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Healthy Living: Geriatric Emergency Departments On The Rise – 9&10 News

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Healthy Living: Geriatric Emergency Departments On The Rise - 9&10 News

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Participants Sought for National Trial to Test Benefits of a Healthy Lifestyle – Newswise


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Newswise (CHICAGO) One-third of Americans have metabolic syndrome up from one-quarter just ten years ago and it is underdiagnosed. Metabolic syndrome is a bundle of risk factors caused by common lifestyle choices that can lead to serious conditions like diabetes, stroke, heart disease, and some types of cancer. People are considered to have metabolic syndrome if they have at least three of its five indicators central fat (waist circumference of 40 inches or more for men, 35 inches or more for women), high blood pressure, high blood sugar, low HDL cholesterol, and elevated triglycerides.

The EnhancedLifestyles forMetabolic Syndrome (ELM) Trial, a multisite test of two lifestyle treatments for a dangerous cluster of sub-disease indicators called the metabolic syndrome, is now accepting applicants at five medical centers around the country.

Over the next two years, with funding from the William G. McGowan Charitable Fund, the ELM Trial, developed at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois, aims to enroll 600 people who are at high-risk for chronic disease and are interested in managing this risk by optimizing their lifestyle. The partner sites are Rush in Chicago, Illinois; University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado; Geisinger Health System, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton, Pennsylvania; Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York; and University of Missouri - Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri.

"We need to see which approach is better at achieving a sustained remission in metabolic syndrome with lifestyle changes," says Lynda Powell PhD, MEd, preventive medicine chair at Rush Medical College, and the Principal Investigator of the ELM trial.

Until the serious medical conditions the syndrome causes emerge, these people may not feel ill. Different drugs are available to address the syndrome's markers, like anti-hypertension medication, but none of these drugs treat the underlying lifestyle cause of the syndrome.

The good news is that better lifestyle choices, like the ones ELM teaches, have repeatedly been associated with low risk for the metabolic syndrome along with low risk for the diseases it portends.

"We know that lifestyle change works," says Jennifer Ventrelle MS, a registered nutritionist and director of the ELM Lifestyle Program at the Rush University Prevention Center. Ventrelle, who is charged with making sure the ELM Intervention is administered consistently across all the participating centers, cites the Diabetes Prevention Program as one solid trial that showed the importance of lifestyle change on health.

The process is not always easy, though. "We know how to get people to change their behavior in the short term to eat better, be active, or stop smoking. The challenge is to get these changes to stick over time," Powell says.

For this trial, the first thirty eligible candidates will embark on the evidence-based ELM program at each of the five sites in January of 2020; signups will continue through spring of 2021. Participants will engage in the program for six months, and then will be followed for an additional 18 months, to allow for an assessment of how well they have been able to sustain the good habits they developed, and the health benefits they received.

The ELM program provides tools, methods and support for healthier eating, increased physical activity and stress management. Guidelines include making vegetables half of every lunch and dinner, exercising for at least 30 minutes on most days, and learning to be less reactive to stressors.

The Rush team has been studying a group-based version of ELM for nearly a decade. A "self-directed" option representing the best lifestyle information available in clinical practice today will be compared to the group-based program. Participants in both programs will receive a Fitbit to help them monitor their physical activity.

A condition of enrollment is a willingness to participate in either arm of the trial. Participants will not get to choose. The group approach, which has been shown to be effective, requires participants to attend meetings. While those can be helpful, they're time-consuming and may be inconvenient; from a public-health standpoint, groups are expensive and labor-intensive.

"Can we simplify this treatment?" Powell asks. Can participants get the same or better health results under their own direction, with only minimal contact with the program? That's an important question investigators hope to answer. "We truly don't know which one is better," Powell says.

Everyone in the self-directed arm will be assigned to a coordinator, and will receive a Fitbit activity tracker, access to the program's website, and monthly tip sheets for six months.

"They'll get the best lifestyle protocols we have in medical practice today, augmented by one of the best wearables (the Fitbit)," Powell says.

In the group-based program, participants will get most of those things, too. But instead of the tip sheet, group members will meet for an hour and a half weekly for three months, biweekly for an additional three months, and monthly for 18 months after that. They will also have access to the ELM website. They will learn, for example, to distinguish when they are eating because they are hungry from when they turn to food because it is available or they are bored or sad.

Participants in both arms of the program will report for three follow-up visits so their progress can be assessed. They will receive lab results and physical measures after each visit.

Not everybody with metabolic syndrome is interested in eating a healthier diet and undertaking a regular exercise program, but many people are. Powell says ELM can give those people a boost on their journey.

"We try to get people to see that living a healthy lifestyle is all about enjoying life, and having more energy and vitality," Powell says.

Anyone older than 18 who has three of the five markers for metabolic syndrome, does not have diabetes, can converse in English, and is committed to making healthy lifestyle changes, can apply to participate in the ELM Trial at one of its five sites. For more information, go to

To apply at Rush in Chicago,, orcall Dan Lindich (312) 563-3756 or Joselyn Williams (312) 563-8790.

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Men and women subtly see their own health differently – Ladders

How secure you feel about your ability to keeping up good health habits and routines can depend on your gender, according to aMayo Clinic study published in the American Journal of Health Behavior.By surveying the members of a little-used employee wellness center, Mayo Clinic researchers were able to discern subtle ways that men and women saw their own health differently.

The study surveyed 2,784 users at the Mayo Clinic Dan Abraham Healthy Living Center, an employee wellness center.

Our findings suggest that confidence in maintaining healthy habits can be influenced by gender and also depends on which specific habit is being assessed physical activity, for example, versus diet, says Richa Sood, M.D., a Mayo Clinic internist, co-author and designer of the study, said in a release.This is important information to keep in mind when designing wellness programs, to maximize their utilization and impact on employee health and wellness.

There has been some pushback about employee wellness centers recently, both in the media and in the research world. Back in April, a major study among warehouse workers found that workplace wellness programs may not be so beneficial after all offering no real effects on health outcomes.

Researchers wanted to learn about the under-utilization of employee wellness centers, and any possible gender-specific reasons why. They began by distributing 11,427 surveys to those wellness centers, and 2,784 completed surveys came back. Of those, 68% were women, and the average age across genders was 49.

The survey questions about users health status and health conditions, their confidence in keeping up healthy habits, their stress levels, and social life. Men and women reported comparable levels of stress, and they both reported to be in favor of healthy living, according to the study. More men reported having hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol and tobacco use than women. However, there was no significant gender difference in the perception of personal health.

There were some differences, although at first glance the men and women respondents seemed fairly similar.

We were surprised by the finding that men felt they were as healthy as women despite having more medical problems, Dr. Sood says.

Women had lower self-reported levels of physical activity and felt less confident that they would keep up their exercise.

This difference may have cultural roots because gender has been shown to influence self-efficacy, particularly for physical activity, said Dr. Sood. (Psychologist Albert Bandura has defined self-efficacy as ones belief in ones ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task.) Self-efficacy is not a gender-specific trait, said Dr. Sood. Still, understanding gender differences among working adults can help optimize employee wellness services.

In general, employee wellness centers across the country remain underused, despite their status as an $8 billion industry.

I am personally not convinced that lunchtime yoga and mason jars of trail mix are the antidotes to our global epidemic of workplace stress and burnout, wrote Charlotte Lieberman in the Harvard Business Review. For all the attention (and money spent) on workplace wellness, the jury is still out on whether these programs are really beneficial to our health.

Amit Sood, M.D., a study co-author, owns the Global Center for Resilience and Wellbeing. Dr. Richa Sood is his spouse. Other authors reported no conflicts of interest or financial disclosures.

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At CIIE 2019 Panasonic Showcases Solutions to Help Bring to Life China’s "Healthy China 2030" Vision – Business Wire

SHANGHAI--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Panasonic Corporation took part in the 2nd China International Import Expo (CIIE) 2019, which was held in Shanghai from November 5 to 10.Under the theme, "Limitless Care for Healthy Living," Panasonic showcased health and welfare products and solutions that reflect its unique health values. With these products and solutions for a healthy life and aging society, Panasonic aspires to help bring to life China's "Healthy China 2030" vision. Panasonic also introduced its cutting-edge technologies that contribute to the business scene.

[Video] #CIIE 2019 Panasonic Highlights - The 2nd China International Import Expo

Panasonic Booth HighlightsSolutions for a Healthy Life and an Aging Society1. "Healthy Environment Unit"With the evolution of sensing and data analytics technology, spaces and devices will be able to sense the changes your body undergoes, and make suggestions that will help you enjoy a healthy lifestyle. In the "vital sensing bedroom," a comfortable sleeping environment will be created with sensors that analyze your heartbeat, number of breaths taken, how many times you turned in bed and AI that optimally controls the lighting, temperature, humidity, and scent based on past data.

In the bathroom, the "Vital Sensing Toilet" will take your heartbeat and blood pressure measurements and utilize AI to determine your stress level and make suggestions to help you relax. And when using the sink, the "Smart Mirror" will measure your weight and body-fat percentage to introduce menus and physical training methods best suited to your physical condition.

[Video] For Healthy Life - Panasonic #CIIE 2019

2. "Barrier Free Villa"Panasonic proposed compact, highly-functional and stylish renovation ideas that help the elderly live independently by alleviating their burden. Examples of bedroom environment renovations featuring Made in Japan solutions that are really well thought through, and elderly-friendly products for care facilities such as electronic beds, lighting, etc. were showcased.

Moreover, the elderly may not be as confident about their walking as they had been before. "Walking training robots" introduced at the exhibition are equipped with AI-enabled control technology that automatically analyzes the walking ability of the user and provides appropriate walking training with the optimal physical load to help elderly remain independent.

[Video] For Aging Society - Panasonic #CIIE 2019

3. "Healthy and Comfortable LDK Environment"In the comfortable LDK environment where users can have easy access to information about their health and how they may better manage it, Panasonic showcased its transparent OLED, which blends into the interior and creates the environment optimal for the family's health or for the scene as well as a mock sky window that adds brightness and openness to the space and a kitchen with ample storage and ingenious hacks for chores.

[Video] For Living, Dining & Kitchen - Panasonic #CIIE 2019

4. "Food Safety and Security"Utilizing cutting-edge technologies accumulated to date, Panasonic proposed an end-to-end solution ranging from food production, precooling warehousing systems, low temperature transport, and refrigerated warehouses.

5. "Air Quality"This section introduced and demonstrated solutions that deliver excellent air quality for both homes and centrally cooled/heated facilities.

[Video] For Air Quality - Panasonic #CIIE 2019

6. "Home Appliances"In the "Cooking" area, Panasonic introduce a tajine pot that lets you cook without water, a 3-in-1 oven range that can steam and bake in a short length of time, partial freezing and nanoe technologies, as well as a compact-big, large capacity refrigerator. With respect to "Beauty," Panasonic introduced its high end X series including its unique drier that moisturizes hair and makes it silky smooth, ion effector that moisturizes skin from the keratinous layer with high molecular osmosis, and a RF facial massager to make skin nice and firm.

[Video] Beauty Product - Panasonic #CIIE 2019

Advanced Technology1. "Pure Hydrogen Fuel Cell"From building energy consuming towns to new, sustainable towns. Panasonic introduced the pure hydrogen fuel cell, which supplies energy generated by utilizing hydrogen created from renewable energy.

2. "Potential for Reuse, Industrialized Housing"Improving the lives of 60 million people who work on construction sites is an important social issue in China. Panasonic proposed solutions developed with its business partners that are capable of providing temporary housing quickly to these construction sites, temporary medical care and event venues.

3. "Data Archiver"This scalable disc library solution can store the ever expanding volume of data over long periods of time. It is a high capacity data recording device that can store petabytes (PB) to exabytes (EX) of big data or video content.

4. "Media Integration Studio Solution"This advanced media integration solution will reinvent the TV program production process.

5. "Spatial Presentation Solution"The 360-degree projector and human sensors work together to create a truly immersive viewing experience.

6. "Factory Automation"Panasonic introduced solutions that can optimize every area in the factory and contribute to factory automation and personnel savings.

7. "Filing Management Solution"Equipped with a high performance scanning technology, this filing management solution is optimal for governments, as well as financial institutions and educational facilities.

8. "Let's Note/Toughbook"Panasonic showcased its state-of-the-art products that help improve efficiency at work sites.

9. "Olympic and Paralympic Games"This section introduced Panasonic's history and category as the Worldwide Partner of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

[Video] Business Solutions & Advanced Technology - Panasonic #CIIE 2019 [Video] Sponsorship Activity - Panasonic #CIIE 2019

Panasonic Booth OverviewPeriod: November 5 (Tue) - 10 (Sun), 2019Location: National Exhibition and Convention Center (Shanghai) 5.1H B4Floor space: 1,004 m2Exhibition theme: "Placing customers first, always - for a happy mind, happy body"Content: Health and welfare solutions, cutting-edge technologies

CIIE 2019 Panasonic Official Website (Chinese) Here you will find a description of the Panasonic booth, what the venue was like during the exhibition, media coverage, as well as other information about CIIE 2019. (Chinese)Panasonic is introducing a wide range of content about its health and welfare business, including interviews with experts from various fields such as construction, medical, beauty, psychology, etc.

About PanasonicPanasonic Corporation is a worldwide leader in the development of diverse electronics technologies and solutions for customers in the consumer electronics, housing, automotive, and B2B businesses. The company, which celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2018, has expanded globally and now operates 582 subsidiaries and 87 associated companies worldwide, recording consolidated net sales of 8.003 trillion yen for the year ended March 31, 2019. Committed to pursuing new value through innovation across divisional lines, the company uses its technologies to create a better life and a better world for its customers. To learn more about Panasonic:


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How to Make the Most of Your Old Tech – New York Magazine

Photo: Billy H.C. Kwok/Bloomberg via Getty Images

If youre the kind of tech person who likes to stay on the cutting edge, the kind who upgrades their phone every year or rotates laptops with a significant frequency, then it can be tough to know what you should do with your old stuff. I mean, yeah, you could throw it out or try to sell it on eBay, but you can also put it to work in other useful ways. Here are some ideas.

Remote control

A lot of people, myself included, use their phones to control their TV and stereo. You can cast stuff video to your TV or music to a smart speaker via functions like Airplay or Chromecast. If you want to unplug and put your smartphone away when youre at home, having a separate device for a remote control is extremely helpful.


Yeah, smartphones are good for mobile games, but theres some cool stuff on the horizon as well. Companies like Google and Microsoft are working on cloud gaming, letting you (theoretically) play console-quality games on your phone by streaming video from a remote server. Newer Android phones and iPhones with iOS 13 are compatible with Xbox and PlayStation controllers, so its worth keeping an old smartphone around if youre interested in checking it out.


If youre worried about security but not worried enough to buy a dedicated camera, you can use an old Android phone instead. Most guides recommend an app called IP Webcam to get it working. Once its set up, you can check in on things while youre out.

Spare GPS device

Even if you dont have an internet connection, your old smartphones GPS system should still work. Popular apps like Google Maps let you cache navigational data and save it offline, so theres nothing stopping you from keep an old phone in your car just in case.

PC media server

Instead of junking your old PC, set it up as a media server (heres a tutorial) so you can access movies, music, and family photos from any device on your network. It makes it easier to share stuff with your household without manually sending files around.

Participate in a science project

Folding@home is a distributed computing project that simulates protein folding, computational drug design, and other types of molecular dynamics. Its a program that runs in the background on computers and aids medical research. Is your old PC going to cure cancer? Probably not. But itll help in a small way.

Strip it for parts

This is a long shot but theres a healthy aftermarket for old PC parts, in part because you cant really buy individual components directly from manufacturers. You can also do it just to see if you can. iFixIt sells plenty of ready-made kits for any assembly/disassembly project you might pursue.

Give it to your parents

This ones pretty obvious but you can save yourself some time and headaches by taking an old computer or phone, setting it up yourself, and then giving it to your parents. Theyre not going to replace that old Gateway on their own!


When the electrical grid eventually fails and we return to using paper for everything, youre gonna need something to hold all of that paper down.

Daily news about the politics, business, and technology shaping our world.

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Argonne Researchers to Share Scientific Computing Insights at SC19 – HPCwire

Nov. 15, 2019 The Supercomputing 2019 (SC19) conference, scheduled for November 1722 in Denver, will bring together the global high-performance computing (HPC) community, including researchers from the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, to share scientific computing advances and insights with an eye toward the upcoming exascale era.

Continuing the laboratorys long history of participation in the SC conference series, more than 90 Argonne researchers will contribute to conference activities and studies on topics ranging from exascale computing and big data analysis to artificial intelligence (AI) and quantum computing.

SC is a tremendous venue for Argonne to showcase its innovative uses of high-performance and data-intensive computing to advance science and engineering, said Salman Habib, director of Argonnes Computational Science division. We look forward to sharing our research and connecting with and learning from our peers, who are also working to push the boundaries of extreme-scale computing in new directions.

As the future home to one of the worlds first exascale supercomputers Aurora, an Intel-Cray machine scheduled to arrive in 2021 Argonne continues to drive the development of technologies, tools and techniques that enable scientific breakthroughs on current and future HPC systems. To fully realize exascales potential, the laboratory is creating an environment that supports the convergence of AI, machine learning and data science methods alongside traditional modeling and simulation-based research.

We are seeing rapid advances in the application of deep learning and other forms of AI to complex science problems at Argonne and across the broader research community, said Ian Foster, director of Argonnes Data Science and Learning division, Argonne Distinguished Fellow and also the Arthur Holly Compton Distinguished Service Professor of Computer Science at the University of Chicago. SC provides a forum for the community to get together and share how these methods are being used to accelerate research for a diverse set of applications.

The laboratorys conference activities will include technical paper presentations, talks, workshops, birds of a feather sessions, panel discussions and tutorials. In addition, Argonne will partner with other DOE national laboratories to deliver talks and demos at the DOEs conference booth (#925). Some notable Argonne activities are highlighted below. For the full schedule of the laboratorys participation in the conference, visitArgonnes SC19 webpage.

DOE Booth Talk: Scientific Domain-Informed Machine Learning

Argonne computer scientist Prasanna Balaprakash will delivera talk at the DOE boothon the laboratorys pivotal research with machine learning. His featured talk will cover Argonnes efforts to develop and apply machine learning approaches that enable data-driven discoveries in a wide variety of scientific domains, including cosmology, cancer research and climate modeling. Balaprakash will highlight successful use cases across the laboratory, as well as some exciting avenues for future research.

In Situ Analysis for Extreme-Scale Cosmological Simulations

Argonne physicist and computational scientist Katrin Heitmann will deliver thekeynote talkat the In Situ Infrastructures for Enabling Extreme-scale Analysis and Visualization (ISAV 2019) workshop. Her talk will cover the development of in situ analysis capabilities (i.e., data analysis while a simulation is in progress) for the Hardware/Hybrid Accelerated Cosmology Code, which has been used to carry out several extreme-scale simulations on DOE supercomputers. Heitmann will discuss the current limitations of her teams on the fly analysis tool suite and how they are developing solutions to prepare for the arrival of DOEs forthcoming exascale systems.

Full-State Quantum Circuit Simulation by Using Data Compression

Researchers from Argonne and the University of Chicago will present atechnical paperon their work to develop a new quantum circuit simulation technique that leverages data compression, trading computation time and fidelity to reduce the memory requirements of full-state quantum circuit simulations. Demonstrated on Argonnes Theta supercomputer, the teams novel approach provides researchers and developers with a platform for quantum software debugging and hardware validation for modern quantum devices that have more than 50 qubits.

Deep Learning on Supercomputers

Argonne scientists will have a strong presence at the Deep Learning on Supercomputers workshop. Co-chaired by Foster, the workshop provides a forum for researchers working at the intersection of deep learning and HPC. Argonne researchers are part of a multi-institutional team that will present DeepDriveMD: Deep-Learning-Driven Adaptive Molecular Simulations for Protein Folding. The study provides a quantitative basis by which to understand how coupling deep learning approaches to molecular dynamics simulations can lead to effective performance gains and reduced times-to-solution on supercomputing resources.

A team of researchers from Argonne and the University of Chicago will present Scaling Distributed Training of Flood-Filling Networks on HPC Infrastructure for Brain Mapping at the Deep Learning on Supercomputers workshop. The teams paper details an approach to improve the performance of flood-filling networks, an automated method for segmenting brain data from electron microscopy experiments. Using Argonnes Theta supercomputer, the researchers implemented a new synchronous and data-parallel distributed training scheme that reduced the amount of time required to train the flood-filling network.

Priority Research Directions for In Situ Data Management: Enabling Scientific Discovery from Diverse Data Sources

At the 14th Workshop on Workflows in Support of Large-Scale Science (WORKS19), Argonne computer scientist Tom Peterkaskeynote talkwill cover six priority research directions that highlight the components and capabilities needed for in situ data management to be successful for a wide variety of applications. In situ analysis tools can enable discoveries from a broad range of data sources HPC simulations, experiments, scientific instruments and sensor networks by helping researchers minimize data movement, save storage space and boost resource efficiency, often while simultaneously increasing scientific precision.

The Many Faces of Instrumentation: Debugging and Better Performance using LLVM in HPC

Argonne computational scientist Hal Finkel will deliver a keynote talk on the open-source LLVM compiler infrastructure at theWorkshop on Programming and Performance Visualization Tools (ProTools 19). LLVM, winner of the 2012 ACM Software System Award, has become an integral part of the software-development ecosystem for optimizing compilers, dynamic-language execution engines, source-code analysis and transformation tools, debuggers and linkers, and a host of other programming language- and toolchain-related components. Finkel will discuss various LLVM technologies, HPC tooling use cases, challenges in using these technologies in HPC environments, and interesting opportunities for the future.

About Argonne National Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratoryseeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nations first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance Americas scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed byUChicago Argonne, LLCfor theU.S. Department of Energys Office of Science.

About the U.S. Department of Energys Office of Science

The U.S. Department of Energys Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit

Source: Jim Collins, Argonne National Laboratory

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That Junk DNA Is Full of Information! – Advanced Science News




It should not surprise us that even in parts of the genome where we dont obviously see a functional code (i.e., one thats been evolutionarily fixed as a result of some selective advantage), there is a type of code, but not like anything weve previously considered as such. And what if it were doing something in three dimensions as well as the two dimensions of the ATGC code? A paper just published in BioEssays explores this tantalizing possibility

Isnt it wonderful to have a really perplexing problem to gnaw on, one that generates almost endless potential explanations. How about what is all that non-coding DNA doing in genomes?that 98.5% of human genetic material that doesnt produce proteins. To be fair, the deciphering of non-coding DNA is making great strides via the identification of sequences that are transcribed into RNAs that modulate gene expression, may be passed on transgenerationally (epigenetics) or set the gene expression program of a stem cell or specific tissue cell. Massive amounts of repeat sequences (remnants of ancient retroviruses) have been found in many genomes, and again, these dont code for protein, but at least there are credible models for what theyre doing in evolutionary terms (ranging from genomic parasitism to symbiosis and even exploitation by the very host genome for producing the genetic diversity on which evolution works); incidentally, some non-coding DNA makes RNAs that silence these retroviral sequences, and retroviral ingression into genomes is believed to have been the selective pressure for the evolution of RNA interference (so-called RNAi); repetitive elements of various named types and tandem repeats abound; introns (many of which contain the aforementioned types of non-coding sequences) have transpired to be crucial in gene expression and regulation, most strikingly via alternative splicing of the coding segments that they separate.

Still, theres plenty of problem to gnaw on because although we are increasingly understanding the nature and origin of much of the non-coding genome and are making major inroads into its function (defined here as evolutionarily selected, advantageous effect on the host organism), were far from explaining it all, andmore to the pointwere looking at it with a very low-magnification lens, so to speak. One of the intriguing things about DNA sequences is that a single sequence can encode more than one piece of information depending on what is reading it and in which direction viral genomes are classic examples in which genes read in one direction to produce a given protein overlap with one or more genes read in the opposite direction (i.e., from the complementary strand of DNA) to produce different proteins. Its a bit like making simple messages with reverse-pair words (a so-called emordnilap). For example: REEDSTOPSFLOW, which, by an imaginary reading device, could be divided into REED STOPS FLOW. Read backwards, it would give WOLF SPOTS DEER.

Now, if it is of evolutionary advantage for two messages to be coded so economically as is the case in viral genomes, which tend to evolve towards minimum complexity in terms of information content, hence reducing necessary resources for reproductionthen the messages themselves evolve with a high degree of constraint. What does this mean? Well, we could word our original example message as RUSH-STEM IMPEDES CURRENT, which would embody the same essential information as REED STOPS FLOW. However, that message, if read in reverse (or even in the same sense, but in different chunks) does not encode anything additional that is particularly meaningful. Probably the only way of conveying both pieces of information in the original messages simultaneously is the very wording REEDSTOPSFLOW: thats a highly constrained system! Indeed, if we studied enough examples of reverse-pair phrases in English, we would see that they are, on the whole, made up of rather short words, and the sequences are missing certain units of language such as articles (the, a); if we looked more closely, we might even detect a greater representation than average of certain letters of the alphabet in such messages. We would see these as biases in word and letter usage that would, a priori, allow us to have a stab at identifying such dual-function pieces of information.

Now lets return to the letters, words, and information encoded in genomes. For two distinct pieces of information to be encoded in the same piece of genetic sequence we would, similarly, expect the constraints to be manifest in biases of word and letter usagethe analogies, respectively, for amino acid sequences constituting proteins, and their three-letter code. Hence a sequence of DNA can code for a protein and, in addition, for something else. This something else, according to Giorgio Bernardi, is information that directs the packaging of the enormous length of DNA in a cell into the relatively tiny nucleus. Primarily it is the code that guides the binding of the DNA-packaging proteins known as histones. Bernardi refers to this as the genomic codea structural code that defines the shape and compaction of DNA into the highly-condensed form known as chromatin.

But didnt we start with an explanation for non-coding DNA, not protein-coding sequences? Yes, and in the long stretches of non-coding DNA we see information in excess of mere repeats, tandem repeats and remnants of ancient retroviruses: there is a type of code at the level of preference for the GC pair of chemical DNA bases compared with AT. As Bernardi reviews, synthesizing his and others groundbreaking work, in the core sequences of the eukaryotic genome, the GC content in structural organizational units of the genome termed isochores increased during the evolutionary transition between so-called cold-blooded and warm-blooded organisms. And, fascinatingly, this sequence bias overlaps with sequences that are much more constrained in function: these are the very protein-coding sequences mentioned earlier, and theymore than the intervening non-coding sequencesare the clue to the genomic code.

Protein-coding sequences are also packed and condensed in the nucleus particularly when theyre not in use (i.e., being transcribed, and then translated into protein) but they also contain relatively constant information on precise amino acid identities, otherwise they would fail to encode proteins correctly: evolution would act on such mutations in a highly negative manner, making them extremely unlikely to persist and be visible to us. But the amino acid code in DNA has a little catch that evolved in the most simple of unicellular organisms (bacteria and archaea) billions of years ago: the code is partly redundant. For example, the amino acid Threonine can be coded in eukaryotic DNA in no fewer than four ways: ACT, ACC, ACA or ACG. The third letter is variable and hence available for the coding of extra information. This is exactly what happens to produce the genomic code, in this case creating a bias for the ACC and ACG forms in warm-blooded organisms. Hence, the high constraint on this additional codewhich is also seen in parts of the genome that are not under such constraint as protein-coding sequencesis imposed by the packaging of protein-coding sequences that embody two sets of information simultaneously. This is analogous to our example of the highly-constrained dual-information sequence REEDSTOPSFLOW.

Importantly, however, the constraint is not as strict as in our English language example because of the redundancy of the third position of the triplet code for amino acids: a better analogy would be SHE*ATE*STU* where the asterisk stands for a variable letter that doesnt make any difference to the machine that reads the three-letter component of the four-letter message. One could then imagine a second level of information formed by adding D at these asterisk points, to make SHEDATEDSTUD (SHE DATED STUD). Next imagine a second reading machine that looks for meaningful phrases of a sensitive nature containing a greater than average concentration of Ds. This reading machine carries a folding machine with it that places a kind of peg at each D, kinking the message by 120 degrees in a plane. a point where the message should be bent by 120 degrees in the same plane, we would end up with a more compact, triangular, version. In eukaryotic genomes, the GC sequence bias proposed to be responsible for structural condensation extends into non-coding sequences, some of which have identified activities, though less constrained in sequence than protein-coding DNA. There it directs their condensation via histone-containing nucleosomes to form chromatin.

Figure. Analogy between condensation of a word-based message and condensation of genomic DNA in the cell nucleus. Panel A: Information within information, a sequence of words with a variable fourth space which, when filled with particular letters, generates a further message. One message is read by a three-letter reading machine; the other by a reading machine that can interpret information extending to the 4thvariableposition of the sequence. The second reader recognizes sensitive information that should be concealed, and at the points where a D appears in the 4th position, it folds the string of words, hence compressing the sensitive part and taking it out of view. This is an analogy for the principle of genomic 3D compression via chromatin, as depicted in panel B: a fluorescence image (via Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization FISH) of the cell nucleus. H2/H3 isochores, which increased in GC content during evolution from cold-blooded to warm-blooded vertebrates, are compressed into a chromatin core, leaving L1 isochores (with lower GC content) at the periphery in a less-condensed state. The genomic code embodied in the high-GC tracts of the genome is, according to Bernardi [1], read by the nucleosome-positioning machinery of the cell and interpreted as sequence to be highly compressed in euchromatin. Acknowledgements: Panel A: concept and figure production: Andrew Moore; Panel B: A FISH pattern of H2/H3 and L1 isochores from a lymphocyte induced by PHAcourtesy of S. Sacconeas reproduced in Ref. [1].]

These regions of DNA may then be regarded as structurally important elements in forming the correct shape and separation of condensed coding sequences in the genome, regardless of any other possible function that those non-coding sequences have: in essence, this would be an explanation for the persistence in genomes of sequences to which no function (in terms of evolutionarily-selected activity), can be ascribed (or, at least, no substantial function).

A final analogythis time much more closely relatedmight be the very amino acid sequences in large proteins, which do a variety of twists, turns, folds etc. We may marvel at such complicated structures and ask but do they need to be quite so complicated for their function? Well, maybe they do in order to condense and position parts of the protein in the exact orientation and place that generates the three-dimensional structure that has been successfully selected by evolution. But with a knowledge that the genomic code overlaps protein coding sequences, we might even start to become suspicious that there is another selective pressure at work as well

Andrew Moore, Ph.D.Editor-in-Chief, BioEssays


1. G.Bernardi. 2019. The genomic code: a pervasive encoding/moulding ofchromatin structures and a solution of the non-coding DNA mystery. BioEssays41:12. 1900106

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That Junk DNA Is Full of Information! - Advanced Science News

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy: Controversy and Trends – Medscape

Abstract and Introduction Abstract

In recent years, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has received significant media attention, and the rate of testosterone use has increased notably. A reported association between testosterone use and increased occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke prompted the FDA to issue a safety bulletin in 2014. Clinical hypogonadism is the only FDA-approved indication for TRT in men; it is not approved to treat age-related low testosterone. Although it is not indicated, TRT is often recommended to improve sexual function, bone density, body composition, muscle strength, mood, behavior, and cognition. The literature on the effectiveness of TRT for various conditions is largely mixed; therefore, current data on appropriate and potentially inappropriate use are important for pharmacists to keep abreast of and discuss with patients.

Recently, the use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has received a lot of media attention. Although its use is growing, there is much debate regarding TRT's risks and benefits.[1] From 2008 to 2012 in the United States, spending on TRT increased from $1 billion to $2 billion, and from 2003 to 2013 there was a fourfold increase in the rate of TRT in men aged 18 to 45 years.[2] In 2013 and early 2014, two studies reported an association between TRT and increased occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke, prompting the FDA to issue a safety bulletin on January 31, 2014.[3] This article will discuss appropriate TRT use, available formulations and cost, side effects, trends, and the pharmacist's role in patient education, including counseling points.

Testosterone Replacement Therapy: Controversy and Trends - Medscape

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LPCN LOSSES ALERT: Bernstein Liebhard LLP Reminds Investors of Its Investigation of Lipocine Inc – Yahoo Finance

NEW YORK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / November 11, 2019 / Bernstein Liebhard, a nationally acclaimed investor rights law firm, is investigating potential securities fraud claims on behalf of shareholders of Lipocine Inc. ("Lipocine" or the "Company") (LPCN) resulting from allegations that Lipocine might have issued misleading information to the investing public.

If you purchased Lipocine securities, and/or would like to discuss your legal rights and options please visit LPCN Shareholder Investigation or contact Matthew E. Guarnero toll free at (877) 779-1414 or

On November 11, 2019, Lipocine announced that it had received a Complete Response Letter ("CRL") from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regarding its New Drug Application for TLANDO, Lipocine's product candidate for testosterone replacement therapy. Lipocine advised investors, among other things, that "[t]he CRL identified one deficiency stating the efficacy trial did not meet the three secondary endpoints for maximal testosterone concentrations." On this news, Lipocine's stock price fell sharply during trading on November 11, 2019.

If you purchased Lipocine securities, and/or would like to discuss your legal rights and options please visit or contact Matthew E. Guarnero toll free at (877) 779-1414 or

Since 1993, Bernstein Liebhard LLP has recovered over $3.5 billion for its clients. In addition to representing individual investors, the Firm has been retained by some of the largest public and private pension funds in the country to monitor their assets and pursue litigation on their behalf. As a result of its success litigating hundreds of lawsuits and class actions, the Firm has been named to The National Law Journal's "Plaintiffs' Hot List" thirteen times and listed in The Legal 500 for ten consecutive years.

ATTORNEY ADVERTISING. 2019 Bernstein Liebhard LLP. The law firm responsible for this advertisement is Bernstein Liebhard LLP, 10 East 40th Street, New York, New York 10016, (212) 779-1414. The lawyer responsible for this advertisement in the State of Connecticut is Michael S. Bigin. Prior results do not guarantee or predict a similar outcome with respect to any future matter.

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LPCN LOSSES ALERT: Bernstein Liebhard LLP Reminds Investors of Its Investigation of Lipocine Inc - Yahoo Finance

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LPCN Awaits FDA Word, NKTR On Track, All’s Well With Five Prime’s FPT155 – Nasdaq

(RTTNews) - Today's Daily Dose brings you news about Alnylam's new positive efficacy results from its ongoing phase II open-label extension (OLE) study of Lumasiran for the treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type; Five Prime's initial safety data from its phase I clinical trial of FPT155 in patients with advanced solid tumors; Lipocine's much-awaited catalyst; Mirati's initial efficacy data from a phase II trial of Sitravatinib in metastatic urothelial cancer patients and Nektar's 18-month follow-up data from its PIVOT-02 study.

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Alnylam Pharmaceuticals Inc. (ALNY) announced new positive efficacy results from its ongoing phase II open-label extension (OLE) study of Lumasiran for the treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare disorder that mainly affects the kidneys. It results from the buildup of a substance called oxalate, which normally is filtered through the kidneys and excreted in the urine (Source: NIH).

The open-label extension phase II study of Lumasiran demonstrated a 76 percent mean maximal reduction in urinary oxalate excretion, with all patients achieving a urinary oxalate level at or below 1.5 times the upper limit of normal, and 68 percent of patients achieving a urinary oxalate level within the normal range (less than or equal to 0.46 mmol/24hr/1.73m2).

The Company has also initiated a new global phase III study of Lumasiran for the Treatment of advanced Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1, dubbed ILLUMINATE-C. The primary study endpoint is set as the percent reduction in plasma oxalate from baseline to six months.

Alnylam expects to report initial results from the ILLUMINATE-C trial in late 2020.

ALNY closed Friday's trading at $93.03, up 1.63%.

Five Prime Therapeutics Inc. (FPRX) has said that initial safety data from its phase I clinical trial of FPT155 in patients with advanced solid tumors suggest that it may not cause the same safety issues seen with a prior molecule targeting CD28.

FPT155 is a novel therapeutic CD80-Fc fusion protein that directly engages CD28 to enhance its co-stimulatory T-cell activation activity without inducing super agonism.

In 2006, in a phase I trial of TGN1412, a compound that targets CD28, 6 healthy volunteers had experienced serious toxicity including multi-organ failure. The trial later came to be referred to as the "elephant man drug trial" because of the disastrous side effects like severe swelling of the head, the trial participants had suffered.

Five Prime noted that FPT155 was well tolerated at all dose levels, with no dose-limiting toxicities and no grade 4 or higher adverse events. Dose escalation with FPT155 is ongoing with the study currently enrolling patients at the 70 mg dose level.

FPRX closed Friday's trading at $3.89, unchanged from the previous day's close.

Lipocine Inc.'s (LPCN) testosterone replacement therapy TLANDO is still awaiting word from the FDA regarding approval. The regulatory agency's decision on TLANDO was on November 9, 2019.

TLANDO, formerly known as LPCN 1021, is a twice-a-day oral testosterone product candidate that is designed to help restore normal testosterone levels in hypogonadal men.

The FDA had turned down TLANDO in June 2016, citing deficiencies related to the dosing algorithm for the proposed label, and in May 2018, saying that the product could not be approved in its current form.

It remains to be seen if the third time will prove lucky for TLANDO.

LPCN closed Friday's trading at $2.73, down 2.50%.

Mirati Therapeutics Inc.'s (MRTX) initial efficacy data from a phase II trial of Sitravatinib in combination with OPDIVO in metastatic urothelial cancer patients with documented progression on a platinum-chemotherapy and checkpoint inhibitor, presented on Saturday, has shown that the compound has the potential to increase responsiveness in patients whose tumors are resistant to checkpoint inhibitors.

According to the Company, out of the 22 metastatic urothelial cancer patients who were evaluable for response with at least one radiographic scan, 1 patient achieved a confirmed Complete Response and 6 archived Partial Response. Twenty-one of the twenty-two evaluable patients achieved a Complete Response, Partial Response or stable disease.

The preliminary results from an ongoing phase I study of neoadjuvant Sitravatinib combined with OPDIVO in patients with resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, dubbed SNOW, showed that there was tumor reduction in all eight patients who were eligible for evaluation, including one complete pathological response. With a median follow-up of 31.4 weeks, all patients are alive with no disease recurrence to date, noted the Company.

MRTX closed Friday's trading at $104.78, up 6.92%.

Nektar Therapeutics (NKTR), on Saturday, presented 18-month follow-up data from a phase I/II study of Bempegaldesleukin in combination with Opdivo in previously untreated metastatic melanoma patients, dubbed PIVOT-02.

At a median time of follow-up of 18.6 months for 38 efficacy-evaluable patients, the confirmed objective response rate (ORR) was 53%, with 34% of patients achieving confirmed complete responses. Forty-two percent of patients achieved a maximum reduction of 100% in target lesions and DCR, also known as disease control rate (CR+ Partial Response + Stable Disease), was 74%.

The median percent reduction of target lesions from baseline was 61.5%. At a median time of follow-up of 18.6 months, the median duration of response has not been reached, with 85% of patients with responses having ongoing responses, noted the Company.

A phase III trial evaluating Bempegaldesleukin in combination with Opdivo versus Opdivo in first-line advanced melanoma patients is currently recruiting patients.

NKTR closed Friday's trading at $20.04, up 7.17%.

The views and opinions expressed herein are the views and opinions of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of Nasdaq, Inc.

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LPCN Awaits FDA Word, NKTR On Track, All's Well With Five Prime's FPT155 - Nasdaq

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