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This is the 1 food Kourtney Kardashian will never eat – TODAY

Kourtney Kardashian is known for adhering to pretty strict diets, but she recently revealed that she has stopped following the ketogenic diet, even though she used to be a major devotee of the low-carb, high-fat eating plan.

The mother of three spoke with Health magazine and shared the new dietary guidelines her whole family is currently following.

In my house, we are gluten- and dairy-free; my skin is very sensitive, and if I eat dairy, it affects it. I love doing a keto diet, though Im not doing it now," she said. "I noticed my body change for the better."

The 40-year-old eldest Kardashian sister has tried the keto diet several times, and raved about her results when she first tried it.

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"My body never looked better than when I did the keto diet two and half years ago, when I did it for two months," Kardashian wrote in a post that appeared on her lifestyle website Poosh last year. "In my experience, Ive found the best method to train my body to curb sugar cravings, burn fat, and kick-start weight loss is by sticking to a keto diet."

Kardashian told Health that she still loves intermittent fasting, which involves going for long stretches of time without food.

I try to do that all the time. Sometimes if Ive had a normal day of eating and Im pretty full, instead of having dinner, Ill have some bone broth, especially if Im not feeling well or starting to get sick, Kardashian added.

Intermittent fasting has become increasingly popular as another method of losing weight and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. It requires either daily, time-restricted eating, usually within a six to eight hour window a day, or the 5:2 method, which requires people eat only one moderately sized meal two days a week.

Kardashian also talked about what it was like growing up during the super-skinny era.

Fat-free and calorie counting was the thing. I dont even think about those things anymore. No one cared about carbs; it was just (about) no fat," she said. "I didnt know what was healthy or not healthy growing up."

Now, she takes a more well-rounded approach to eating, and allows herself to indulge occasionally.

She admitted that she and sister Kim love to snack on goodies like Cheetos, Oreos, Chex Mix and even Funyuns.

"With our kids, I try not to force it. I teach them healthy stuff, and everything in moderation," she said. "When we go to Disneyland, we eat whatever; were not bringing our own snacks!

But there is still one item the reality star says shell never consume.

I would never open a can of soda. Thats just not where I would cheat, Kardashian admitted.

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John West promotes healthy lifestyles with campaign to ‘Get Yourself Shipshape’ – Retail Times

John West, which has been making healthy, natural fish accessible to all since 1857, today launches its Get Yourself Shipshape campaign for 2020 to encourage and inspire healthy, active lifestyles across the nation.

Building on the success of the brands 2019 campaign, Get Yourself Shipshape 2020 includes a comprehensive influencer engagement programme, a six-month media partnership with Hearst UK, social and digital advertising, event sponsorship and experiential. This is all in addition to a TV campaign to promote John Wests No Drain Fridge Pots.

Get Yourself Shipshape is not about clich or unrealistic fitness goals, nor is it about fad or extreme diets. Its all about encouraging people to make those small everyday changes that create a healthy difference. Whether thats swapping the car for a walk, picking a protein-rich snack, making time for exercise or increasing the amount you already do. Theres never an end-goal with Get Yourself Shipshape; its more about little changes to a sustainable, healthy lifestyle.

To spread the Get Yourself Shipshape messaging, John West will be partnering with a host of influencers to form the Shipshape Crew, targeting a wide-ranging audience from on-the-go parents to young professionals. Led by two-time Olympic gold medallist swimmer Rebecca Adlington, the nine-strong Crew is made up of influencers across food, lifestyle and fitness, including three-time world champion cyclist Dani Rowe and MasterChef contestant Scott Eckersley.

Each member will be sharing their Shipshape goals with their followers, and the small changes they are making to reach those goals. Throughout their Shipshape journey the Crew will keep their followers updated on their progress and will play a key role in motivating others to Get Shipshape, sharing fitness tips, recipe ideas and nutritional advice videos. The influencer programme has an estimated reach of more than 4 million, with over 12.5 million impressions.

For its partnership with Hearst UK, John West will be working closely with Mens Health, Womens Health, Red and Runners World, which have a combined print readership of 1.3 million. Through advertorial content, channel takeovers and digital display ads John West will highlight the nutritious benefits and ease of use of John West products, encouraging readers to re-evaluate John West products as a simple way to incorporate healthy fish into your daily diet.

Get Yourself Shipshape 2020 will also see John West as headline sponsor of theGreat Swimseries for the second year in a row. Throughout the campaign John West will be promoting the benefits of swimming a natural fit for the aquatic brand as one way to stay Shipshape, and a number of the Shipshape Crew will take part.

The campaign aims to capitalise on the growing demand for high-protein foods (there has been a 3.1% increase in high / added protein products since 2014) and seeks to remind consumers of the naturally occurring health benefits in everyday fish. As the population becomes ever-more health conscious, the campaign will continue to encourage the UK public to incorporate good nutrition and regular exercise as part of their daily lifestyles.

Rebecca Adlington said: Protein is an essential part of a balanced diet for the whole family and a crucial part of a healthy lifestyle. John West products make it easy to incorporate more fish into your diet, whether cooking for yourself or for your family, and that is what Get Yourself Shipshape is all about easy, simple changes we can make that will help us to live a more active, healthy lifestyle.

Jon Burton, international marketing director, John West Foods, added: Theres no doubt the UK is seeing swathes of people starting to pursue healthier lifestyles, particularly with recent moves to cut down on excessive meat-eating. John West has long been a part of that conversation and this campaign encourages people to think about the little, attainable changes they can make to their lifestyles be it taking up swimming, or eating more fish which can have a big impact overall.

The John West Great North Swim will be taking place at Windermere in the Lake District National Park on 5-7 June 2020 and the Great East Swim will be held on 20 June at Alton Water in Suffolk.

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Purdue Extension’s Food Prescription for Better Health earns program of the year award – Terre Haute Tribune Star

Purdue Extensions educational program, Food Prescription for Better Health was awarded the Key Award for Supportive Services Program of the Year at the 2020 Prosperity Indiana Award Conference in Indianapolis.

Vigo County Extension educators, Allison Finzel, Nutrition Education Program Community Wellness Coordinator, and Jay Christiansen, Health and Human Sciences, received the Key Award at the conference that hosted state members and partners in community health and community development, including Lieutenant Governor Suzanne Crouch.

Finzel and Christiansen collaborated with the Indiana State University dietetics, United Way of Wabash Valley and the Wabash Valley Health Center to create the program, which was supported in part by a grant from the Anthem Foundation and produce and kitchen supplies from World Gospel Church and Columbian home products.

The program helps people with Type 2 diabetes lead a healthier lifestyle. Participants receive a free A1C blood test at the beginning and end of the course, as well as weekly blood pressure and weight checks to help monitor their progress. They also receive a $15 basket of fresh fruits and vegetables each week.

Finzel said the idea to create the program came from the concept of using food as a prescription.

When we all sat down to brainstorm, Type II Diabetes rose to the top. We wanted to create an initiative that helped the ever-growing population of those dealing with the disease understand that what they eat plays a huge role in managing and even reversing their outcomes, she said.

In doing this, we discovered that lower income patients who are diagnosed with Type II Diabetes often are not given the information that they need to understand how to live with their disease, she added.

Participants in the program also attend two other Purdue Extension programs: Dining with Diabetes and Be Heart Smart. Dining with Diabetes, led by Christiansen, helps participants learn ways to manage diabetes through food choices, meal planning, food preparation, and physical activity. Be Heart Smart helps individuals identify risk factors for heart disease and make simple, heart-healthy lifestyle changes. Christiansen said these efforts demonstrate how committed people can come together to solve a challenging problem.

Its been an amazing opportunity to work with our community partners to provide a meaningful program for our participants, and especially compelling to see how our efforts have made a positive impact in their lives and their health, Christiansen said.

The upcoming program has added some new aspects, based on feedback received from participants, including physical activity, a mental health professional to assist individuals in making sustainable behavioral changes, and a partnership with the Master Gardeners of Vigo County to help grow fresh produce.

A judging committee selected the winners based on their programs creativity, evidence of cooperation, and impact on the community. The conference presents several awards, including the Staff Member of the Year, which was awarded to George Okantey in 2019, a Purdue Extension Community Development Educator for more than 20 years.

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Greater Beverly health news and support groups – News – Wicked Local Beverly


Gift shop volunteers needed

Gift Shop volunteers are needed at Beverly and Addison Gilbert Hospitals. This is a great way to learn about retail in health care or volunteer your time and experience in an enjoyable shop environment.

Volunteer benefits include shop discounts and a meal voucher. A variety of shift times are available including evenings and weekends. Please visit the hospitals website for more information.

Pet therapy volunteers sought

Care Dimensions, formerly Hospice of the North Shore & Greater Boston, is seeking more volunteers with certified pet therapy dogs to provide pet therapy to hospice patients in a variety of settings throughout Greater Boston and on the North Shore.

Pet therapy dogs must be certified through a registered pet therapy organization. Volunteers will receive training and ongoing support while engaging in the rewarding experience of visiting hospice patients and their caregivers.

For more information about this volunteer opportunity, please contact Sheryl Meehan, Director of Volunteer Services and Complementary Therapies at or 978-750-9321.


Safe Place Support Group

Safe Place is a support group in Beverly dedicated to helping people who have lost a loved one, co-worker or friend to suicide that meets from 7 to 8 p.m. the first and third Thursday of each month at St. Johns Episcopal Church, 705 Hale St..

Run by Samaritans of the Merrimack Valley, a program of Family Services of the Merrimack Valley, Safe Place provides a space to talk about your loss with others who are experiencing the same type of devastating loss. Its a place to talk, listen, cry, be silent, grieve, be understood and receive hope and understanding from other loss survivors. Safe Place is a confidential and free support group led by a trained fellow suicide loss survivor.

For additional information, contact Debbie Helms at

Alzheimers Caregiver Support Group

Spectrum Adult Day Health Programs, 600 Cummings Center, Beverly, will host an Alzheimers Caregiver Support Group from 1:30 to 3 p.m. every first and third Wednesday of the month.

The group will offer information and education about Alzheimers disease and related memory disorders, an increased understanding through shared experiences and mutual support from other caregivers. Free respite care available upon request. Light refreshments will be served

To RSVP for respite care or have questions, contact support leader Rachael Palmacci at 978-921-5020 or signup online at

Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients

An eight-session educational/support program for individuals newly diagnosed with breast cancer is held at the Beverly Hospital at Danvers. This program is designed to support, guide and provide knowledge.

The free program is held at Beverly Hospital at Danvers Breast Center, Beverly Hospital at Danvers, 480 Maple St., Danvers. Sessions are held on the first and thirdMonday beginning at 7 p.m. There is no fee.

For further details on upcoming dates or to register, please contact Kimberly Willis, NP-C, Certified Patient Navigator at or call 978-304-8105.

Dementia Support Group

A Dementia Support Group will be held at Twin Oaks Center on the fourth Wednesday of every month from 7-8 p.m.

When you are faced with a loved one exhibiting symptoms of dementia, it can be a confusing and troubling time in your life. The group will help you understand the disease and gain knowledge about the best methods of care for your loved one.

People afflicted with cognitive impairments require additional care to keep their emotional and physical functioning strong and healthy. The centers specialized professionals connect to deliver consistent, stable care while creating an environment of warmth and understanding.

Twin Oaks Center is located at 63 Locust St., Danvers. The support group is free and open to the public. Light refreshments will be served.

For more information or to RSVP, please contact Jennifer Tineo at 978-777-0011.

One Life recovery program

One Life, a faith-based recovery program for those struggling with life-controlling issues (hurts, hang-ups, and habits), meets every Friday night at 6:30 p.m. at the First Baptist Church in Danvers. This program will help you find freedom from addictive and compulsive thoughts, behavior patterns such as co-dependency, pornography, chemical dependency, eating disorders, depression, emotional/physical abuse, anger, and other personal struggles. This tried and proven recovery program uses traditional methods to build recovery for those struggling with life experiences that affect our peace. The First Baptist Church of Danvers is located at 1 Water St., Danvers. Contact by phone at 978-774-8277, by email at, or visit them at

Stroke Survivor Support Group

A free monthly Stroke Survivor Support Group held on the first Wednesday of each month from 10:30-11:30 a.m. The group meets at Addison Gilbert Hospital, 298 Washington St., Gloucester in the Longan Room. The free program is facilitated by a variety of professionals affiliated with the stroke program at Beverly Hospital.

Light refreshments will be available. There is no fee and preregistration is not required. For further information or questions, please call Eileen Consentino at 978-922-3000, ext. 2295.

Young Moms Pregnancy Workshop

The Healthy Pregnancy Workshop isa class specifically for teens and young women. It is a two-hour class to be attended in the first or second trimester, focusing on healthy pregnancy. There is no fee. To register or for further information, please call 978-922-3000, ext. 2720.

Prostate Cancer Support Group

The Beverly Hospital Prostate Cancer Support Group meets on the third Thursday of each month at 6:30 p.m. at the Ledgewood Rehabilitation and Skilled Nursing Center, located on the campus of Beverly Hospital. This free meeting meets in the Garden Room, located on the first floor.

Preregistration is not required, those wishing further information may call the Community Relations Department at Beverly Hospital at 978-236-1650.

Melanoma Support Group

IMPACT Melanomasponsors a support group open to all those who have been diagnosed with Melanoma. The group is facilitated by Kelli Braga, LICSW, in the Garden Conference Room, located on the first floor of the Beverly Hospital.

The group meets on the second Thursday of each month at 6-7:30 p.m. There is no fee. Preregistration is requested. To register, or for further information, please contact Kelli Braga at Beverly Hospital 978-922-3000, extension 2710, or by calling theIMPACT Melanoma at 800-557-6352.

General Cancer Support Group

The General Cancer Support Group meets at Beverly Hospital on the first Wednesday of the month from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. in the Womens Health Building in the small conference room.

Preregistration is required by calling the Social Work Department at Beverly Hospital at 978-922-3000, ext. 2710.

Healthy Streets Outreach Program

Healthy Streets Outreach Program, a program of Health Innovation, Inc., provides HIV, Hepatitis C testing, STI testing, Narcan and overdose prevention training, referrals to substance use treatment and mental health services.

Healthy Streets Outreach Program, is located at 100 Willow St., Second Floor, Lynn. For further information, please call: 781-592-0243.

Medication review

A free 15-minute review of medications may be scheduled with a registered pharmacist at Beverly Hospital. Appointments are scheduled from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. on the last Wednesday of each month. Participants are asked to bring a list of all medications, prescription and over-the-cou1nter medications, including vitamins, etc. To schedule a free and confidential appointment, please call Lahey Health Senior Care at 978-922-7018, ext. 1305.

Healthy Streets Outreach

Northeast Behavioral Health Healthy Streets Outreach Program provides rapid HIV testing, hepatitis C information, access to drug treatment, overdose prevention and Narcan training. All services, provided by NBH Healthy Streets Program, are available at various locations on the first Wednesday of the month. Please call 978-767-3913 or 781-592-0243 to reach the outreach team.

Help with hoarding issues

The North Shore Center for Hoarding & Cluttering at North Shore Elder Services is the leader in providing a support system for those who are feeling overwhelmed by the stuff in their life. Many of us periodically reach a point where we need to simplify, organize and declutter. Sometimes we cannot do it alone and need some help in meeting this challenge; thats when the North Shore Center for Hoarding & Cluttering can offer assistance.

If you or someone you know might benefit from any of the professional services NSCHC can offer, call 978-750-4540 and ask for Information Services to make a referral. There are no geographic or age restrictions for participating in any of the services.

NSCHC is located at North Shore Elder Services, 300 Rosewood Ave., Suite 200, in Danvers. For more information, please contact Marnie McDonald, LCSW at (978) 624-2207 or

Community CPR programs

Beverly Hospital is offering several American Heart Association CPR courses designed for non-medical personnel and teach the skills and techniques used in adult, infant and child CPR. This course also covers choking in adult and children, and the use of protection devices for mouth-to-mouth breathing. This course is appropriate for anyone wishing to learn lifesaving CPR skills.

The cost of the course is $50 and includes the American Heart Association Heart Saver Student Workbooks. At the completion of the course you will receive an American Heart Association Heart Saver course completion card; this card signifies that you have successfully completed the CPR program.

The classes will run from 6-9 p.m. and are subject to cancellation due to low registration. The cost of the course is $50 and includes the textbook. To register or for further information , please contact Kim Regan at 978-922-3000, ext. 3436.

Suicide Survivor Support Group

SAFE PLACE, a peer-run suicide survivor support group is held for those who have lost a loved one to suicide. The support group is sponsored by the Samaritans of Merrimack Valley of Lawrence.

Friends are welcome to attend the free support group that meets at St. Johns Episcopal Church, 705 Hale St., Beverly Farms on the first and third Thursday of each month, from 7-8:30 p.m. There is no fee. Preregistration is not required.

For further information, please call Debbie Helms at 978-327-6671.

Prostate Cancer Support Group

The Beverly Hospital Prostate Cancer Support Group meets on the third Thursday of each month, at 6:30 p.m. at the Ledgewood Rehabilitation and Skilled Nursing Center, located on the campus of Beverly Hospital. This free group meets in the Garden Room, located on the first floor.

Preregistration is not required, those wishing further information may call the Community Relations Department at Beverly Hospital 978-283-4000, ext. 585.

Grief recovery

G.R.A.S.P. Grief Recovery after a Substance Passing a support group for families or individuals who have lost a loved as a result of substance use or addiction, meets on the first Thursday of every month, from 7-8:30 p.m. at Highland Hall inside the auditorium at Salem Hospital. For more information, call 781-593-5224 or 978-354-2660 or online at

Young Moms Childbirth Preparation Series

The CYM Childbirth Preparation Series is specifically for teens and young women. This seven-week series follows the Healthy Pregnancy workshop. This series prepares young women and their support people for labor and delivery. The class meets one evening a week for seven weeks. There is no fee; preregistration is required by calling 978-922-3000, extension 2720.

Helping seniors stay healthy

This winter as the rate of senior hospitalization typically reaches its highest point of the year the Home Instead Senior Care, serving Danvers and surrounding areas, has committed to reducing area hospitalizations through the launch of a new informational campaign aimed at educating families how to help aging loved ones remain healthy at home year-round.

There are many things families can do to help keep their senior loved ones out of the hospital. In fact, in a new study of nurses who work primarily with seniors, 99 percent say that the role families play in keeping seniors out of the hospital is just as important as the role of the medical community.

From monitoring their taking of prescribed medications for chronic conditions to attending doctors visits and checking in to ensure doctors instructions are followed, their role as a medical advocate is critical.

To help family members identify and act on potential warning signs, Home Instead is offering Five Ways to Prevent Senior Hospitalizations guide, developed in partnership with Dr. Carolyn Clevenger, incoming president of the Gerontological Advanced Practice Nurses Association.

This free resource includes information about common risk factors and the steps that families can take to help ensure a healthy lifestyle. Additional free family resources can be found at To obtain a copy of the guide or to learn more about how you can help keep your senior loved one out of the hospital this winter, please call 978-725-5995.

Surgical Weight Loss info sessions

Lahey Hospital & Medical Center is pleased to bring Surgical Weight Loss services to Lahey Outpatient Center, Danvers. While the actual surgery will be performed in Burlington, patients will now have the convenience of receiving preoperative and postoperative care close to home.

Surgical Weight Loss offers a multi-disciplinary team approach for treating obesity through a combination of surgery, behavioral health, and nutrition. This multi-disciplinary approach is the key to successful long-term weight loss and well-being.

As part of the offerings, free monthly bariatric information sessions are held at Lahey Outpatient Center, Danvers. These sessions are open to patients and the community, and are facilitated by surgeons and nurse practitioners of the program.

Patients who typically qualify for surgical weight-loss include those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 40, and/or a body mass index between 35 and 39 with at least one major medical co-morbidity, such as obstructive sleep apnea or hypoventilation syndrome, diabetes or hypertension.

Free upcoming Surgical Weight Loss info sessions are held 6:30-7:30 p.m. Please call 978-304-8020 for further information regarding upcoming programs.

Newly Bereaved Workshop

Held 5-7 p.m. first Thursday of every month at the Bertolon Center forGrief & Healing, 78 Liberty St., Danvers.The group is for those who have lost someone within the last three months.To sign up or forinformation: 855-774-5100;

Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Support Group

Held 9:30 to 10:30 a.m.second Thursday each month at the Beverly Senior Center, 90 Colon St. Group meets once a month at the Senior Center. Come meet other grandparents like you, get support, learn helpful informationand have some fun. Walk-ins are welcome. Held in the Meeting Room.For information: 978-921-6017.

Nar-Anon Support group

Held 7-8:30 p.m. Tuesdays at the Salvation Army building, 93 North St., Salem. Affected by someone elses addiction? Nar-anon offers Hope. Nar-Anon is a worldwide fellowship for those affected by someone elses Addiction. As a twelve-step program, Nar-Anon offers help by sharing experience, strength and hope. Meetings are open to family and friends of addicts in the North Shore area. Meetings will continue as long as they are needed by the community. There is parking in the rear of the building via Mason Street. All meetings are free, non denominational, all are invited.

Caregiver Support Group

Held 10-11:30 a.m. thesecond Tuesday of each month at the Beverly Senior Center, 90 Colon St.Come participate with other caregivers in confidential discussions about the difficulties and joys of caregiving for a loved one. The support of others who understand and have similar experiences can be exactly what you need. Held in the Conference Room. Sign upin advance. For information:978-921-6017.

Gloucester Stroke Club

Held 10:30-11:30 a.m. on the first Wednesday of every month atAddison Gilbert Hospital, Longan Room,298 Washington St.,Gloucester.Support groups are a great way to meet each other, stroke survivors or caregivers who understand what you are going through. The club will offer members various activities such as arts and crafts, gentle exercise, and health demonstrations - such as massage, blood pressure checks and other social activities.

Peer and Recovery Support Group

Held 7-8:30 p.m. on the last Wednesday of each month in the doctors conference room at Beverly Hospital, 85 Herrick St., Beverly. These support groups are for family and friends of those dealing with mental health challenges and also for peers in recovery and meet the last Wednesday of each month. For information: 617-984-0504;;

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Getting Testosterone Down To The ‘T’ – Qrius

We place unreasonable trust in biological explanations of male behaviour. Nowhere is this truer than with testosterone. Contemporary pundits invoke the hormone nicknamed T to prove points about maleness and masculinity, to show how different men and women are, and to explain why some men (presumably those with more T) have greater libidos. Yet, despite the mythic properties popularly associated with T, in every rigorous scientific study to date there is no significant correlation in healthy men between levels of T and sexual desire.

Beginning in the 1990s and really picking up steam in the 2000s, sales of testosterone replacement therapies (TRTs) went from practically zero to over $5 billion annually in 2018. This was either because there was a sudden outbreak of Low T when a major medical epidemic was finally recognised, or because T became marketed as a wonder drug for men thrown into a panic when they learned that their T levels declined 1 per cent annually after they hit 30.

The answer is not that mens bodies changed or that Low T was horribly underdiagnosed before but that, in the minds of many, T became nothing short of a magic male molecule that could cure men of declining energy and sexual desire as they aged.

Whats more, many have been taught that, if you want to know what causes some men to be aggressive, you just test their T levels, right? Actually, wrong: the science doesnt support this conclusion either. Some of the famous early studies linking T and aggression were conducted on prison populations and were used effectively to prove that higher levels of T were found in some men (read: darker-skinned men), which explained why they were more violent, which explained why they had to be imprisoned in disproportionate numbers. The methodological flaws in these studies took decades to unravel, and new rigorous research showing little relation between T and aggression (except at very high or very low levels) is just now reaching the general public.

Whats more, it turns out that T is not just one thing (a sex hormone) with one purpose (male reproduction). T is also essential in the development of embryos, muscles, female as well as male brains, and red blood cells. Depending on a range of biological, environmental and social factors, its influence is varied or negligible.

Robert Sapolsky, a neuroscientist at Stanford University in California, compiled a table showing that there were only 24 scientific articles on T and aggression 1970-80, but there were more than 1,000 in the decade of the 2010s. New discoveries about aggression and T? No, actually, although there were new findings in this period showing the importance of T in promoting ovulation. There is also a difference between correlation and cause (T levels and aggression, for example, provide a classic chicken-egg challenge). As leading experts on hormones have shown us for years, for the vast majority of men, its impossible to predict who will be aggressive based on their T level, just as if you find an aggressive man (or woman, for that matter), you cant predict their T level.

Testosterone is a molecule that was mislabelled almost 100 years ago as a sex hormone, because (some things never change) scientists were looking for definitive biological differences between men and women, and T was supposed to unlock the mysteries of innate masculinity. T is important for mens brains, biceps and that other word for testicles, and it is essential to female bodies. And, for the record, (T level) size doesnt necessarily mean anything: sometimes, the mere presence of T is more important than the quantity of the hormone. Sort of like starting a car, you just need fuel, whether its two gallons or 200. T doesnt always create differences between men and women, or between men. To top it all off, there is even evidence that men who report changes after taking T supplements are just as likely reporting placebo effects as anything else.

Still, we continue to imbue T with supernatural powers. In 2018, a US Supreme Court seat hung in the balance. The issues at the confirmation hearings came to focus on male sexual violence against women. Thorough description and analysis were needed. Writers pro and con casually dropped in the T-word to describe, denounce or defend the past behaviour of Justice Brett Kavanaugh: one commentator in Forbes wrote about testosterone-induced gang rapes; another, interviewed on CNN, asked: But were talking about a 17-year-old boy in high school with testosterone running high. Tell me, what boy hasnt done this in high school?; and a third, in a column in The New York Times, wrote: Thats him riding a wave of testosterone and booze

And it is unlikely that many readers questioned the hormonal logic of Christine Lagarde, then chair of the International Monetary Fund, when she asserted that the economic collapse in 2008 was due in part to too many males in charge of the financial sector: I honestly think that there should never be too much testosterone in one room.

You can find T employed as a biomarker to explain (and sometimes excuse) male behaviour in articles and speeches every day. Poetic licence, one might say. Just a punchy way to talk about leaving males in charge. Yet when we raise T as significant in any way to explain male behaviour, we can inadvertently excuse male behaviour as somehow beyond the ability of actual men to control. Casual appeals to biological masculinity imply that patriarchal relationships are rooted in nature.

When we normalise the idea that T runs through all high-school boys, and that this explains why rape occurs, we have crossed from euphemism to offering men impunity to sexually assault women by offering them the defence not guilty, by reason of hormones.

Invoking mens biology to explain their behaviour too often ends up absolving their actions. When we bandy about terms such as T or Y chromosomes, it helps to spread the idea that men are controlled by their bodies. Thinking that hormones and genes can explain why boys will be boys lets men off the hook for all manner of sins. If you believe that T says something meaningful about how men act and think, youre fooling yourself. Men behave the way they do because culture allows it, not because biology requires it.

No one could seriously argue that biology is solely responsible for determining what it means to be a man. But words such as testosterone and Y chromosomes slip into our descriptions of mens activities, as if they explain more than they actually do. T doesnt govern mens aggression and sexuality. And its a shame we dont hear as much about the research showing that higher levels of T in men just as easily correlate with generosity as with aggression. But generosity is less a stereotypically male virtue, and this would spoil the story about mens inherent aggressiveness, especially manly mens aggressiveness. And this has a profound impact on what men and women think about mens natural inclinations.

We need to keep talking about toxic masculinity and the patriarchy. Theyre real and theyre pernicious. And we also need new ways of talking about men, maleness and masculinity that get us out of the trap of thinking that mens biology is their destiny. As it turns out, when we sift through the placebo effects and biobabble, T is not a magic male molecule at all but rather as the researchers Rebecca Jordan-Young and Katrina Karkazis argue in their book Testosterone (2019) a social molecule.

Regardless of what you call it, testosterone is too often used as an excuse for letting men off the hook and justifying male privilege.

Matthew Gutmann

This article was originally published at Aeon and has been republished under Creative Commons.

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Between Real Estate And Science Fiction: Cities Of Immortals – Forbes

The ongoing biotechnology revolution is less discussed than the digital one, but is on par with it, if not more prevalent. While less visible to the everyday eye, progress in healthcare and genetics will dramatically alter the way and where we live. Indeed, it feels like science fiction has crept into reality.

For some time now, it has been possible to create an embryonic precursor from someones blood cells. Essentially, this means that scientists can recreate a younger you in the form of an unevolved and unaged specimen, which could eventually turn into a fetus that will grow into an adult, with your DNA. Some scientists are suggesting that DNA doesnt age much; what does is the epigenetic, or the molecular processes that regulate the expressions of DNA.

Nowadays, a growing scientific movement views aging not as a consequence of growing older, but as a condition in and of itself, a pathology. In other words, aging is a disease that is not a result of a degradation of DNA, but of the epigenetic. Once we understand how to reboot it and restore the functioning of DNA, we could have treatments for aging and perhaps even the possibility to reverse it.

Highly controversial, of course. Nevertheless, we are slowly but surely moving toward dramatically extending human longevity and eventually, towardcellular regeneration (i.e., regrowing limbs).

There are substantial investments being made with this goal in mind, and results will be obtained much faster than we are aware. As an example, in the 1990s, gene therapy was perceived as high-risk and elusive. Today, a group of technologies named CRISPR-Cas9 enables scientists to edit genomes and alter DNA sequences, with the potential to correct genetic diseases and cure cancer.We may even be able to create immortality. Scientists have not yet found how to do it, but at some point, they well could.

Think of the luminaries the world lost early, of diseases or from causes that genetics research seeks to cure. Steve Jobs lived to be 56. He died as Apple just started really growing exponentially in a business sense, and in creativity benefiting from his decades of experience.

Zaha Hadid, the first woman to win the Pritzker prize (considered the Nobel prize for architects) died in 2016 at age 65. She really began to be at the top of her field after 2000, or age 50. Considering that she still might have had her best years ahead, advances in longevity could have an enormously positive effect on our cities, if world-class architects and real estate developers are able to exponentially leverage their experience for longer. Good news.

Urbanism is turning into one of the worlds most pressing issues. Desirable cities are so unaffordable that housing negatively impairs national GDP growth by several points. And well-planned architecture has been found to reduce crime. Boosting longevity could have a direct correlation with much faster economic growth and lower crime. And immortality, all the more. All in all, as human progress accelerates, so should that of our cities and lifestyles.

Living longer would indeed drastically affect the demographic makeup of our cities. With the nationwide trend of migration back toward cities, downtowns have again become gravity centers as jobs, social life and opportunities are all located next to one another. In other words, cities are becoming harder to leave. As their inhabitants have children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, and live longer, the populations of cities like New York could explode. And so could real estate prices, by the sheer force of supply and demand not to mention that the older the population grows, the higher the amount of savings in the economy, hence additional capital increasing housing prices.

There urgently need to be solutions. Just based on migration trends, nearly 70% of the worlds population will live in cities in 2050. (That number is over 54% today, and was 34% in 1960.)

One solution could be a movement that is already making a comeback in todays world: multigenerational housing, through which several generations of a same family coexist under the same roof. Would the United States then become more like traditional Europe, where close-knit families often live together for decades into adulthood? The potential societal changes are enormous. Cities would, in this case, revert to what they had always been before: homes for whole families, as opposed to, say, downtowns of solely high-earning young professionals.

Additionally, advances in transportation such as ride-sharing will reduce the need to own our own cars. If we need fewer roads, we will have more space to build probably taller, if the aforementioned experts live longer and are able to develop the appropriate real estate structures. There's another factor increasing urban density.

And what about zoning? If we know we will live until 150, will we take a different outlook at community board meetings, and be more open to rezonings to allow the additional housing that enables our family members to stay close to us? Longevity could lead to less friction on hot-button local issues.

The science fiction of longevity and immortality is much closer to reality than we think. It should be embraced, as it features the potential to drastically improve the way we live together. Optimism is de rigueur for one of the planets most challenging and divisive issues. Public policy must follow and allow cities to shape themselves and grow in a way that retains all this means allowing sound, large-scale construction and urbanism.

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Globalisation brought us unprecedented riches. Now were throwing them away –

The Covid-19 outbreak marks the end of a golden age. For 75 years, we have been getting richer, freer and more interconnected. The economic liberalisation that followed the Second World War led to an unprecedented increase in human happiness. Wars became rarer. Famines, long considered inescapable, were all but eliminated. Literacy and longevity soared; violence and oppression plummeted. Why? Because countries that had previously had closed or communist economies gradually joined the global market.

The trouble is, we never made the effort to understand what was driving the enrichment. Indeed, we mulishly refused to believe that it was happening at all. Since 1945, the population of the world has roughly tripled, while the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen by roughly two thirds. The proportion of people living in extreme poverty has fallen by around 90 per cent. Yet only 10 per cent of us believe that there has been any decline at all.

We are equally gloomy, and equally mistaken, about life expectancy, global inequality and access to education. The Swedish physician, Hans Rosling, who used to poll people about the state of the world, liked to joke that if the answers were written on bananas and tossed to chimpanzees, the chimps would pick the correct banana far more often than the temperamentally pessimistic humans.

That innate pessimism, so useful to our hunter-gatherer forebears but so misleading today, explains why we are reacting to the coronavirus by hunkering down, banning flights and moaning about global supply chains. We are thinking primevally, not rationally. Our lizard brains respond to an unfamiliar illness by wanting to shut everything out.

There is no scientific case for banning travel especially not from countries with similar rates of infection to your own. But, in times of stress, we fall back on our tribal heuristics, seeing strangers as likelier carriers of pathogens. Our mood will almost certainly harden as fear of infection gives way to actual infection.

Psychologists have long known that people who are suffering from cold or flu-like symptoms become grumpier in their personality and more authoritarian in their politics.

For two weeks now, we have been reading articles about how pandemics are a product of globalisation. We ought, say a hundred armchair experts, to reduce our dependence on places like China. We should grow more of our own food and, come to that, manufacture more of our own vaccines.

Again, these are arguments that address themselves to our inner caveman. They feel intuitive, but they are quite wrong. Pandemics are not a product of globalisation. In 1348, the Bishop of Bath wrote that a catastrophic pestilence from the East has arrived in a neighbouring kingdom and threatened to stretch its poisonous branches into this realm.

He was right. Around 50 per cent of the population perished. The central expectation this time is that the mortality rate will be around half of 1 per cent catastrophic enough by modern standards, but hardly a product of globalisation.

Nor does self-sufficiency offer security. Many countries used to aim to produce most or all of their food, and the consequences were often calamitous. Localised production is vulnerable to localised shocks: bad harvests, natural disasters, vermin.

The true guarantor of food security is the ability to draw on a dispersed web of global supply. The country with the cheapest food in the world is Singapore, which does not produce one edible ounce itself. At the other end of the scale, the only state which still experiences man-made famines is North Korea, where self-sufficiency is the ruling ideology.

The globalisation on which our wealth rests was never the subject of much debate. Few electorates were convinced by it. It simply happened and, because it worked, people went along with it. The trouble is that its foundations were always fragile. Bad is stronger than good, as the pioneering behavioural psychologist Amos Tversky liked to say. People will take for granted the creation of any number of jobs in retail, financial services, biotech, law, programming or the audio-visual sector. But close one shipyard and, supposedly, globalisation has failed.

Even before the epidemic began, a reaction was setting in. Protectionism was on the rise in Washington, Brussels and Beijing. Even in Right of centre circles, people were warning against the dogma of capitalism, and mouthing platitudes about markets serving society rather than the other way around. But there is nothing dogmatic about support for free markets.

It is based on what works empirically, not what feels right. Far from being ideological, it rests on the idea that we shouldnt impose our ideologies on other people. As for the idea of a market serving society, abstract nouns make poor servants. The market is not a living entity that can be put to work. It is better understood as an absence of coercive rules, a readiness to let affairs arrange themselves.

These arguments, hard to win at the best of times, are almost impossible to voice when people are panicking in the face of an impending plague.

We will look back at the period from 1945 to 2020 as the moment when freedom was given its chance and proved its worth, but was abandoned anyway. Open markets lifted billions from poverty, added decades to our lives, gave us powers that previous generations attributed to wizards or gods. And we never noticed.

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Montana: the grayest state in the West – Montana Free Press

By Eric Dietrich and Brad Tyer | March 12, 2020

Graying Pains: Challenges and Opportunities in the Wests Oldest State is a six-month series of weekly stories and broadcasts exploring the economic, cultural, and personal impacts of Montanas aging demographics. The series is coordinated by Montana Free Press and produced by The Montana Fourth Estate Project, a collaboration among 15 Montana newspapers, Yellowstone Public Radio, and the University of Montana School of Journalism.

For our publishing partners: This article is subject to reprint restrictions as detailed here. This story may not be republished prior to Thursday, March 26, 2020.

People have been parsing the human lifespan into a taxonomy of ages forever. Aristotle proposed three categories: youthful, prime of life, and elderly. Two thousand years later, Shakespeares Seven Ages of Man carved human chronology into seven slices, with the bodys final frailty circling back to the original oblivion of infancy. And in the 1980s, British historian Peter Laslett proposed a revised map of three ages, with a caveat for the third: it could be a time of post-retirement fulfillment and achievement, or it could collapse, a la Shakespeare, into dependence and decrepitude.

The character of any individuals third age hinges on some key factors, including health, wealth, community, and the government policies and cultural customs that influence them. Navigating those factors requires independence, assistance, access, and education. The latter, especially, is lacking. Missoula Aging Services Executive Director Susan Kohler told a room full of Montana journalists in November that one of the biggest impediments to a fulfilling third age is lack of preparedness.


Already, Montana is the oldest state west of the Mississippi, according to median age statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau. With half the states population 40 or older, were the 9th oldest in the nation, out-grayed only by Florida, Maine, and a few other eastern states.

Peak age is yet to come, according to demographic projections produced for the state Department of Commerce by consulting firm REMI. As of 2017, the baseline year used by those projections, 18% of Montanans were 65 or older, up from 14% in 2001. The figure is expected to climb to 22% by 2030 then plateau through 2040 as boomers reach the end of their lives.

Different parts of the state, however, are on very different trajectories. Sparsely populated rural counties tend to have higher percentages of seniorsand are, in many cases, on track to become even more disproportionately older. Petroleum Countys 520 residents make it the lowest-population county in Montana, and by 2030, 37% of county residents will be past retirement age,up from 23% in 2017. For Teton County, northwest of Great Falls, the 2030 figure is projected to be 27%, up from 22%.

Population centers like the Billings area tend to trend closer to the state as a whole, age-wise, though college towns Missoula and Bozeman are substantially younger than other urban areas, and are expected to stay that way. Seniors 65 and over accounted for 16% of the population of Yellowstone County (including Billings) and 12% of the population of Gallatin County (including Bozeman) in 2017. Those figures are projected to rise to 21% and 15%, respectively, by 2030.

Counties with sizable Native American populations, such as Roosevelt County (including Wolf Point), Big Horn County (including Hardin and Crow Agency), and Glacier County (including Cut Bank and Browning) are also younger than neighboring rural areas. Roosevelt County, with only 11% of its population over 65, is the states youngest by that measure.


Driving those trends are three key demographic forces: birth, death, and migration. Higher birth rates pull areas younger while longer lifespans populate communities with more elders. Migration, in turn, tends to siphon young, mobile residents away from some places and toward others.

Montanas population is skewing older,in part, as the oversized generation of baby boomers born in the aftermath of World War II, between 1946 to 1964, reaches retirement age. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, longer life expectancies and declining birth rates are also a factor thats aging American communities across the nation. While average life expectancy in the U.S. was 68.2 in 1950, according to the National Center for Health Statistics, it was a decade longer, 78.6, in 2017.

In Montana, the median age of death is now 75 for men and 82 for women, according to the state Department of Public Health and Human Services. Montanas Native communities are younger in part because death typically comes much earlier for American Indian Montanans, with DPHHS reporting a median age of death at 60 for Native men and 63 for Native women.

Counties with larger Native populations also tend to have higher birth rates, which means more young residents. For example, Roosevelt County, which is 57% Native, saw a rate of 22.3 births per 1,000 residents annually between 2010 and 2018, according to a Montana Free Press analysis of census data. The equivalent figure for Yellowstone County, in comparison, was 13.2.

Migration rounds out the picture. While Montana attracts some older migrants looking for a change of scenery in retirement, migration is on the balance a youthening force for destination communities, because young people constitute the lions share of movers. According to census estimates based on surveys conducted between 2014 and 2018, 58% of Montanas new arrivals to Montana are under the age of 30, versus just 11% who are 60 or older.

As such, migration patterns also contribute to the graying of places where there arent enough new arrivals to balance the number of young people moving away for school or work, creating the brain drain dynamic that has posed a challenge for swaths of rural Montana for decades.


Those trends create challenges.

At a community level, an older population means more demand for health care services. A 2012 study by economists at Montana State University, for example, estimated that the states aging demographics would necessitate increased state Medicaid spending. And with large portions of the health care system funded by the state-administered Medicaid program, aging creates public policy questions at the state government level as well.

At the same time, an aging population is predicted to diminish the proportion of states residents who are in the workforce and available to staff nursing jobs,not to mention other businesses. Montanas working-age population of residents between the ages of 15 and 64 was 64% of the populace as of 2017. While the total number of working-age Montanans is projected to increase with population growth, the working-age share of the population is expected to decrease slightly, to 60%, by 2030.

That study also concluded that the aging of Montana will produce a modest shift in state revenue sources away from income taxes, which are highest for workers in the peak of their careers, and toward property taxes, which are higher for older adults, including retirees, who tend to live in more valuable homes than younger residents.


An aging population doesnt just influence tax projections and hospital budgets and worker supply.

It affects family farming and Elks Clubs.

It affects churches and nonprofits and all manner of governmental safety nets, whose funding structures are already strained.

It affects the aging and the aged, many of whom face financial insecurity and isolation. And it affects the generations behind them, who are increasingly called on to care for elderly parents, even as many raise their own children, who may one day help care for them.

The average American life expectancy has increased by three decades over the course of the 20th century, contributing to the aging of America and suggesting the need for what a 2018 Stanford Center on Longevity initiative calls a new map of life that reimagines education, work, retirement, intergenerational relationships, financial planning, and health care to support a society in which more of us than ever are living in Lasletts third age.

Montana is on the forefront of that national trend, giving Montanans an opportunity to, as Center on Longevity Director Laura Carstensen wrote in the Washington Post, redesign how we live.

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Longevity And Anti-Senescence Therapy Market Overview, Consumption, Supply, Demand & Insights – Kentucky Journal 24

The global longevity and anti-senescence therapies market should grow from $329.8 million in 2018 to $644.4 million by 2023 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.3% during 2018-2023.

Report Scope:

The scope of this report is broad and covers various therapies currently under trials in the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market. The market estimation has been performed with consideration for revenue generation in the forecast years 2018-2023 after the expected availability of products in the market by 2023. The global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market has been segmented by the following therapies: Senolytic drug therapy, Gene therapy, Immunotherapy and Other therapies which includes stem cell-based therapies, etc.

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Revenue forecasts from 2028 to 2023 are given for each therapy and application, with estimated values derived from the expected revenue generation in the first year of launch.

The report also includes a discussion of the major players performing research or the potential players across each regional longevity and anti-senescence therapy market. Further, it explains the major drivers and regional dynamics of the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market and current trends within the industry.

The report concludes with a special focus on the vendor landscape and includes detailed profiles of the major vendors and potential entrants in the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market.

Report Includes:

71 data tables and 40 additional tables An overview of the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2017 and 2018, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2023 Country specific data and analysis for the United States, Canada, Japan, China, India, U.K., France, Germany, Spain, Australia, Middle East and Africa Detailed description of various anti-senescence therapies, such as senolytic drug therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy and other stem cell therapies, and their influence in slowing down aging or reverse aging process Coverage of various therapeutic drugs, devices and technologies and information on compounds used for the development of anti-ageing therapeutics A look at the clinical trials and expected launch of anti-senescence products Detailed profiles of the market leading companies and potential entrants in the global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market, including AgeX Therapeutics, CohBar Inc., PowerVision Inc., T.A. Sciences and Unity Biotechnology

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Global longevity and anti-senescence therapy market deals in the adoption of different therapies and treatment options used to extend human longevity and lifespan. Human longevity is typically used to describe the length of an individuals lifetime and is sometimes used as a synonym for life expectancy in the demography. Anti-senescence is the process by which cells stop dividing irreversibly and enter a stage of permanent growth arrest, eliminating cell death. Anti-senescence therapy is used in the treatment of senescence induced through unrepaired DNA damage or other cellular stresses.

Global longevity and anti-senescence market will witness rapid growth over the forecast period (2018-2023) owing to an increasing emphasis on Stem Cell Research and an increasing demand for cell-based assays in research and development.

An increasing geriatric population across the globe and a rising awareness of antiaging products among generation Y and later generations are the major factors expected to promote the growth of global longevity and anti-senescence market. Factors such as a surging level of disposable income and increasing advancements in anti-senescence technologies are also providing traction to the global longevity and anti-senescence market growth over the forecast period (2018-2023).

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the total geriatric population across the globe in 2016 was over REDACTED. By 2022, the global geriatric population (65 years and above) is anticipated to reach over REDACTED. An increasing geriatric population across the globe will generate huge growth prospectus to the market.

Senolytics, placenta stem cells and blood transfusions are some of the hot technologies picking up pace in the longevity and anti-anti-senescence market. Companies and start-ups across the globe such as Unity Biotechnology, Human Longevity Inc., Calico Life Sciences, Acorda Therapeutics, etc. are working extensively in this field for the extension of human longevity by focusing on study of genomics, microbiome, bioinformatics and stem cell therapies, etc. These factors are poised to drive market growth over the forecast period.

Global longevity and anti-senescence market is projected to rise at a CAGR of REDACTED during the forecast period of 2018 through 2023. In 2023, total revenues are expected to reach REDACTED, registering REDACTED in growth from REDACTED in 2018.

The report provides analysis based on each market segment including therapies and application. The therapies segment is further sub-segmented into Senolytic drug therapy, Gene therapy, Immunotherapy and Others. Senolytic drug therapy held the largest market revenue share of REDACTED in 2017. By 2023, total revenue from senolytic drug therapy is expected to reach REDACTED. Gene therapy segment is estimated to rise at the highest CAGR of REDACTED till 2023. The fastest growth of the gene therapy segment is due to the Large investments in genomics. For Instance; The National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.) had a budget grant of REDACTED for REDACTED research projects in 2015, thus increasing funding to REDACTED for approximately REDACTED projects in 2016.

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The Fight against Socialism Isnt Over – National Review

Sen. Bernie Sanders addresses a news conference in Burlington, Vt., March 11, 2020. (Lucas Jackson/Reuters)Bernie Sanders isnt a relic. Hes a preview of things to come.

Democrats are breathing a sigh of relief. Joe Bidens victories on Mini Tuesday make his delegate lead all but insurmountable. Bernie Sanderss electoral weakness, compared with his performance four years ago, has dulled the fear of an incipient socialist takeover of the worlds oldest political party. The left is said to have talked itself into believing its own propaganda and helped President Trump equate Democrats with socialism. Victory in the primary did not come from pledges to eliminate private health insurance or impose wealth taxes. It followed from the perception that Biden is the candidate best able to defeat Trump.

Dont write off the socialist revival just yet. Sanders might not win the Democratic nomination. But this outcome does not mean the forces that propelled him to second-place finishes in the two most recent Democratic primaries will vanish overnight. Abandoning the intellectual fight against socialism, both inside and outside the Democratic Party, would cede the field to an increasingly sophisticated and networked band of ideological activists whose influence in media and politics is greater than their numbers. Such ambivalence could have devastating consequences for American society.

The resurgent left has pushed Biden far beyond where he stood as vice president. And a socialist infrastructure guarantees the philosophys longevity. Aspiring Democratic politicians must at least deal with, if not pay obeisance to, groups such as the Working Families Party and the Democratic Socialists of America. Especially if they inhabit a deep-blue district ripe for picking by the Squad.

Fashionable, lively, radical, and controversial outlets, including Jacobin, Current Affairs, the Young Turks, Chapo Trap House, and Secular Talk, complement popular Instagram and Twitter accounts. And the New York Times magazines 1619 Project shows that the mainstream media is responsive to, and willing to participate in, the latest trends in anti-Americanism.

The most obvious reason not to dismiss the Sanders phenomenon is demographic. On Super Tuesday, Sanders won 30- to 44-year-olds by 18 points, and 18- to 29-year-olds by a staggering 43 points. He defeated Biden by nine points among Hispanic voters and by 25 points among Asian voters. Asian Americans are the fastest-growing ethnic group in the country. Hispanics are second. Sanderss protege, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a 30-year-old woman of Puerto Rican descent, represents this ethno-generational cohort. Their place in American life will not be denied.

Right now, socialism is unpopular. Last month, only 45 percent of adults told Gallup they would vote for a socialist for president. Last year, a 51-percent majority said socialism would be a bad thing for the United States. But Gallup also found that the number who said socialism would be a good thing had risen to 43 percent in 2019 from 25 percent in 1942. A majority of Democrats have held positive views of socialism since 2010. A willingness to adopt the socialist ideal is most pronounced among the young. A YouGov poll conducted last year for the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation found that 70 percent of Millennials are either somewhat or extremely likely to vote for a socialist.

It is the decline in institutional religion that drives the resurgence of socialism. Gallup found that church membership among U.S. adults has dropped precipitously over the last two decades, to 50 percent in 2018 from 70 percent in 1998. Why? Because the percentage of adults who profess no religious affiliation has more than doubled. It has gone to 19 percent from 8 percent. The Millennials exhibit the lowest percentage of church membership among generations. Pew says the number of Americans who identify as Christians fell more than ten points over the last decade as the number of religiously unaffiliated spiked. Here too the largest falloff was among Millennials.

Religion not only offers answers to the most powerful, definitive, and ultimate questions of human existence and purpose. It anchors individuals in a particular authoritative tradition defined by doctrinal orthodoxy and refined through multigenerational practice. People released from these bonds are capable of believing anything. Thus, socialism has returned at the same time as climate apocalypticism, transhuman and transgender ideology, anti-vaccination movements, anti-Semitism, conspiracies, and ethnonationalism. In this climate of relativism and revisionism, where the most outlandish theories are a Google search away, both Marxism and utopian socialism seem credible. Nothing is too absurd.

Irving Kristol said that it is easy to point out how silly and counterproductive and even deadly socialism has been, in so many respects, but difficult to recognize its pull as an emotional attachment. The love of equality and progress makes for a special and durable political passion. Socialism, wrote Irving Howe in 1954, is the name of our desire. In the absence of an intellectually coherent and morally compelling account of the inequalities inherent to liberal democracy, so will the desire remain.

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