate beef consumption and those who herald cow protection. The making of chicken as respectable meat and consumption of beef by upper-caste Hindus, along with the export of beef has led to higher prices of beef. Assumptions like love for cattle as the sole preserve of upper castes is challenged here to suggest that a kinship type relationship exists between beef-eating Dalits and their buffaloes. Whereas the upper-caste owner of cattle resorts to not knowing as a way of dealing with the sale of their cattle to butchers and cattle traders (p. 93). The bovine nexus and the multiple and contradictory meanings of bovine and cattle meat are engaged with here to argue that there is no radical distinction between the preference of high-caste Hindu cattle owners and beef-eating Christians, Dalits and Muslims vigilante action against cow slaughter is more about making Muslims, Dalits and Christians as the Other (p. 101). Chapter Four further engages with falsifying the distinction between beef and other meats and suggests that the distinction to be far more complex as food choices are shaped by class, education, age, family position and locality.

Representative image of cows. Photo: Reuters

Chapter Five on the changes in meat-eating practices in the last three decades locates the rise of chicken at the heart of this change. While eating beef could invite prejudice, chicken is increasingly considered sanitised meat. The chicken revolution (production and consumption of broiler chicken) and the role played by markets and other non-political factors are also aided by Hindutva groups in the promotion of chicken over beef. From being a source of suspicion, broiler has turned most acceptable non-vegetarian food for vegetarians and meat-eaters alike. Hindutva groups occasionally appropriate the argument of environmental distress caused by mass poultry production for political gains turning the Hindu nationalist project into an environmental project while meat-eating groups simultaneously work out newer ways of framing their food habits.

Chapter Six, titled From Caste to Class in Food, suggests that caste alone may be inadequate to explain the on-the-ground social distinctions and highlights the complex social effects of globalisation. While beef can seem a cosmopolitan diet if it is consumed by upper castes and privileged groups, Staples suggests that cosmopolitan sophistication and caste are no longer adequate to explain the ongoing realities of social distinction as dignity is increasingly determined by cultural capital:

Food, then, because of its relative accessibilitycompared to the costlier trappings of a middle-class life, from fridges to motorcycleswas a particularly important medium through which identities beyond caste could be performed and negotiated. (p. 155)

That Kotaiah (an upper-caste) eats beef as his new found cosmopolitan identity and Prakash avoids beef for respectability as an untouchable (Mala) and Soloman Raju though an untouchable on the other hand had economic status which no longer needed to concern himself with what high-caste Hindus thought of him. While understanding class is important to decipher the status struggles and social differentiationcaste continues to remain of central importance in understanding Indian food ways (p. 161).

The concluding chapter recapitulates the continued making and remaking of the sacred cow since anti-colonial nationalist struggles and contemporary militant nationalism in neo-liberal times (nationalism) as a way of resisting the Other (Muslims, Christians and Dalits) and the liberal environmentalists support to the hegemony of vegetarianism and bovine inviolability. It summarises how ethnography brings nuance and paints an intricate picture to challenge the hegemonic view that the beef industry is confined to a non-Hindu other to unravel high caste complicity in beef business, the complexities of human-cattle relationships, the complicated eating habits of actual people beyond distinctions of vegetarian and non-vegetarian and beef and non-beef.

Leaves us wanting more

Staples calls for complicating these binaries, for looking at the symbolic and the material together and avoiding an understanding of culture as static (both Dalit and Hindutva activists do this, according to Staples). Ethnography thus helps us to look at cultural or ontological claims as contested, shifting, and as politically motivated (p.176). While Staples brings nuance to the study of food, the broader picture he presents on shifting dietary preferences and associated collective identities leaves us wanting for more.

Though Staples calls for looking at the material and the symbolic together, he partly ends up privileging the material over the symbolic and cultural. His attempt becomes one that passionately seeks to bypass Sanskritisation (Srinivas) and Dumont (essentialising of Indian culture). For instance, Staples suggests that for militant vegetarians, eating meat especially beef stood for negative otherness (p. 120, emphasis added). How does one distinguish militant vegetarians from non-militant vegetarians or militant and non-militant non-vegetarian Hindus? What social currents tie them together or separate them? Does Hinduism under Hindutva take a newer inclusive form of social cohesion so as to weave nationalism, vegetarianism and non-beef non-vegetarianism together?

Representative image of a pure veg restaurant. Photo: Joegoauk Goa/Flickr CC BY SA 2.0

A recent survey by Pew Research Center may have some answers. It reports that nearly two-thirds of Hindus (64%) say it is very important to be a Hindu to be truly Indian. In addition, 72% of Hindus surveyed across the country say that a person who eats beef cannot be a Hindu. One cannot be sure if such a vast majority can be termed as militant vegetarians/Hindus.

While Staples largely attributes the chicken revolution to the decline of beef, Ferry (2020) using quantitative methods in a similar exercise maintains that the social structure remains stable in India over time and that we need to move beyond linear expectations drawn from economic development to understand local cultural preferences (chicken and vegetarianism). Local is not framed here as stagnant but resilient and for Ferry therefore, the politics around the decline of beef consumption in India (especially amongst the Scheduled Castes) indeed points to the making of a Hindu Orthopraxis and the simultaneous Othering of Muslims. How do we make these two approaches and methods speak to each other?

Staples draws convincing parallels with other states in North India, but this also undermines the local non-cow-belt nature of coastal Andhra. His nuanced local approach also ignores Kancha Ilaiahs book Buffalo Nationalism and Ambedkar, though cited, appears not as a sociologist or anthropologist but as a leader of Dalit Buddhist movement during independence struggle (p. 40). These minor quibbles aside, Sacred Cows and Chicken Manchurian is essential reading on food politics in South India and it will encourage more attention and research on sociology-anthropology of food in South Asia.

Suryakant Waghmore is a public sociologist. He loves beef curry and rice as much as rajma chawal.

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Book Review: Moving Away From the Popular and Simplistic Narratives About Beef - The Wire

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

A Day in the Life of a Vegetarian – The Exponent

Mary Masterson and Emma Davis live their lives as vegetarians. Both are sophomores in college who live on campus. Masterson goes to Baldwin Wallace and Davis goes to Cleveland State University. And each one has a different story to tell about being vegetarian.

So what is a vegetarian? And how is it different from being vegan? Merriam-Webster defines vegetarian as a person who does not eat meat : someone whose diet consists wholly of vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, and sometimes eggs or dairy products.

It defines vegan as a strict vegetarian who consumes no food (such as meat, eggs, or dairy products) that comes from animals, also : one who abstains from using animal products (such as leather).

Masterson defines being a vegetarian by not eating any fish or meat, but I still eat dairy products and eggs. I also choose not to use animal products like leather. Basically, I try to live as peacefully as I can, and for me that includes not causing any harm to animals.

Davis said they are a vegetarian, as well as a person who tries not to use anything that isnt cruelty free in regards to beauty products.

So even to vegetarians, the line between veganism and vegetarianism is blurred.

Masterson has been a vegetarian for 8 years, since she was 12. While Davis went vegetarian about six or seven years ago.

When asked how this affects her life Masterson said, I think being vegetarian really guides a lot of my moral and ethical decisions and has really changed my viewpoint about life and how I view animals and living things. For where it affects me, I would say that whenever I go somewhere to eat, I have to factor in whether or not I can eat there or if they will be able to make accommodations to the meal so I will be able to eat it.

Davis said, it doesnt affect me particularly on a day to day basis, other than having to be slightly picky whenever there is a group dinner of some kind. It also crops up when people wish to stop for fast food in the car, because salads are not really portable foods.

Masterson added that when I go out to eat with friends or go to a family party I am not always certain that I will have something to eat, and it is frustrating sometimes when my extended family doesnt have options for me to eat anything. It is also difficult because many foods can be easily made vegetarian, but people will still make them with chicken/beef broth or put meat in a sauce dish.

Davis concurs with Masterson, but only finds it difficult because I dont wish to be an inconvenience.

The reasons behind why Davis and Masterson went vegetarian were very similar.

Davis chose this because of my deep love for animals, and prior to going fully vegetarian I didnt eat pork for about five years. I watched and read Charlottes Web as a kid and couldnt fathom eating Wilbur, so I dropped the pork.

Masterson chose to be vegetarian mainly because of the ethics and animal rights component of the lifestyle. I have always cared a lot about animals, and I eventually realized that I no longer wanted to cause harm to them by eating meat because I believe animals are complex and emotional and that they deserve to have safe and happy lives. Additionally, I chose to become vegetarian because of the environmental damage that the meat industry has done, and I believe that being vegetarian is much more sustainable than the corporate meat industry, which has become dominant over many local farmers who do use sustainable practices.

Davis and Masterson then shared some stories about being vegetarian.

Davis said, a horror story of mine is when I stopped eating pork for several years and I was a pre-teen (Im not certain the exact age) and my friends mother who knew I didnt eat pork lied to me and tricked me into consuming pork. I was devastated, and promptly felt sick.

Masterson said, one story that stands out to me is when I was first telling my mom that I wanted to be vegetarian. I remember explaining to her that I was afraid that my dad would be upset that I was going to stop eating meat because when I was at his house he would always cook meat and I remember her saying that he wouldnt be upset that I wanted to take care of animals and couldnt understand why I was worried. After a few minutes of confusion, I eventually figured out that she thought I said I wanted to be a veterinarian instead of vegetarian. After everything was cleared up, it ended up working out fine and my dad actually wasnt upset about it after all.

Surprisingly being a vegetarian doesnt affect Mastersons and Daviss daily routine all that much.

For Masterson, being vegetarian really only affects what I do at meal times because I have to make sure I am getting enough protein and other nutrients, but its not that different than when I ate meat in regards to my daily routine.

Davis said that the only time it really affected them was when I was in high school my mom would text me when dinner was almost ready and then I would make my own vegetarian dish, if whatever she made couldnt have the meat removed easily.

As to how she is coping at BW, Masterson said, it can be difficult sometimes because my options in the dining hall are a lot more limited. Usually there is always a vegetarian option but a lot of times it doesnt have enough protein in it, so I will find myself having to eat other snacks. I really like when tofu is offered as a meal choice because it is more filling and has enough nutrients. In terms of finances, I think for some it may be difficult, especially if you have to buy extra snacks to get protein, and usually those tend to be healthier so they are more expensive, but I have found that it is possible to get cheap foods that are nutritious and filling, but it requires some research and budgeting.

Davis said, in regards to dining at CSU, that being vegetarian as a college student isnt terribly hard because the dining hall always has salad, and often has pasta or tacos as well.

Masterson said, I dont think its that difficult to be vegetarian, I think at the beginning it requires some patience and discipline to keep up with a plant-based diet and not eat meat, but once you get the hang of it, its not that much difficult than any other dietary choice. You also may need to be able to plan your meals in advance in order to make sure youre getting enough vitamins/nutrients and budgeting your shopping plan, but I think that can be said for any diet.

Davis added that you have to make sure to still consume some protein.

Masterson said the benefits [of being vegetarian] are that it makes me feel good that my diet and lifestyle is reflective of the morals I want to live by, and sometimes its a lot healthier than what I ate before being vegetarian. Becoming vegetarian has been one of the most meaningful choices Ive made in my life and Im glad I decided to do it.

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A Day in the Life of a Vegetarian - The Exponent

Recommendation and review posted by Alexandra Lee Anderson

A French city announced it would serve meatless school lunches. The backlash was swift. –

The push to end meat consumption has become one of the more urgent causes of our time and one of the most politically fraught. As advocacy against meat-eating has ramped up, with activists and consumers citing its harm to animals, workers, and consumers, so has the backlash. It is the latest flashpoint in what seems to be an all-encompassing culture war.

That wars most recent front: Lyon, Frances third-largest city and the countrys gastronomic capital.

In February, Grgory Doucet, the mayor of Lyon, announced that the citys school cafeterias would temporarily stop serving meat every day. That edict sparked a local backlash. Farmers rolled out tractors to occupy city hall, and government ministers accused the mayor of harming children.

In March, Lyons administrative court dismissed a petition by meat producers, right-wing politicians, and some parents to ban the meatless menu, saying that it doesnt create risks for children. The schools will be serving non-meat dishes (though fish is allowed) until Easter, or even longer.

Those who took issue with the change accused Lyons mayor of pushing his environmental agenda onto kids plates, but he actually had a practical reason to get meat out of the citys 206 schools: to speed up food service and make it easier to comply with social distancing rules during the pandemic. A single meatless dish, the thinking went, would be a compromise to the tastes and beliefs of all be it picky eaters, vegetarians, Muslims, or Hindus.

Despite that rationale, the mayors foray into meatless policy ended up getting sucked into a broader culture war around meat and vegetarianism. This may seem like a very French story, but meat both in France and around the globe is not just food; it is also a powerful cultural force and, as such, can be very divisive.

Last month, when Colorados governor simply suggested residents cut out meat one day in March, state legislators and neighboring governors urged their constituents to eat even more meat. That was just the latest skirmish in a long-running battle in the US over an issue that has become deeply polarized and polarizing.

And now the culture war over meat has broken out in Europe. The Lyon controversy underscores the challenge facing the movement to reform our food system: How do you change hearts and minds when something feels so entrenched in ones cultural identity?

To understand whats happening in Lyon, its important to grasp the role that food and meat plays in French culture.

Food is central to Frances conception of itself, and in Lyon especially, which is home to 17 Michelin-starred restaurants. School cafeterias are thought to have a larger mission than to simply nourish bodies; they exist to create French citizens.

That is the republican dream: the idea that wherever you come from, we can give you the conditions to succeed and the cantine is part of it. Its a place to create equal opportunities, says Romain Espinosa, an economist at the University of Rennes who researches plant-based diets.

The traditionalist viewpoint is that to become truly French, children should learn French food culture at school. Thats why pupils lunchtime is something of a ritual here: a full hour of appetizers, main dishes, desserts, and, yes, cheese platters a far cry from the United States pizzas, burgers, and fries.

In France, children as young as 3 years old participate in cafeteria events where local cheese producers present their various artisanal fromages. They learn about terroir (unique environmental factors influencing the taste of foods) and are introduced to dishes from various parts of France, from Normandy mussels to the bouillabaisse, a fish stew from Provence.

In general, Espinosa says, France, just like Italy and Spain, has a very strong food culture. This is a country where you can find butcher stores that date back to before the American Constitution, a country that awards golden medals, with great fanfare, to not just wines but also baguettes, butters, and sour creams.

Such traditionalism and the culinary habits it breeds has its benefits. The French snack far less between meals than Americans, have lower rates of obesity, and consume far less sugar.

Yet it also has downsides, none more so than a powerful reluctance to any change regarding nutrition meaning reluctance to reducing meat consumption and giving up on traditional meat dishes.

That reluctance was on full display when Lyons mayor announced his plan to make the citys school meals temporarily vegetarian; livestock producers brought along with their tractors cows and goats to city hall, and protested with banners claiming that eating meat is the basis of humanity.

French media exploded with disputes among top government officials: The minister of the interior called the decision an unacceptable insult to French farmers. The minister for ecological transition said the conservative politicians arguments were prehistoric.

The minister of agriculture, Julien Denormandie, called for everyone to stop putting ideology on our kids plates and, instead, feed them meat that they need to grow well. For what its worth, Frances food and environmental agency, ANSES, has stated that eating vegetarian once per week is perfectly fine for children, while the American Dietetic Association says that well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including childhood.

Conservative voices were quick to declare that for children from impoverished families, school lunch is the only chance to eat meat and get enough protein. That might have been correct several decades ago, but today such claims are entirely false, says Laurent Bgue-Shankland, a social psychologist at the University of Grenoble, pointing out that in France low-income households consume more meat than the wealthy. If anything, 98 percent of French kids dont get enough fiber, something that eating more vegetarian foods would help achieve.

The outcry from farmers over Lyons meatless school meals is also, in large part, about social identity, a battle of the city versus the countryside somewhat similar to the urban/rural, liberal/conservative divide in the United States.

In France, vegetarianism and veganism are often portrayed as lifestyle choices of bobos (bourgeois and bohemian): left-voting, well-off urbanites who are thought to misunderstand the realities of rural life. The bobos promotion of vegetarian diets, the thinking goes, isnt just a social and cultural affront it could have material consequences as well, leading French farmers to financial ruin.

This discourse has similar undertones to the 2019 yellow vest protests in France, which started with a proposed fuel tax, seen as particularly unfair to struggling countryside dwellers who rely on cars for commuting, while rich Parisians dont even need cars to get around their city of 302 metro stations.

But these disputes over food arent just happening in France. In Denmark, an initiative to establish two vegetarian days per week in state canteens was scrapped soon after its introduction. In the UK, parents in farming communities destroyed a meat-free Mondays idea in schools.

The US has seen even more of these skirmishes break out, often in explicitly political settings.

In 2018, Sen. Ted Cruz quipped that if Texans elected Beto ORourke, a Democrat, to the Senate, hed ban barbecue. In 2019, Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and President Trump sparred over hamburgers amid arguments over the Green New Deal. During Georgias Senate runoff campaign, Republican David Perdue mocked his opponent (and now senator) Jon Ossoff for eating a plant-based burger, saying hed be having Waffle Houses all-star special (two eggs, toast, waffles, grits or hash browns, and your choice of bacon, sausage, or ham), and directly asked Georgians to pick your side.

And last month, Colorado Gov. Jared Polis declared March 20 MeatOut Day, intended to raise awareness of the environmental and health benefits of eating less meat and more plant-based foods. In response, Nebraska Gov. Pete Ricketts declared March 20 Meat on the Menu Day, and Wyomings governor made a similar declaration.

These battles in the larger culture war show that policymakers and advocates should be intentional about how they frame the discussion around meat. While vegetarians and climate activists might be eager to enact broad policies to curb meat consumption, such moves might only backfire and inspire greater opposition given how enmeshed meat is in cultural identity.

An example from a couple of years back is instructive. When in 2019 France introduced an experiment (which ends in October 2021) to offer children a vegetarian option at all school cafeterias, the outcry was not as heated as it is now in Lyon. It was likely because the vegetarian meals were often offered as a choice, and called the green menu to avoid terms like vegetarian or meatless. It worked well: Now, when a vegetarian option is offered, its picked on average by 30 percent of students.

Espinosa suggests that other small nudges along these lines could also be effective, such as offering the vegetarian option before the meat option.

Offering a genuine choice also seems to matter. When the 2019 law was introduced, it was met with opposition in some places because the choices given to children were bland and not particularly healthy omelets with cheese, highly processed soy burgers a poor substitute for Frances usually elaborate lunch dishes. The reason? School cooks didnt know how to prepare meals without meat.

That is now changing. The government started providing recipes to cafeteria chefs and offering training.

Whats working in France aligns with what researchers at the World Resources Institute (WRI), an environmental nonprofit, recommend in order to nudge diners to choose more plant-based foods. WRI has conducted several studies and has concluded that, to no ones surprise, just making the food really delicious is key to getting diners to eat more plant-based foods.

But WRI also recommends creating appetizing dish names, spotlighting the flavor and provenance of a meal, and not labeling it as vegetarian or even as healthy. Think Cuban Black Bean Soup instead of Low-Fat Vegetarian Black Bean Soup.

Nudging our way to a more rational food system may not feel ambitious enough, especially when we consider how big of a role a shift to plant-based foods can play in countering climate change. But heavy-handed policies in that direction also threaten to activate identities around meat-eating, potentially sabotaging those efforts.

That presents a real challenge for climate, animal welfare, and public health advocates, who need to think more about how to sidestep diet-as-identity, rather than stoke it. The recent squabbles in Colorado and Nebraska demonstrate the consequences of failing to account for the role meat plays in culture, especially in such ag-heavy states.

As for Lyon, its unclear whether vegetarian food has survived the culture war, but it has at least survived this recent skirmish.

After the courts decision to uphold Mayor Doucets meatless menu, protests in Lyon fizzled out. The farmers packed up their tractors, goats, and cows and went home, while the media turned their attention elsewhere.

But the children of Lyon are still eating meatless dishes in school every day. This weeks menu includes quenelle, a typical Lyonnaise dumpling with Provenal sauce, with oyster plant au gratin on the side, and honey cake for dessert.

If its as appetizing as it sounds, children can learn that vegetarian food can be delicious, and that a less meat-centric diet need not spell the end of the culture in which they grow up.

Marta Zaraska is the author of Meathooked: The History and Science of Our 2.5-Million-Year Obsession With Meat and Growing Young: How Friendship, Optimism and Kindness Can Help You Live to 100.

Correction: A previous version of this article misidentified the current mayor of Lyon. Grard Collomb left office in 2020; the mayor is now Grgory Doucet.

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A French city announced it would serve meatless school lunches. The backlash was swift. -

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France Is Having an Existential Crisis About Giving Up Meat to Save the Planet – VICE UK

French President Emmanuel Macron inspects a cow at an exhibition centre in Paris in February 2020. Photo:LUDOVIC MARIN/POOL/AFP via Getty Images

PARIS, France Five years on from the Paris Agreement, the first legally binding international treaty on climate change, France has made grand gestures to avert impending ecological disaster.

The French government has recently proposed a ban on short-haul domestic flights, outlawed the heated terraces beloved in Paris, launched a high-profile citizens convention on the climate and is currently debating an amendment to the constitution that would guarantee the preservation of the environment.

But last month when Grgory Doucet, the progressive Green Party mayor of Lyon, announced that school lunch menus offered to some 29,000 Lyonnais children each day would no longer include meat, for many it was a step too far.

Grald Darmanin, the right-leaning French interior minister, said that dropping meat was scandalous and an unacceptable insult to French farmers and butchers that was part of an elitist and moralist policy.

Julien Denormandie, the agriculture minister, called the Lyon mayors introduction of meat-free lunches aberrational from a nutritional point of view and shameful from a social point of view.

Adding to the cacophony of criticism, Bruno Retailleau, president of the right-wing Les Republicains party in the French Senate, described the move as the totalitarian temptation of a current of thought which wants to impose its options on all by force.

Farmers feed cows on the square facing the city hall of Lyon in protest at the mayor's decision to feed kids from vegetarian-only menus. Photo: OLIVIER CHASSIGNOLE/AFP via Getty Images)

But not all have been critical of Lyons meat-free policy. Instead fierce political factions have emerged on both sides, underlining the existential crisis that France faces as it attempts to uproot age-old traditions to avoid climatic catastrophe.

The Minister of Ecological Transition, Barbara Pompili, was one of those to hit back. We have fallen into a prehistoric debate, she said. I regret these worn out clichs, such as vegetarian food provides an unbalanced diet, when we know that meat can be replaced by fish, eggs, and vegetables which provide all the necessary proteins. It prevents us having a real debate on why we want to implement vegetarian menus.

That debate, added Pompili, should focus on the fact that livestock is responsible for 15% of greenhouse gas emissions. Frances own Ecological Transition Agency (ADEME) estimates that a meat dish on average requires 137g of CO2 emissions nearly ten times the 15g emitted in producing a vegetarian equivalent.

Leading global authorities have come to a similar conclusion. In a special report published in 2019, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the UN climate body, found that plant-based diets are a major opportunity for mitigating climate change, and recommended that countries reduce meat consumption.

For Benoit Granier, food expert for the French Climate Action Network, an environmental campaign group, a reduction in eating meat in France will be key to preventing the destruction of the planet.

Its a qualitative and quantitative problem, says Granier. We eat too much meat and too much bad quality meat. Its led to huge deforestation in Latin America. We need to massively reduce consumption of animal products, especially those made with intensive farming practices.

However, Lyon City Hall has played down the climate aspect and insists the decision to drop meat was made to speed up the service in the citys 206 schools to better comply with the pandemics health protocol requirements under COVID-19, which is now entering a deadly third wave across Europe.

We only took the decision to allow the public service to continue, a spokesperson told VICE World News. Children eat more quickly if theres only one choice and thats needed to allow social distancing to be maintained between students.

But critics are doubtful of this explanation and point to the fact that Mayor Doucet pledged in his election campaign last year to offer the choice of a vegetarian menu every day of the week in schools.

A photo shows the aftermath of a protest by farmers in Puy-de-Dome prefecture in Clermont-Ferrand. Photo: BART MAAT/Thierry Zoccolan AFP/AFP via Getty Images

Mlanie Hamon, a lawyer for the Admys-avocats firm, is representing the Departmental Federation of Farmers' Unions (FDSEA) and parents from Lyon in a legal appeal against the decision to temporarily stop serving meat.

The mayor says the reason for not serving meat is because of COVID but he clearly has a political motive, says Hamon, whose emergency appeal was submitted last month. But in any case, we consider it illegal.

The city's administrative court rejected those initial appeals earlier this month, noting that the non-meat menus do not create a health risk for children in terms of an emergency, allowing municipal canteens to continue not serving meat.

But that ruling has not halted the wave of criticism, with some decrying an assault on Frances sacrosanct individual liberty. Pierre Perrin, president of the Rhne regions Butchers Union, told VICE World News the decision to stop serving meat in Lyons cantines is an attack of freedom and that the environmental argument for reducing meat eating was not proven scientifically.

Its more an ideology, he adds. And its wrong. Eating meat is indispensable. Its very worrying. Good food, good living and good eating is part of Lyons culture. Lyon is the capital of French gastronomy.

Analysts say the furore is being framed by some as the latest Anglophone attack on French society and values: from culture wars to culinary wars.

Vegetarianism is seen as an Anglo-American import, says Renan Larue, a French professor at the University of California. Some are trying to make this a question of French identity and ecologists are being accused of betraying French heritage. Its an explosive cocktail.

Larue believes that the framing is down to the fact that France is increasingly being forced to face something of an existential crisis.

Its a particular moment of malaise, because theres a growing feeling of culpability regarding meat-eating in France but many are still attached to this past, he adds. Thats why theres been such a strong reaction.

Others see different factors behind the backlash. lodie Vieille-Blanchard, president of the vegetarian association of France, says that the very influential meat and dairy lobby in France has also played a role in the size of the debacle.

Theres been a historical support for these industries because of it, she says. Lies have been told, a cacophony of them.

But Vieille-Blanchard says that Frances meat consumption has been on the decline for years as attitudes evolve. In 1998, some 93.6kg of meat was consumed on average a year by every French person but that has since fallen to 86.2kg.

Vieille-Blanchard says that Mad cow disease a fatal condition for cattle that led to health problems in adults who consumed affected meat in the 1990s, and a more recent scandal over horse meat discovered in frozen beef lasagnas, have also led to dips in meat consumption.

I believe the decision by Lyon is common sense, she adds. A sustainable diet for the planet is one largely based on vegetable protein.

But while in January, a vegan restaurant near Bordeaux became the first to earn a prestigious Michelin star, only around 2% of French people say they are vegetarian and 0.5% vegan (although 30% say they are flexitarian).

For now, as French parliament this week debates a climate law that could require canteens to serve a vegetarian meal option every day, Lyon City Hall will continue to serve meatless meals. It remains an unpalatable reality for some.

The Interior Ministry and Ecological Transition Ministry did not respond to requests for comment.

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France Is Having an Existential Crisis About Giving Up Meat to Save the Planet - VICE UK

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Dietitian to the stars Alvenia Fulton blazed a trail in natural health – Natural Products INSIDER

After finding a solution to her ulcers in raw cabbage juice, Alvenia Fulton started a journey in nutrition and natural healing that included becoming vegetarian, earning degrees in nutrition and doctor of naturopathy, authoring books and newspaper columns, founding a health food store in Chicago and being a nutrition consultant to numerous celebrities in the 1970s.

Fulton was born in Tennessee in 1907 and died in Chicago in March 1999. In between, she discovered and learned about the healing power of plants and vegetarian foods, using her knowledge and experience to help people live healthier lives.

As a child, Fulton learned how botanicals from her local woods could help heal illness and wounds. In the 1950s, she suffered from ulcers. Refusing conventional medicine, she turned to juice made from raw cabbage, on the advice of a physician. This led to her studying nutrition, which culminated in a doctorate from Lincoln College of Naturopathy, Indianapolis.

Fulton adopted a vegetarian lifestyle and relocated to Chicago in the late 1950s, where she started the Better Living Health Club to guide members through weight loss and detox regimens. Then she opened Fultonias Health Food Center on the South Side of Chicago, offering customers nutrition advice, vegetarian food and juices, and assorted health food products. Fultons reputation drew attention and patronage from celebrities such as comedian Dick Gregory, dancer Ben Vereen, singer Roberta Flack, actor Michael Caine, comedian Redd Foxx and basketball star Bill Walton. This earned her the moniker Dietitian of the Stars, especially sought after for her expertise on fasting.

Fulton used the written word to reach many people. Her column Eating for Strength and Health appeared in the Chicago Daily Defender, an African-American newspaper then available in print, now available online. She also authored several books, including The Fasting Primer, Vegetarianism: Fact or Myth? Eating to Live, Radiant Health Through Nutrition, and Dick Gregorys Natural Diet For Folks Who Eat: Cookin With Mother Nature!, which she co-wrote with Gregory.

Fulton went toe-to-toe with conventional doctors and others who challenged her work and positions. Doctors don't bother me, she said, in a 1982 Cleveland Call and Post article, according to a blog posted to the NY Public Library site. Only 28% (of doctors) have had nutrition courses in school. That means 72% know absolutely nothing about what I'm talking about. Besides, I have doctors taking my program.

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Dietitian to the stars Alvenia Fulton blazed a trail in natural health - Natural Products INSIDER

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Research Radio Ep 14: The Myth of Vegetarianism in India – Economic and Political Weekly

In this episode, we speak to Balmurli Natarajan and Suraj Jacob about the politics of vegetarianism in India.

At best, only three in ten Indians are vegetarians, and more realistically less than two in ten are vegetarians. Yet, India is often portrayed as a land of vegetarians in popular culture. Our guests will probe this representation, and reveal how vegetarianism varies across caste, religion, class, gender, state and time.

We will speak toBalmurli Natarajan and Suraj Jacob about the politics of vegetarianism in India.Dr Jacob is a political economist afliated with Azim Premji University, Bengaluru and Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum. Dr Natrajan is an anthropologist afliated with William Paterson University of New Jersey, United States and Azim Premji University, Bengaluru. We will discuss their EPW articles titled"'Provincialising' Vegetarianism:Putting Indian Food Habits in Their Place" and "Deepening Divides:The Caste, Class and Regional Face of Vegetarianism."

Subscribe to Research Radio to stay tuned to our entire season. Do listen to our previous episodes if you have not already.

1 February 2021

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Research Radio Ep 14: The Myth of Vegetarianism in India - Economic and Political Weekly

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A definitive examination of plant-based burgers – The Stony Brook Press

Hamburgers: possibly the most American food ever in the popular imagination even if some say it came from German immigrants. Some might even consider it a staple food due to its prevalence across fast food menus. I, a proud American, sadly perpetuate this stereotype.

I love hamburgers. And with the success of Burger King and McDonalds and the ubiquity of burgers at backyard barbecues I am not alone in loving them.

That was why it took me so long to finally commit to becoming a vegetarian about three years ago. The exact reasons why involve podcasts, personal philosophy and maybe a little unhealthy guilt, but these are too complex to explain without their own article. Suffice to say that it was a hard decision to make, in part because of the prospect of forgoing cheap, filling and moderately tasty burgers.

Traditional vegetarian patty sandwich options had always been a part of my diet, like black bean burgers and garden veggie burgers. But to me, they had never actually tasted like the same type of food. I like black bean burgers, but their texture was always more smooth and paste-like than ground beef. The same goes for garden veggie burgers, which are often at their best more sweet than savory due to their corn and carrot components.

For the first couple of weeks of my life as a vegetarian, I was set to never taste what I assumed was the unique savory profile of beef and fish ever again. But then I saw a strange ad at my community college cafeteria asking me to try the Impossible Burger. Alongside claims of carbon footprint reduction, it had a similar promise to a later ad for their Burger King outing: Try it and dont see the difference. And at least for me, I can say that the Impossible Burger did the impossible successfully it made a beef-like burger without any beef. Now, especially after Burger King started selling the Impossible Whopper in New York, I may be eating more burgers than I did before I went vegetarian.

And Im not alone in this. In 2016, a study from the Pew Research Center, about American attitudes towards food, found that nearly one in ten Americans say they are either entirely or mostly vegetarian or vegan. A full 22% of people who said they were focused on eating healthy and nutritious food also said they were mostly vegetarian or vegan. Since then, the market for what marketers call plant-based meat has grown every year, with over $900 million in sales in 2019.

According to registered dietician Jenna A. Werner, who has worked in the field for 15 years, what makes these new plant burgers more beef-like than previous recipes is a variety of vegetarian protein sources instead of just soy- and bean-based products, as were popular in the past, Werner said, in an interview with Brands are using pea and rice for protein, plus fruit and veggie extracts added for color. Impossible Foods even claims that each Impossible Burger uses 87% less water and 96% less land in its production process than an equivalent 4-ounce ground beef patty.

So, with that in mind, I decided to look into how these new burgers stack up against the classics and each other.

How healthy are they?

It is important to remember that the serving size used to give nutritional information varies. For uncooked, pre-packaged patties available at the grocery store, the serving size is one patty, no matter the pattys actual size. For a burger served in a restaurant, the serving size is one whole burger, and includes the bun, seasonings and toppings. A store-bought sesame seed bun alone can add around 90 calories to a meal, and Burger Kings Whoppers openly advertise larger-than-usual buns.

The size of the patty is also not standardized. Most of the beef and plant meat patties Im comparing are 4 ounces (a little over 113 grams), as is industry standard. The more traditional veggie burgers, already marketed to a more health-conscious audience, are slightly smaller. So, keep those two qualifiers in mind calories from non-patty ingredients and unequal serving sizes as you make your choices.

How much will they cost you?

According to Vice News, an average American consumes three hamburgers a week. This average includes people who eat none, as well as people who eat multiple hamburgers every day so the standard deviation may be significant. However, for a simplified exercise, lets assume this subject is a college student who eats some sort of burger three times a week.

That student starts out eating 12 burgers a month. Eight of them may come from a fast food restaurant because who has time to cook? When they have the time available though, theyll grill around four burgers a month, buying a pack of four hamburger buns to eat them with. So, the student starts off paying around $52.50 per month for their burger habit.

Then, the student decides to try out vegetarianism for a while, but doesnt want to give up burgers just yet. The next month, they opt for an Impossible Whopper whenever they go to Burger King and buy Beyond Burgers at the grocery store when they want to grill. Now theyre paying $66.70 per month about $14 more than before.

After budgeting and seeing this increase, the student decides to keep buying vegetarian, but give up on plant-based meat to save money. Buying 12 traditional garden veggie burgers and a pack of 12 buns that month, they only spend a little over $23. However, they will have to choose between a Fieldburgers high sodium content and traditional garden veggie burgers very un-beef-like taste.

But what about the environment?

I had initially thought to compare the carbon footprint of each product the same way I compared everything else in the tables. But as I researched, I realized a single number cannot really represent the complexity of measuring environmental impact.

First off, food transport in diesel-engine trucks between processing facilities, grocery stores and consumers is a major portion of greenhouse gas emissions. So the carbon footprint of a single burger varies wildly depending on the distances between these places not to mention the fuel efficiency of the vehicles used. A single average would be useless information for the environmentally-conscious consumer.

Moreover, the modern plant-based meat movement that actually seeks to prove it can and should replace meat in our diets only really began with the launch of The Impossible Burger in 2016. The research on impact is in its scientific infancy. It will be many years before someone will have enough data to independently determine and compare the effects on the environment.

What is known is that multiple sources have shown that raising cows for slaughter is the most resource-intensive activity in the world food industry so cutting down on the cows we eat might be a good idea. It certainly cant hurt the environment to encourage more legume and soy protein production, but the difference in impact between a veggie burger and plant meat seems small so far.

I would like to give an unequivocal stamp of approval to the plant meat burgers, but I cannot. None of them are noticeably more or less healthy than a beef burger once you add in traditional toppings like mayo, ketchup and onions. It seems that if you want a meaty taste, a burger is always going to be a burger. Its never going to be healthy food.

When it comes to cost, if youre strapped for cash, plant meat is either about as expensive or more expensive than beef. So for low-budget vegans, traditional veggie burgers are the more economical option.

And as for the environmentalism angle that got the industry started, the data linked earlier does indicate that producing less beef would reduce humanitys carbon footprint. However, right now there is still too little data on the difference between the carbon footprint of traditional veggie burgers and plant meat burgers. The global carbon footprint reduction companies like Impossible Foods and Beyond Meat are aiming for would come from more people eating less beef due to their products more meat-like taste, but the plant meat industry is still young with a smaller reach compared to traditional meat suppliers.

Bottom line, The Impossible Burger and its friends are here to stay. And who knows, maybe they will replace meat one day in the far future. Beyond the taste though, there is not much special about them. Theyre neither that harmful nor that healthy, and they are definitely not that cheap. But if you want to reduce your environmental impact without changing your diet, maybe the financial hit is worth it.

I, for one, am still eating them.

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The Paul McCartney song that attacks Donald Trump – Far Out Magazine

Paul McCartney is not the most political songwriter going but he does occasionally dabble in mixing music and politics. On the odd occasion that he has blended these two worlds, his attempts tend to be on the covert side of things. But when he aimed one tune at Donald Trump, the former Beatle didnt try to hide his contempt for the most powerful man in America.

McCartney has always been rather coy about politics; he hasnt aligned himself to one political party and seems not to be a believer in party politics being a force for change, at least publically. Instead, he has used his platform to campaign about issues he duly cares about and believes will make the world a better place. Vegetarianism is a cause that he has famously used his platform for an issue that he thinks will benefit the world in multiple ways, including helping the climate. When Donald Trump dismissed climate change, Macca couldnt bring himself to stand idly by without saying anything.

Speaking toProspect Magazinein 2009, McCartney waxed lyrical about his optimism about President Barack Obama coming into office: This is why a lot of us hope for a change in US politics with the election of Obama. He is the man for the job. I was very impressed by his decision to work on the south side of Chicago after getting his degree rather than take a lucrative job on Wall Street. Im so glad he won. I think he will make a great president.

Obama was someone he had a ton of respect, and he was then replaced by somebody that McCartney never truly aligned with. After keeping his mouth shut on Donald Trump for a while, he channelled his frustration and anger into the song Despite Repeated Warnings which featured on his 2018 albumEgypt Station.

The seven-minute gentle beating of Trump contains lyrics such as despite repeated warnings of dangers up ahead, the captain wont be listening to whats been said, and those who shout the loudest, may not always be the smartest.

Normally I go along taking notice of politics but not really feeling I have to get involved, he admitted to the Evening Standard. But when Trump said climate change was a hoax perpetrated by the Chinese, I just thought: Woah, wait a minute. Thats a leader of one of the most powerful countries in the world That just sounds like a mad man. Just like mad talk.'

Expanding on his writing process on the track, McCartney later said: I thought, OK, its a sea captain, and hes steering a boat, and hes gonna to go towards the icebergs, but hes been warned, and hes going because he thinks hes right, and he thinks theyre all making too much of it. The usual arguments, you know.

So thats what its about. Its a sort of story like the Titanic. If theyd have been warned, hey, youre going to sink from icebergs, and if the captain says, Its doesnt matter, itll be fine. So its that, using that kind of idea, so that its a sort of mad, daft captain, and then theres all the people on the boat who know hes got it wrong. So its very symbolic for whats going on in some areas of politics, in my mind.

Climate change is something that McCartney truly cares about and, unlike some of his counterpart, has actually poured time and money into trying to make the world a more sustainable place. To see somebody in a position of power use their status to undo this work and create a darker future for the world was something that McCartney couldnt stand. Whilst Despite Repeated Warnings is far from Maccas magnum opus, it came from the heart and struck a chord that still resonates today.

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Why were Graham Crackers invented? The bizarre origins of the American snack explained – The Scotsman

NewsPeopleThe humble snack is the subject of a curious origin story

Tuesday, 12th January 2021, 11:11 am

In the latest bizarre social media trend users are imploring each other to research why Graham Crackers were invented.

Today, the humble American snack is a key ingredient is a key component of the saccharine dessert smores.

But originally the cracker was created with an entirely different purpose in mind.

Why were Graham Crackers invented?

The sweet flavoured cracker, made from flour, salt, oil, lard and molasses, was inspired by Sylvester Graham, a key figure in the 19th century temperance movement.

Graham encouraged the creation of the famously plain snack with the intention of tempering peoples sexual desires,

He believed that following a healthy, plant-based diet,devoid of pleasure and stimulation was how god intended humans to live. This diet was grounded in the use of bread made from coarsely ground wheat at home.

Graham believed that following such a diet would discourage masturbation, which he believed lead to blindness and early death.

The teachings of Graham would inspire nutritionist John Harvey Kellogg who, along with his brother Will, invented corn flakes. The plain and bland cereal would become a staple of breakfast diets across the world.

Its worth noting that while corn flakes were part of Kelloggs wider call for a plain and bland diet, they were never advertised as an anaphrodisiac.

Who was Sylvester Graham?

A presbyterian minister, Graham emerged as a dietary reformer in the early 19th century.

His calls for a plain and bland diet garnered him many supporters who were known as Grahamites.

Graham is also credited with founding one of the first vegetarianism movements in the United States and is regarded by some as the Father of Vegetarianism.

Alongside a stimulant-free diet, Graham encouraged followers to engage in a comfort-free lifestyle, avoiding warm baths and sleeping on hard beds.

Grahams death in 1851 is subject to much speculation.

Historian Stephen Nissenbaum says that Graham died after violating his own strictures by taking liquor and meat in a last desperate attempt to recover his health".

The New England Historical Society, however, claims that he died after receiving opium enemas on his doctors orders.

Why were Graham Crackers invented? The bizarre origins of the American snack explained - The Scotsman

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