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Translation of the long-term fundamental studies on viral DNA packaging motors into nanotechnology and nanomedicine – DocWire News

This article was originally published here

Liang C, et al. Sci China Life Sci 2020 Review.

ABSTRACT

Many years of fundamental studies on viral genome packaging motors have led to fruitful applications. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses package their genomes into preformed protein shells via nanomotors including several elegant and meticulous coaxial modules. The motor is geared by the hexameric RNA ring. An open washer displayed as hexametric string of phi29 motor ATPase has been reported. The open washer linked into a filament as a queue with left-handed chirality along the dsDNA chain. It was found that a free 5- and 3-dsDNA end is not required for one gp16 dimer and four monomers to assemble into the hexametric washer on dsDNA. The above studies have inspired several applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. These applications include: (i) studies on the precision motor channels have led to their application in the single pore sensing; (ii) investigations into the hand-in-hand integration of the hexametric pRNA ring have resulted in the emergence of the new field of RNA nanotechnology; and (iii) the studies on the motor stoichiometry of homologous multi-subunits that subsequently have inspired the discovery of new methods in highly potent drug development. This review focuses on the structure and function of the viral DNA packaging motors and describes how fundamental studies inspired various applications. Given these advantages, more nanotechnological and biomedical applications using bacteriophage motor components are expected.

PMID:32617827 | DOI:10.1007/s11427-020-1752-1

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Translation of the long-term fundamental studies on viral DNA packaging motors into nanotechnology and nanomedicine - DocWire News

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Nanomedicine Market Is New Business Opportunities and Investment Research Report by 2026 – 3rd Watch News

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Nanomedicine is an application of nanotechnology that deals in the prevention & treatment of diseases in humans. This technology uses submicrometer-sized particles for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Nanomedicines are advantageous over generic drugs in several aspects such as, to reduce renal excretion, improve the ability of drugs to accumulate at pathological sites, and enhance the therapeutic index of drugs. Thus, nanomedicine is used in a wide range of applications that include aerospace materials, cosmetics, and medicine.

The global nanomedicine market was valued at $111,912 million in 2016, and is projected to reach $261,063 million by 2023, growing at a CAGR of 12.6% from 2017 to 2023. The drug delivery segment accounted for nearly two-fifths share of the global market in 2016.

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The global market is driven by increase in the development of nanotechnology-based drugs, advantages of nanomedicine in various healthcare applications, and growth in need of therapies with fewer side effects. However, long approval process and risks associated with nanomedicine (environmental impacts) restrain the market growth. In addition, growth of healthcare facilities in emerging economies is anticipated to provide numerous opportunities for the market growth.

The vaccines segment is expected to register a significant CAGR of 13.2% throughout the forecast period. The treatment segment accounted for about fourth-sevenths share in the global market in 2016, accounting for the highest share during the forecast period. This is due to the high demand for therapeutics among patient and rise in the incidence of chronic diseases.

The neurological diseases segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR of 13.9% during the forecast period, owing to high demand for brain monitoring & treatment devices and drugs. The oncological diseases segment accounted for the highest revenue in 2016, with one-third share of the global market, and is expected to maintain its dominance throughout the forecast period.

In 2016, Asia-Pacific and LAMEA collectively accounted for about one-fourth share of the global market, and is expected to continue this trend due to increased adoption of nanomedicines, especially in China, India, and the other developing economies. In addition, rise in investments by key players in the field of nanomedicines is key driving factor of the Asia-Pacific market.

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Nanomedicine Market Revenue Value(USD Mn), New Business Strategies and CAGR Forecast 2029 – News Monitoring

The research study Global Nanomedicine Industry provides strategic appraisal of the Nanomedicine market. Our expedition specialists acutely determine the momentous aspects of the Global Nanomedicine report. It also offers a detail valuation with respect to the future technologies relying on the historical data and present circumstance of Nanomedicine market situation. In this Nanomedicine report, we have examined the principals, manufacturers in the market, geographical regions, product type, and Nanomedicine market end-client applications. The global Nanomedicine report comprises of primary and secondary information which is epitomized in the form of pie- charts, tables, Nanomedicine analytical diagrams, and reference figures. The Nanomedicine report is presented in a competent way, that involves basic patois, basic Nanomedicine overview, agreements, and certain facts as per consolation and comprehension.

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(***Our FREE SAMPLE COPY of the report offers a quick advent to the studies report outlook, TOC, a listing of tables and figures, an outlook to key players of the market and comprising key regions.)

Additionally, in-depth business outline, Nanomedicine market revenue study, strategies, and SWOT analysis of the top players have been provided in the report. Players in the Global Nanomedicine market are directing to vast their operations to leading regions. Further, Nanomedicine market companies are concentrate on innovation and establishing their products at competitive prices. A detail Nanomedicine supply chain study in the report will give Nanomedicine readers a better understanding.

Furthermore, the worldwide Nanomedicine market report describe segment-wise bifurcation in a way to offer the actual landscaping analogous to the market situation. The global Nanomedicine market is classified into product, application, and region with outstanding market players Pfizer Inc., Merck & Co., Ablynx NV, Nanosphere, Celgene Corporation, Abraxis BioScience, Inc., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited, Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Johnson & Johnson Services, GE Healthcare Limited, Inc. and Inc..

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***NOTE: As the world is experiencing the impact of Coronavirus, the MarketResearch.Biz has up to date its global Nanomedicine market research report. Our Team of Industry Researchers are Studying Covid19 and its Impact on Nanomedicine Market Growth and wherever necessary we will be considering Covid19 Footmark for Better Analysis of Market and Industries. Congenially get in Touch for More Details Information.

Market Segmentation:

Global nanomedicine market segmentation by product: Therapeutics, Regenerative medicine, In-vitro diagnostics, In-vivo diagnostics, Vaccines. Global nanomedicine market segmentation by application: Clinical Oncology, Infectious diseases, Clinical Cardiology, Orthopedics, Others

Moving ahead, the Nanomedicine market is influencing the North America market that contains (United States, Canada, and Mexico), Nanomedicine market is growing in Europe market (France, Germany, Italy, UK, and Russia), witnessed growth in the Asia Pacific region (Japan, China Korea, South East Asia and India), followed by Nanomedicine market in South America (Argentina, Columbia and Brazil), and the Middle East and Africa (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Egypt and South Africa).

The global Nanomedicine market reports confront the ebb and flow involved in significant market players. Several Nanomedicine movement, processes, basics, and knowledge are provided in the researching study, that ease our readers to understand the market and can differentiate with the other Nanomedicine market contenders, as well guide in taking an correct decision with regards to Nanomedicine future expectation.

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The data is impersonated from different sites, journals, magazines, research papers and yearly reports from Nanomedicine industries and gathered for advanced judgment. Validation of information is done by carrying out face-to-face interviews with fundamental conclusion experts and pioneers of Nanomedicine industry. Later, it is represented in form of graphs, tables and Nanomedicine market pie-diagrams.

The global Nanomedicine market has been well arranging in 15 chapters:

Chapter 1, Serves the complete assessment of the global Nanomedicine market, risk, mergers and collaboration, product classifications.

Chapter 2, Correlate with the key companies their supply-demand ratio relevant to Nanomedicine raw materials, price format, company revenue and sales.

Chapter 3, Nanomedicine market report disclose geological analysis in terms of income and sales forecasted period 2017-2026.

Chapter 4, The Nanomedicine report focuses on top driving organizations in the growing regions alongside their benefit, agreements, and market volume from 2017 to 2026.

Chapter 5,6,7, an In-sight study of the Nanomedicine market, related to top countries that give sales and revenue contribution in the market.

Chapter 8 and 9, the global Nanomedicine market explore this market through different segments, by product type, end-user applications, their market value, and growth rate.

Chapter 10 and 11, describes the Nanomedicine market circumstances over the forecast period for product type, end-client application, and regional study from 2017 to 2026.

Chapter 13,14 and 15, reveals the processed used in collecting the data, Nanomedicine market overview, different techniques used in the process of research findings, assumptions, appendix and various assets.

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Altogether, the global Nanomedicine report conducts an extensive investigation of the parent market, to know the overall of the global Nanomedicine market. Moreover, key players guiding the global Nanomedicine market over the market dimension, product scope, strategies, distinct Nanomedicine applications respecting to the market, product type along with the global market detailing and Nanomedicine advance prospects.

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Global Nanomedicine Market SHARE, SIZE 2020| EMERGING RAPIDLY WITH LATEST TRENDS, GROWTH, REVENUE, DEMAND AND FORECAST TO 2026 – The Collegian

The recently published research report entitled Global Nanomedicine Market sheds light on critical aspects of the market like market size estimations, company and market best practices, market dynamics, market segmentation, competitive landscaping and benchmarking, opportunity analysis, economic forecasting, industry-specific technology solutions, guideline analysis, and in-depth benchmarking of vendor offerings. The report provides a clear understanding of the current and future scenarios and trends of the global Nanomedicine market. The report tracks an array of important market-related aspects which can be listed as follows; the demand and supply chain, the competitive landscape, leading industries shares, profit margin, and profiles of leading companies of the global market.

This report takes into account the current and future impacts of COVID-19 on this industry and offers you an in-depth analysis of Global Trans Resveratrol Market.

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Competitive Analysis:

The section offers great insights such as market revenue and market share of the global Nanomedicine market. The report explains a competitive edge over players competitors. Leading as well as prominent players of the global market are broadly studied on the basis of key factors. The report offers a comprehensive analysis and accurate statistics on sales by the player for the period 2015-2020. The report includes the forecasts, analysis, and discussion of important industry trends, market size, market share estimates, and profiles of the leading industry players. Company profile section of players such as Combimatrix, Ablynx, Abraxis Bioscience, Celgene, Mallinckrodt, Arrowhead Research, GE Healthcare, Merck, Pfizer, Nanosphere, Epeius Biotechnologies, Cytimmune Sciences, Nanospectra Biosciences,

Product segment analysis:

Application segment analysis: Segmentation encompasses oncology, Infectious diseases, Cardiology, Orthopedics, Other

To comprehend global Nanomedicine market dynamics in the world mainly, the worldwide market is analyzed across major global regions: North America (United States, Canada, Mexico), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Italy, Russia, Rest of Europe), Central & South America (Brazil, Rest of South America), Middle East & Africa (GCC Countries, Turkey, Egypt, South Africa, Rest of Middle East & Africa)

Moreover, the report elaborates different internal and external factors of the global Nanomedicine market. It uses numerous graphical presentation techniques such as graphs, tables, charts, pictures, and flowcharts. The report further focuses on market dynamics, growth drivers, developing market segments, and the market growth curve based on past, present, and future market data. The up-to-date, complete product knowledge, end-users, industry growth will drive profitability and revenue. Various important factors such as market trends, revenue growth patterns market shares, and demand and supply are included in the market research report for every industry.

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One More Key to Human Longevity Found After Worm Research – International Business Times, Singapore Edition

It is known that the mitochondria is called the powerhouse of the cell, without which there will be no energy production in the cell, thereby the body too! Along with this mitochondria has its role in other important functions, one crucial role being in aging.

Research has shown that age-related diseases are linked to mitochondrial functioning. Further, it is known that "mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiration" promotes longevity in many species, which means to mildly slow down mitochondria's energy-making process. Thus, the life-span extension compensates for the reduced mitochondrial respiration.

An enzyme called AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that promotes mitochondrial health is also known as anti-aging protein. The same enzyme plays a crucial role in life-span extension by reducing mitochondrial respiration.

Research on roundworms has shown that an enzyme called VRK-1 can extend their lifespan. VRK-1 does this by increasing the level of AMPK resulting in an increase in its activity, promoting longevity through phosphorylation.

This VRK-1 is also a gene that gives instructions in making a protein called VRK (vaccinia-related kinase), which is active in cells throughout the body. It plays a critical role in cell growth and division. It also influences proteins that control gene activity attaching itself to the DNA.

This is an important finding in the research of extending human lifespan too.

Korean scientists published a paper this Wednesday in Science Advances, that showed how the lifespan of worms was extended by varying VRK-1 levels.

Roundworms normally have a lifespan of about two to three weeks. But the genetically engineered worms in the experiment, having elevated levels of VRK-1 lived about 23.7 days on average - they lived longer. When they inhibited the function of VRK-1 in other worms, they found that their lives were shortened.

Lab-controlled worms that lived 20.3 days on average, lived only 12.7 days as VRK-1 was inhibited. That is, the worms died sooner.

A senior author of the paper, Seung-Jae Lee, professor at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology told Inverse that the key to activating longevity was in the anti-aging protein, AMPK, while the key to activating AMPK is VRK-1. The VRK-1 enzyme is found in worms and has its cousin in human cells, that's very similar to it.

"Therefore, it is possible that this mechanism can be applied to promoting human longevity in the future," he added.

Similar patterns were shown in cultured human cells in the experiment, Lee said, showing that the process holds even in complex organisms.

Replicating the study in animals, like mice will show it's likeliness in humans. However, scientists still don't know how exactly the process occurs.

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Im a Physical Therapist, and This Is the Longevity Exercise You Should Be Doing in Your 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, and Beyond – Well+Good

The human body changes over time: Certain muscles begin to lose their cells, bones diminish in density, and tissues no longer hold the same amount of water. No matter where you are in life, though, some workout moves prove perpetually beneficial for you and the muscles, bones, and joints youll call home from now until forever. When it comes to the best longevity exercise out there, physical therapist Joel Giffin, DPT, founder of Flex Physical Therapy, says one movesquatsare timeless.

An exercise thats good for all ages is a squat because there are infinite ways to modify, progress, change, and adjust it to accommodate the abilities of the individual, says Dr. Giffin. When done with optimal form, a squat is beneficial regardless of the level of difficulty because it is a functional exercise that represents a movement we need to do everyday: going from sitting to standing, or vice versa. If you can do this movement easily, researchers believe its a really good indication of longevity.

Thats not all squats have going for them, though. Additionally, squats activate the glutes. These muscles are relaxed and weakened when we are sitting, which most of us do way too much of. Squats strengthen the whole lower extremity, allow for the core to engage, and can be added to an upper-body workout at the same time, says Dr. Giffin. Their peachy reputation holds true, yesbut the exercise has a lot more to offer as well.

As Dr. Giffin mentioned, however, the classic squat wont be the best option for everyone. Some may experience knee or ankle pain when they stick with the hips width apart approach to the move. And if that sounds like you (or comesto sound like you in a decade or two), Dr. Giffin recommends grabbing onto a chair for assistance, bring your feet wide into a goblet squat to spare your lower back, or sitting back onto a box to limit your bodys range of motion. You could also add dumbbells or kettlebells to make the move harderif youre into that kind of thing.

2. Move downward like you are going to sit in a chair. Sit back into your glutes to allow them to lead the motion. Do not allow the knees to go in front of your toes.

3. Engage your glutes (along with your core). Think about the back of your legs working rather than the front of your legs.

4. Dont let your hips go below knee level. This should feel very comfortableoutside of some muscle burnand pain-free, says Dr. Giffin. There should not be sharp, shooting, or achy pain. You can move into a half or mini-squat if its not comfortable to go all the way down just yet.

5. On the way up push through the heels and work to activate the glutes.

6. Repetitions and sets will depend on your ability, but ost people can start with two sets of eight reps and work their way up.

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Im a Physical Therapist, and This Is the Longevity Exercise You Should Be Doing in Your 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, and Beyond - Well+Good

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Why companies need to adapt to the longer-living worker – MarketWatch

In 2016, London Business School professors Andrew J. Scott and Lynda Gratton publishedThe 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity, a self-help book for our longer lives. Now theyre back with a sequel:The New Long Life: A Framework for Flourishing in a Changing World, with tools for individuals, employers, higher education and the government to navigate the challenges of longevity. In this excerpt, the authors explain why and how employers need to better serve their older workers.

It is imperative that corporate practice catches up with the needs of a 100-year life, the ebb and flow that a 60-year career entails and the flexibility that new technologies will demand.

The three-stage life is deeply embedded in the approach of corporations to their workforce: The young are recruited as they leave full-time education; high potentials are promoted in their late 20s and accelerated up several more rungs of the promotion ladder and a hard stop is established for those in their late 50s or mid-60s.

In a multistage life, careers become nonlinear: there are periods of full-time work; time spenttaking breaks to rechargeor rebuild skills and time out to achieve a better worklife balance. So rather than run the risk of losing valued workers who are embarking on a new stage, it makes sense for firms to offer their workforce the opportunity to ramp up and down their work commitments.

See: Why the coronavirus could pinch your Social Security years from now

Sponsoring educational breaks,sabbaticalsor spells of charitable work in the community is a means to achieving this.

Fortunately, some companies are starting to broaden their approach to the whole talent pool.

Welcoming people who have taken up to two years out from work is the focus of an initiative by U.K. telecommunications firm O2. It runs an 11-week paid program to reorient people to full-time work. Barclays Bank has designed an apprenticeship program which targets all ages, including people who have been made redundant midcareer or who decided to retire early.

Longer and nonlinear career paths also require fresh thinking about promotion. They can do this by offering employees the opportunity to extend their skill sets in lateral roles, and by doing so create more flexible career ladders or career nets that will also help facilitate ramping up and ramping down.

One of the overwhelming insights from the research on longevity is the malleability of age and the potential this has for enabling people to be economically productive into their 70s. Yet many people are currently blocked from working longer by a corporate policy of retirement at the age of 65 or 60 or even earlier.

This has to change and fast.

While some firms are offering older workers the possibility of continued employment, few have created a systematic way of supporting people towork into their 70s and 80s. Instead they offer employees a binary choice; either full-time work or full-time retirement. This is far from what people want or need.

A way to achieve this is to design optional retirement paths, including the possibility to carry on full-time as well as more flexible,phased paths to the end of work.

The Japanese conglomerate Mitsubishi MSBHY, +0.92% has created an independent company, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, to specifically make use of the skills of workers who are past the traditional retirement age. These focus on managerial positions, but the gig economy offers the opportunity to refashion retirement for a wider range of workers.

The time has also come to talk openly about age, promotion and wages.

A major block to extending working careers is the implicit link between age and wage. In many industries, wages rise over time with job tenure. The result is that older workers become more expensive and are therefore often the first to be laid off during economic downturns.

Read: How grim is the outlook for aging in America?

There needs to be real social ingenuity to tackle this challenge. One way is to develop more flexible pay structures combined with more flexible approaches to working time. Many workers over 60 would like to continue working, but often not on the same full-time basis.

Another problem that corporations must fix:age discrimination. AARP reports that two-thirds of workers aged 4574 say they have experienced ageism. Underpinning this ageism is the belief that older workers are less productive and that older workers are physically constrained and unable to work.

Also see: Why millions of older workers will pay a big financial priceforeverfrom the coronavirus

However, there is surprisingly little robust evidence showing the relationship between age and productivity and certainly no simple correlation.

Also, not only are older people on average physically healthier than in the past, the role of physical work is declining. This effect should get even stronger in the years ahead as robotics support the performance of physical labor and AI serves as a kind of cognitive prosthetic.

The nexus between longevity and the technological will become ever more powerful going forward. So, it is crucial, therefore, that firms adapt now not just to enable human flourishing, but also to ensure their own success.

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Precision Medicine Software Market Size Prognosticated to Perceive a Thriving Growth by 2026 | Synapse, Inc., PierianDx, Inc. – Morning Tick

According to a new report published by Allied Market Research, titled, Precision Medicine Software Marketby Delivery Mode (On-premise and Cloud-based), Application (Oncology, Pharmacogenomics, Rare Diseases, and Others), and End User (Healthcare Providers, Research Centers & Government Institutes, and Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Companies): Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2019-2026

Precision medicine is an emerging medical approach undertaken by medical practitioners for the treatment of a patient, followed with medical decisions, treatments, practices, or products being tailored to the individual patient. Appropriate or optimal therapies may be employed based on variability in the patients genetic profile, environment, and lifestyle for each person. The diagnostic testing can be based on the context of an individuals genetic profile or other molecular or cellular analysis. The emergence of precision medicine has addressed the dire need for better diagnostic and analytical tools. Precision medicine software combines the clinical and molecular data to provide with valuable insights to determine the ideal therapeutic course of treatment.

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Moreover, it provides with a wide range of applications in both the diagnostics and clinical areas for better understanding of diseases such as cancer, searching for new biomarkers, researching new therapies, repurposing existing drugs, and stratifying patients for clinical trials.

The global market size of Precision Medicine Software Market is $XX million in 2018 with XX CAGR, and it is expected to reach $XX million by the end of 2026 with a CAGR of XX% from 2019 to 2026.

The Major Key Players Are:

Synapse, Inc., Allscripts Healthcare Solutions, Inc. (2bPrecise LLC), Roche Holdings, Inc. (Foundation Medicine, Inc.), Fabric Genomics, Inc., Sophia Genetics SA, PierianDx, Inc., Qiagen N.V. (N-of-One, Inc.), Human Longevity, Inc., Roper Technologies, Inc. (Sunquest Information Systems, Inc.), Gene42, Inc. Other players in the value chain include Translational Software, Inc., LifeOmic Health, LLC, NantHealth, Inc., Tempus Labs, Inc., Flatiron Health, Inc., IBM Watson Group, and Koninklijke Philips N.V.

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Allied Market Research (AMR) is a market research and business-consulting firm of Allied Analytics LLP, based in Portland, Oregon. AMR offers market research reports, business solutions, consulting services, and insights on markets across 11 industry verticals. Adopting extensive research methodologies, AMR is instrumental in helping its clients to make strategic business decisions and achieve sustainable growth in their market domains. We are equipped with skilled analysts and experts, and have a wide experience of working with many Fortune 500 companies and small & medium enterprises.

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David CorreaPortland, OR, United StatesUSA/Canada (Toll Free): +1-800-792-5285, +1-503-894-6022, +1-503-446-1141UK: +44-845-528-1300Hong Kong: +852-301-84916India (Pune): +91-20-66346060Fax: +1(855)550-5975help@alliedmarketresearch.comWeb:https://www.alliedmarketresearch.comFollow Us on LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/company/allied-market-research

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Peonage Explained: The system of convict labor was Slavery by another name – Milwaukee Independent

The Obama administration pursued a plan to reform it. An entire news organization, The Marshall Project, was launched in late 2014 to cover it. Organizations like Black Lives Matter and The Sentencing Project are dedicated to unmaking a system that unjustly targets people of color.

But how did we get this system in the first place? Our ongoing historical research project investigates the relationship between the press and convict labor. While that story is still unfolding, we have learned what few Americans, especially white Americans, know: the dark history that produced our current criminal justice system.

If anything is to change if we are ever to end this racial nightmare, and achieve our country, as James Baldwin put it we must confront this system and the blighted history that created it.

During Reconstruction, the 12 years following the end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery, former slaves made meaningful political, social and economic gains. Black men voted and even held public office across the South. Biracial experiments in governance flowered. Black literacy surged, surpassing those of whites in some cities. Black schools, churches and social institutions thrived.

As the prominent historian Eric Foner writes in his masterwork on Reconstruction, Black participation in Southern public life after 1867 was the most radical development of the Reconstruction years, a massive experiment in interracial democracy without precedent in the history of this or any other country that abolished slavery in the nineteenth century.

But this moment was short-lived. As W.E.B. Du Bois wrote, the slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery.

History is made by human actors and the choices they make.

According to Douglas Blackmon, author of Slavery by Another Name, the choices made by Southern white supremacists after abolition, and the rest of the countrys accommodation, explain more about the current state of American life, black and white, than the antebellum slavery that preceded.

Designed to reverse black advances, Redemption was an organized effort by white merchants, planters, businessmen and politicians that followed Reconstruction. Redeemers employed vicious racial violence and state legislation as tools to prevent black citizenship and equality promised under the 14th and 15th amendments.

By the early 1900s, nearly every southern state had barred black citizens not only from voting but also from serving in public office, on juries and in the administration of the justice system.

The Souths new racial caste system was not merely political and social. It was thoroughly economic. Slavery had made the Souths agriculture-based economy the most powerful force in the global cotton market, but the Civil War devastated this economy. How to build a new one?

Ironically, white leaders found a solution in the 13th Amendment, which ended slavery in the United States in 1865. By exploiting the provision allowing slavery and involuntary servitude to continue as a punishment for crime, they took advantage of a penal system predating the Civil War and used even during Reconstruction.

A new form of control

With the help of profiteering industrialists they found yet a new way to build wealth on the bound labor of black Americans: the convict lease system. Heres how it worked. Black men and sometimes women and children were arrested and convicted for crimes enumerated in the Black Codes, state laws criminalizing petty offenses and aimed at keeping freed people tied to their former owners plantations and farms. The most sinister crime was vagrancy the crime of being unemployed which brought a large fine that few blacks could afford to pay.

Black convicts were leased to private companies, typically industries profiteering from the regions untapped natural resources. As many as 200,000 black Americans were forced into back-breaking labor in coal mines, turpentine factories and lumber camps. They lived in squalid conditions, chained, starved, beaten, flogged and sexually violated. They died by the thousands from injury, disease and torture.

For both the state and private corporations, the opportunities for profit were enormous. For the state, convict lease generated revenue and provided a powerful tool to subjugate African-Americans and intimidate them into behaving in accordance with the new social order. It also greatly reduced state expenses in housing and caring for convicts. For the corporations, convict lease provided droves of cheap, disposable laborers who could be worked to the extremes of human cruelty.

Every southern state leased convicts, and at least nine-tenths of all leased convicts were black. In reports of the period, the terms convicts and negroes are used interchangeably.

Of those black Americans caught in the convict lease system, a few were men like Henry Nisbet, who murdered nine other black men in Georgia. But the vast majority were like Green Cottenham, the central figure in Blackmons book, who was snatched into the system after being charged with vagrancy.

A principal difference between antebellum slavery and convict leasing was that, in the latter, the laborers were only the temporary property of their masters. On one hand, this meant that after their fines had been paid off, they would potentially be let free. On the other, it meant the companies leasing convicts often absolved themselves of concerns about workers longevity. Such convicts were viewed as disposable and frequently worked beyond human endurance.

The living conditions of leased convicts are documented in dozens of detailed, firsthand reports spanning decades and covering many states. In 1883, Blackmon writes, Alabama prison inspector Reginald Dawson described leased convicts in one mine being held on trivial charges, in desperate, miserable conditions, poorly fed, clothed, and unnecessarily chained and shackled. He described the appalling number of deaths and appalling numbers of maimed and disabled men held by various forced-labor entrepreneurs spanning the entire state.

Dawsons reports had no perceptible impact on Alabamas convict leasing system. The exploitation of black convict labor by the penal system and industrialists was central to southern politics and economics of the era. It was a carefully crafted answer to black progress during Reconstruction highly visible and widely known. The system benefited the national economy, too. The federal government passed up one opportunity after another to intervene.

Convict lease ended at different times across the early 20th century, only to be replaced in many states by another racialized and brutal method of convict labor: the chain gang. Convict labor, debt peonage, lynching and the white supremacist ideologies of Jim Crow that supported them all produced a bleak social landscape across the South for African-Americans.

Black Americans developed multiple resistance strategies and gained major victories through the civil rights movement, including Brown v. Board of Education, the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act. Jim Crow fell, and America moved closer than ever to fulfilling its democratic promise of equality and opportunity for all.

But in the decades that followed, a tough on crime politics with racist undertones produced, among other things, harsh drug and mandatory minimum sentencing laws that were applied in racially disparate ways. The mass incarceration system exploded, with the rate of imprisonment quadrupling between the 1970s and today. Michelle Alexander famously calls it The New Jim Crow in her book of the same name.

Today, the U.S. has the highest incarceration rate of any country in the world, with 2.2 million behind bars, even though crime has decreased significantly since the early 1990s. And while black Americans make up only 13 percent of the U.S. population, they make up 37 percent of the incarcerated population. Forty percent of police killings of unarmed people are black men, who make up merely 6 percent of the population. It doesnt have to be this way. We can choose otherwise.

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Peonage Explained: The system of convict labor was Slavery by another name - Milwaukee Independent

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How Capitalism solved its instability problem by using racism as an essential tool for maintaining order – Milwaukee Independent

U.S. capitalism survived because it found a solution to the basic problem of its instability, its business cycles. Since capitalism never could end cyclical downturns and their awful effects, its survival required making those effects somehow socially tolerable. Systemic racism survived in the post-Civil War United States partly because it helped to achieve that tolerability. Capitalism provided conditions for the reproduction of systemic racism, and vice versa.

Every four to seven years, on average, capitalism produces a downturn (recession, depression, bust, crashmany words for a problem so regularly repeated). Political leaders, economists, and others have long searched for a cure for capitalisms instability. None was ever found. Capitalism has thus already recorded three crashes in this new century (spring of 2000, autumn of 2008, and now in 2020).

Defenders of capitalism prefer to call its inescapable instability the business cycle. That sounds less awful. Yet its cycles hard reality has always frightened capitalisms defenders. They recognize that when large numbers of people suddenly lose their jobs, many businesses die, production shrinks, and governments lose tax revenues, the results can and often do threaten the entire economic system. Capitalisms cyclical crises could potentially turn their victims against it and make them receptive to the systems critics.

This would more likely happen if everyone in the society were roughly equally vulnerable to cyclical downturns. Most employees would then rightly worry that their jobs would be lost in the next crash. They would periodically face income losses, interrupted educations, lost homes, and so on. Whatever relief employees felt if neighbors, rather than themselves, got fired, they would know that it might well be their turn in the next cycle. The losses, insecurities, and anxieties produced by such a capitalism would long ago have turned employees against it and provoked transition to a different system.

U.S. capitalism solved its instability problem by making cyclical downturns afflict chiefly a minority subpart of the whole working class. It positioned that minority to bear the brunt of each cycle and suffer its damages disproportionally. That minority was repeatedly drawn into and then thrown out of jobs as the cycle dictated. Any savings it might accumulate when working would be lost when unemployed. Repeated firings precluded such a minority from enjoying the benefits of job longevity (seniority, promotion, household stability, etc.). Poverty, disrupted households and families, unaffordable housing, education, and medical care would haunt such a minority. It would become capitalisms business cycle shock-absorberthe last hired, first firedacross the four-to-seven year average duration of its cycles.

For capitalism, making such a minority absorb most of the costs of capitalisms instability allowed the majority of the working class to be relatively exempted, relieved, freed from them. The majority could be less subject to cycles because the minority was made relatively much more subject. Capitalism promised the majority relatively secure jobs and incomes because it took those away from the minority. The majority could thus worry less about the next cycle, whereas the minority had to worry more and adjust their lives more. Racists could then attribute the resulting differences between minority and majority subparts of a population to inherent qualities of different races instead.

Other advanced capitalist countries found parallel solutions. Some condemned immigrants to play the role assigned to African Americans in the United States. Racism aimed at immigrants often followed. In cyclical upswings, immigrants would be brought in: North Africans into France, southern Italians into Switzerland, Turks into Germany, and so on. Then, cyclical downswings would return those immigrants to their home countries. Capitalisms would thus save on costs of unemployment insurance, welfare payments, etc., for the workers who had returned. While some capitalisms relied on domestic minorities to be shock-absorbers and others relied on immigrants, some countries relied on both. The United States used Central American immigrants alongside domestic African Americans, and it still does. Germany allowed some immigrants to settle and acquire German citizenship alongside Turkish and other immigrant guest workers.

In the United States, married white women also played the role of business cycle shock-absorber. During cyclical upswings, they would enter the paid labor force in part-time or full-time positions. Like African Americans, they earned less than white men. Womens jobs, too, were likely to be temporary, undone by cyclical downturns.

Whatever communities were forced into the shock-absorber role, poverty, depression, broken families, slums, and inadequate education and health facilities became more widespread among them than they were among the majority of the working class. Insecure jobs, incomes, homes, and lives often bred bitterness, envy, desperation, crime, and violence. These collateral damages had to be managed by the capitalisms whose survival depended on producing and reproducing those communities. Police and prisons were and are assigned that management task.

Police and prisons were to keep the lid on, tame, patrol and control the restive portions of the shock-absorber communities sequestered in slums or ghettos. Interactions with police coupled with cycling and recycling through prisons were the chosen means to manage capitalisms collateral damage. Those means generated collateral damage of their own: the long, tragic record of police violence, use of excessive force, the harshness and violence of incarceration, and the killing especially of African Americans.

Why were African Americans chosen to be key (but not the only) cyclical shock-absorbers in the United States? One factor concerned the racist legacies of U.S. slavery. They included beliefs that slaves were either not fully human or inferior humans. Even the U.S. Constitution had counted a slave as merely three-fifths of a full (i.e., white) person for census purposes. Accommodation to slavery before the U.S. Civil War had already shaped a racialized consciousness in both masters and slaves. And because U.S. slavery entailed different skin colors for masters and slaves (unlike many slaveries in world history), a readily identifiable minority had already been defined in racial terms in the slave portions of the United States. Moreover, that definition had spread to other parts of the United States as well. U.S. capitalism used, absorbed, and built on slaverys legacy by inserting large portions of the African American community into the shock-absorber role that the system required. The racism developed by U.S. slavery thereby both facilitated U.S. capitalism and was reinforced by it.

A significant portion of the white working class in all capitalisms has always also been forced into the shock-absorber role. White trash in U.S. capitalism was never far from the African Americans similarly situated. There thus arose possibilities of class solidarity between these Black and white working-class communities. U.S. history displays moments when those possibilities were realized, as C. Vann Woodward documented so well. It also displays moments of intense racist violence used to block the realization of those possibilities. Employers played on racialized differences to keep employees from unifying against them. In bitter competitions between Black and white shock-absorbers for cyclically scarce jobs, whites could and often did use racism to gain advantages in access to those jobs. In multiple ways, then, capitalism fostered and benefited from racism; it thus settled deeply into the system.

Fundamental injustice characterized the relationship between police and prisons, on the one hand, and the African American and other communities (Indigenous, people of color) condemned to play capitalisms shock-absorber role, on the other. The solution was and is not better training or more funding; both have been tried repeatedly and both have likewise failed repeatedly. A real solution would provide a decently paid job to everyone who wants one as a matter of right. Unemployment would then be outlawed much like slavery, child abuse, etc. Taxes levied on capitalist enterprises would provide the funds needed to find jobs, private or public, for those laid off by an employer (much as such taxes help fund unemployment insurance now). Those funds would include wages or salaries paid for each workers time between being laid off and rehired. Minimum wages, applied universally, would cover reasonable housing, transport, health care and other living costs.

If such a solution were deemed to be incompatible with capitalism as a system, capitalism would have to give way to a system that made adequately paid employment a basic right for all. Enterprise profit would then finally be ejected from its throne as capitalisms number one social priority.

Such a solution would finally free African Americans, Indigenous, and Brown people from long-standing abuses in and by police and prisons. It would thus reduce the racism that those institutions have exemplified and reinforced. It would also reduce pressures on police and prison personnel to behave in ways that self-destructively rob them of their humanity as well as oppress others. Police and prisons in the United States today serve an inherently unstable capitalism by means of systemic racism. The logic of alliance between anti-racism and anti-capitalism could not be clearer.

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How Capitalism solved its instability problem by using racism as an essential tool for maintaining order - Milwaukee Independent

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