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A Russian-born startup based in Singapore uses AI to penetrate the mysteries of human longevity – bne IntelliNews

Can artificial intelligence and machine learning help mankind address diseases related to ageing, and delay mortality? Gero, a Singaporean company with Russian roots, believes so. To address this biological and technological challenge, Gero has teamed up with the National University of Singapore, conducting experiments involving aged animals, reports East-West Digital News (EWDN).

These works demonstrated mortality delay (life-extension) and functional improvements after a single experimental treatment, says Gero.

Gero believes this new drug could enable patients to recover after a stroke and help cancer patients in their fight against accelerated ageing resulting from chemotherapy. Geros platform is also used to develop drugs in other areas including potential therapies for Covid-19.

Commenting on Gero, Dr. Nir Barzilai said that their research provides answers to the most important practical questions and translates the received knowledge into medical technologies to combat ageing. A professor of medicine and genetics, Dr. Nir Barzilai is director and leading aging researcher at the Einstein-Institute for Aging Research in New York City.

The company has just secured $2.2mn from an investor pool led by Belarusian fund Bulba Ventures. Gero previously raised more than $5mn, including through an undisclosed seed round in May last year, which also involved Bulba.

8 years of R&D Founded in Russia in 2012, Gero initially pursued a larger goal developing a computational technology to facilitate the discovery of small drug molecules.

We identified a series of drug candidates in-house and via partnerships, company founder Peter Fedichev told East-West Digital News.

For example, Fedichevs team identified a small molecule inhibitor of novel HIV targets as well as inhibitors for proteinprotein interactions TLR4 antagonist.

The company created a spinoff dedicated to metabolic reprogramming of neurons in excitotoxicity conditions. Another project to be announced later this year was developed with a leading US university, said Fedichev.

During these years, Gero also studied ways to use AI/ML approaches to tackle ageing.

This field became the exclusive focus of the startup in 2015. Gero gained access to large biobanks, aiming to develop next-gen modeling platforms for anti-aging targets and aging biomarkers identification.

We discovered and tested multiple life-extending interventions based on the predictive capacities of our platform, said Fedichev.

While the most promising therapeutic modalities in this field are currently under development, experiments with mice were prerequisites for future clinical trials. Such experiments were first conducted in France, then at the National University of Singapore at a much larger scale.

A single shot provides the systemic rejuvenation and mortality delay (life- extension), which is a definitive milestone for drug discovery AI, Fedichev told EWDN.

In 2019, the team published a research paper in Nature Research Journal about the application of machine learning techniques to big omics data as a means to discover anti-aging drugs. This became one of the most popular papers in the field of cell and molecular biology, notes Fedichev.

Asias anti-ageing appeal Why didnt Gero pursue its development from Russia? Fedichev points several reasons for moving to Singapore three years ago: First, this is a great place for doing business, and some of our investors were familiar with the jurisdiction. Second, we started a critically-important collaboration with the National University of Singapore. Finally, says Fedichev, it appears that the Singaporean government is ahead of the curve when it comes to ageing. It is very aggressive in tackling the related [health and wellness] challenges. The Singaporean authorities fund cutting-edge projects in this field, and contemplate innovative clinical trial strategies. Thus, Singapore is asserting itself at the forefront of ageing science and biotech developments, believes Fedichev. Asia is going to be hit hard by a silver tsunami, he notes, with 250mn senior citizens by 2025 in China only.

In 2016, researchers from Oxford Economics and AARP estimated the volume of the annual US longevity market alone at $7.1 trillion. They forecast that by 2032 this figure will almost double to $13.5 trillion.

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Award-winning Austrian supplement containing "spermidine" is now available to consumers in the US – Newswise

DENVER, Sept. 9, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --TLL The Longevity Labs GmbH, an Austrian-based life sciences company, and its wholly-owned, US subsidiary, Longevity Labs Inc., announce the market-launch of sales in the US of its award-winning dietary supplement,spermidineLIFE.spermidineLIFE is the world's first naturally extracted and clinically tested dietary supplement to promote cellular renewal. The active ingredient, spermidine, is considered key to slowing down the cellular aging process.

Until recently, fasting has been considered the most efficient method to trigger the critical cellular renewal process, called "autophagy;" however, European aging scientists have discovered that autophagy is also triggered through a substance found in the human body, called spermidine. As the body ages, spermidine levels decrease, along with the self-renewing power of its cells. In search of a way to offset the effects of decreasing spermidine levels, Longevity Labs developed a method to isolate spermidine from plants (wheat germ) and to make it available to humans as a dietary supplement -spermidineLIFE.

TLL The Longevity Labs GmbH ("TLL") launched its first flagship product,spermidineLIFE in the EU 2019, bringing the first commercially available, safety-tested, lab-verified, spermidine-rich supplement to the global market. Quickly becoming a phenomenon in Austria and Germany, in September 2020, TLL has begun distribution ofspermidineLIFE in the United States, through its subsidiary, Longevity Labs Inc., via its US website atwww.spermidinelife.us.

"We began with a common vision to support healthy aging. Spermidine was completely unknown in Austria but the scientific research, quality of our product and its effectiveness convinced the public.spermidineLIFE was voted one of the top 3 OTC product innovations in Austria in 2019 and interest has only continued to grow worldwide," says Vedran Bijelac, CEO of Longevity Labs Inc and Director of Sales and Marketing of TLL.

"We are proud to be the first scientifically tested and naturally-extracted spermidine supplement," says Daniel Dietz, COO of Longevity Labs Inc. "Not only do we want to present the health benefits of spermidine to the American population, we also want to find additional research partners. We are already working with more than 10 research institutions in Europe but the opportunity to work with top US scientists is very exciting."

spermidineLIFE is naturally extracted from European non-GMO wheat germ using TLL's proprietary extraction process in its state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Graz, Austria.spermidineLIFE is lab-tested to ensure consistently rich spermidine content and has been tested for safety and tolerability in humans.

spermidineLIFE is available to consumers via its website via a monthly subscription model starting at $99. The supplement will also be available for one or more monthly package orders starting at $109. Wholesale pricing is available for practitioners.

For additional information or questions, please contactcontact@spermidinelife.com.

For more information aboutspermidineLIFE or to place an order, please visitwww.spermidinelife.us.

About TLL The Longevity Labs, GmbHTLL The Longevity Labs, GmbH is based in Graz, Austria. With the goal of translating scientific findings into natural solutions for a longer and healthier life, TLL worked with european university research partners to develop its novel productspermidineLIFE, with EU sales launching in 2019 and expanding worldwide. TLL continues to perform best-in-class research on life-extending products and services to bring to the global marketplace. For more information, visitwww.spermidinelife.com(global) orwww.spermidinelife.us(United States).

No governmental agency has reviewed, approved or disapproved the content of this news release.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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Cellular Reprogramming Tools Market: COVID19 Impact- Recent Industry Developments and Growth Strategies Adopted by Top Key Players:Human Longevity,…

The Insight Partners dedicated research and analysis team consist of experienced professionals with advanced statistical expertise and offer various customization options in the existing study.

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Comprehensive Report on Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment Market Set to Witness Huge Growth by 2026 | Ascend Biopharmaceuticals, Novadip Biosciences,…

Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment Marketresearch is an intelligence report with meticulous efforts undertaken to study the right and valuable information. The data which has been looked upon is done considering both, the existing top players and the upcoming competitors. Business strategies of the key players and the new entering market industries are studied in detail. Well explained SWOT analysis, revenue share and contact information are shared in this report analysis.

Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment Market is growing at a High CAGR during the forecast period 2020-2026. The increasing interest of the individuals in this industry is that the major reason for the expansion of this market.

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Top Key Vendors of this Market includes: Ascend Biopharmaceuticals, Novadip Biosciences, Eureka Therapeutics, Human Longevity, Regeneus, Allogene Therapeutics, BioRestorative Therapies, Immatics Biotechnologies, NewLink Genetics, Cytori Therapeutics, Talaris Therapeutics

This report provides a detailed and analytical look at the various companies that are working to achieve a high market share in the global Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment market. Data is provided for the top and fastest growing segments. This report implements a balanced mix of primary and secondary research methodologies for analysis. Markets are categorized according to key criteria. To this end, the report includes a section dedicated to the company profile. This report will help you identify your needs, discover problem areas, discover better opportunities, and help all your organizations primary leadership processes. You can ensure the performance of your public relations efforts and monitor customer objections to stay one step ahead and limit losses.

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The cost analysis of the Global Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment Market has been performed while keeping in view manufacturing expenses, labor cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend. Other factors such as Supply chain, downstream buyers, and sourcing strategy have been assessed to provide a complete and in-depth view of the market. Buyers of the report will also be exposed to a study on market positioning with factors such as target client, brand strategy, and price strategy taken into consideration.

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Steroid Replacement TherapyStem Cell Transplant

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Global Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment Market Research Report 2020

Chapter 1 Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment Market Overview

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Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

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AKG Supplement Promoted Healthy Aging & Longevity In Animal Study – Anti Aging News

Mice given alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) supplements were reported to be healthier as they aged, and female mice lived longer than those not given the supplement, according to the researchers at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging.

The big thing about this is that its safety profile is so good, says the University of North Dakota aging researcher Holly Brown-Borg, who was not involved with the study. It has potential and should be explored further, for sure.

AKG is naturally made in both mice and human bodies, and it is already considered to be safe by regulators. It is part of the metabolic cycle that cells use to make energy from food; sometimes it is used to treat osteoporosis and kidney disease, along with some bodybuilders to bulk up.

In 2014 researchers discovered that this molecule may have an anti-ageing possibility when a study published in Nature reported that it helped to extend the lifespan of C. elegans by more than 50%; and other studies showed it improving lifespan in fruit flies.

AKG levels will gradually decline with age, as such the researchers are looking for ways to restore levels to those seen in younger years. In this study published in Cell Metabolism 18-month-old mice, which is the equivalent of around 55 human years, were given AKG as 2% of their daily feed until they died or for up to 21 months, recording all changes.

Within a few months: They looked much blacker, shinier, and younger than control mice, says Azar Asadi Shahmirzadi, a postdoc at the Buck Institute who did the experiments as a graduate student. Animals in the AKG group also scored on average 40% better on tests of frailty as measured by 31 physiological attributes including walking gait, grip strength hearing, and hair colour. Additionally, female mice in the AKG group lived a median of 8-20% longer than the controls. It was noted that the mice in the AKG group did not perform better in tests for heart function or treadmill endurance, and they did not test for cognitive improvement.

Female mice in the AKG group were found to produce higher levels of a molecule that fights inflammation. Although these effects on health and longevity were smaller for AKG than for some other anti-ageing compounds, some of the other compounds have had safety issues, for example, rapamycin can suppress the immune system and may promote diabetes.

The researchers plan to test AKG in human volunteers in the near future, possibly in a group of people between the ages of 45-65 to investigate whether the molecule will improve ageing-related biomarkers such as inflammation, arterial hardening, and chemical signatures on DNA that are associated with ageing.

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How to live longer: Scientists discover enzyme which could be used to boost longevity – Express

The secret to long life expectancy lies in the details. Tiny tails at the ends of chromosomes called telomeres erode with age but can be lengthened. Deep inside a persons cells DNA-based clocks slowly tick away and determine ones "biological age." By tweaking this cell, could humans be able to boost their longevity? Researchers from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology were able to dial up and down creatures' lifespans by altering protein activity levels.

The enzyme "tweaked" by researchers allows roundworms to convert sugar into energy when cellular energy is running low - the team found a way to "control it". Humans also have these proteins, offering up the possibilities of developing longevity-promoting drugs, according to the researchers.

The roundworms used in the study experienced a boost in longevity when researchers tinkered with a couple of proteins involved in monitoring the energy use by its cells.

Using a range of different biological research tools, including introducing foreign genes into the worm, a group of researchers were able to dial up and down the activity of the gene that tells cells to produce the VRK-1 protein.

Control worms lived about 16.9 days on average typically roundworms only live about two to three weeks.

However, the first line of worms who had elevated levels of VRK-1 lived about 20.8 days.

A second line lived about 23.7 days on average. Seung-Jae Lee is a professor at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and the paper's senior author.

He spoke of how longevity could switch by activating "a key cellular energy sensor and anti-ageing protein" called AMPK.

The key to activating AMPK is VRK-1 and this enzyme is found in worms but also has a close relative in human cells.

"We showed that the activation of AMPK by VRK-1 occurs in human cells as well as in the roundworm C. elegans," says Professor Lee.

"Therefore, it is possible that this mechanism can be applied to promoting human longevity in the future." Metabolic disorders involve the disruption of chemical reactions in the body, including diseases of the mitochondria.

But before metabolic disorder therapeutics or longevity drugs can be contemplated by scientists, further research still needs to be carried out to better understand how VRK-1 works to activate AMPK, the team explained.

They said they also need to figure out the precise mechanics of how AMPK controls cellular energy.

The study team notes that inhibiting mitochondrial respiration "increases life span in Drosophila and mammals" though some scientists argue that this is part of a bigger, more complicated picture.

This is only a small experiment on roundworms and a few human cells.

To really prove that VRK-1 can trigger these longevity-related changes in AMPK, the team will have to replicate their findings in other mammals, like mice.

Though mouse studies are still steps away from human ones, they provide clearer parallels to human beings that worm studies do, says Lee.

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15 new groups of molecules to fight against aging and protect our cells; one step closer to staying healthy longer, new study shows – Canada NewsWire

A Concordia researcher, supported by Idunn Technologies, discovers new natural compounds that could promote longevity in health and reduce the incidence of associated diseases

MONTREAL, Sept. 9, 2020 /CNW/ - The recent pandemic has highlighted the importance of staying healthy so that you can better fight an infection or disease, if necessary. A Concordia University researcher has discovered 15 new plant extracts that help fight, not against infection, but against aging. These natural molecules could help prevent all the diseases associated with aging, not one at a time, but all at the same time. It is therefore a question of reducing the incidence of common ailments such as osteoarthritis, diabetes, cancer, heart disease, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. This approach has already been called "the ultimate preventive medicine" in the prestigious journal, Science.

Vladimir Titorenko, professor of biology at the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Concordia, has been collaborating since 2013 with ric Simard, president of the company, Idunn Technologies, to discover new anti-aging molecules. This work has just been published in the scientific journal, Oncotarget. The TransBIOTech research center and the Cgep de Lvis-Lauzon also participated in these studies.

The recently published results were obtained from specific plant extracts, already recognized for various health benefits. Professor Titorenko's team identified the new anti-aging molecules from a long list of extracts from different parts of the plants studied. The new positive extracts (PE for "plant extract") are numbered as follows: PE26 (Serenoa repens), PE39 (Hypericum perforatum), PE42 (Ilex paraguariensis), PE47 (Ocimum tenuiflorum), PE59 (Solidago virgaurea), PE64 (Citrus sinensis ), PE68 (Humulus lupulus), PE69 (Vitis vinifera), PE72 (Andrographis paniculata), PE75 (Hydrastis canadensis), PE77 (Trigonella foenumgraecum), PE78 (Berberis vulgaris), PE79 (Crataegus monogyna), PE81 (Taraxacum erythrospermum) and PE83 (Ilex paraguariensis).

"We now have a large number of anti-aging plant extracts that may reduce the incidence or progression of age-related diseases in humans," said Dr. Vladimir Titorenko. This researcher devotes his efforts to understanding the molecular mechanisms that allow cells to resist aging.

Dr. Titorenko states that "With the aging of the population, the possibility of keeping people healthy longer constitutes a major advance which could have repercussions, not just in economic terms, but for the quality of life of the population and the capacity of the health care system in general."

The results of this research have clearly demonstrated that the beneficial effects observed on longevity are linked to the slowing of aging in yeast cells. "The identification of these new modulators could allow the development of new specialized products for healthy aging." explains Professor Titorenko.

A Quebec company, Idunn Technologies, is working to develop a large number of applications of these research results for human health. ric Simard is the co-editor of the article, CEO of Idunn Technologies and author of 4 books on healthy longevity (www.esimard.com). He explains that the company decided to market the fruits of this research by focusing on the optimization of natural products targeting the main health problems related to aging. These more effective products are marketed under the Vitoli brand (www.vitoli.ca).

The results presented also include analyses of the metabolic activity of mitochondria, the oxidation of membrane lipids, as well as the oxidation of proteins, DNA from mitochondria, and DNA from the cell nucleus. These anti-aging extracts, also called geroprotective or caloric restriction mimetics, increase the resistance of cells to oxidative stress and temperature. Improved cellular functioning reduces damage to cells while increasing their resistance to difficult situations. "Reduce wear and increase maintenance and cellular resistance; that's the secret to health longevity." concluded Dr. Simard.

This study was supported by a joint ARD-CRD (Applied Research and Development - Cooperative Research and Development) grant from Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC). The work was also funded by the Concordia University Research Chairs Fund, a Concordia University Graduate Scholarship, and a Concordia University Excellence Scholarship.

Read the full report of the study: Discovery of fifteen new geroprotective plant extracts and identification of cellular processes they affect to prolong the chronological lifespan of budding yeast.

SOURCE Idunn Technologies

For further information: Interviews in English with Vicky Lutchman, M.Sc. researcher (among the authors of the study: 514-887-7520)

L’entreprise

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Oxford COVID-19 vaccine trial paused after ‘unexplained’ illness in participant. What does it mean? – THE WEEK

Pharmaceutical major AstraZeneca, who is developing a coronavirus vaccine in association with Oxford university, has paused their trials after a participant fell ill due to a "suspected adverse reaction", the company stated, as reported by medical journalStat News. "As part of the ongoing randomised, controlled global trials of the Oxford coronavirus vaccine, our standard review process was triggered and we voluntarily paused vaccination to allow review of safety data by an independent committee. This is a routine action which has to happen whenever there is a potentially unexplained illness in one of the trials, while it is investigated, ensuring we maintain the integrity of the trials."

"In large trials, illnesses will sometimes happen by chance but must be reviewed independently. We are working to expedite the review of the single event to minimise any potential impact on the trial timeline," according to the statement.

The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine is the most advanced one in the world, well into the third and final phase of human trials. The Moderna vaccine candidate is a close second.AstraZeneca's US-traded shares fell more than six per cent in after-hours trading following reports of the trial being paused.

Vaccine testing is a four-stage processpre-clinical testing on animals; Phase I clinical testing on a small group of people to determine its safety and to learn more about the immune response it provokes; Phase II trials, or expanded safety trials, where dosage and frequency will be tested across wider cross-sections of the population; Phase III large-scale tests where the vaccine is administered to thousands of people to confirm its efficacy. Phase I and Phase II are the early trials, which will then be followed by a rigorous, intensive Phase III clinical testing, where the longevity of the vaccine response (whether the vaccine will last for long periods of time) will be analysed.

What does an 'adverse event' mean?

According to United States Food and Drug Safety Administration (FDA), 'adverse events' are not necessarily side effects caused by vaccination. An adverse event is a "health problem that happens after vaccination that may or may not be caused by a vaccine". These events may require further investigation.

By definition, a side effect has been shown to be linked to a vaccine by scientific studies. While most vaccine trials induce some form ofpain at the injection site, hyperthermia, headache, asthenia (weakness or lack of energy), and muscle and joint pain in its participants, an adverse event would equate to something slightly more serious, possibly requiring hospitalisation.

On the flip side, temporary holds of large medical studies aren't unusual, and investigating any serious or unexpected reaction is a mandatory part of safety testing. AstraZeneca pointed out that it's possible the problem could be a coincidence; illnesses of all sorts could arise in studies of thousands of people.

During the third and final stage of testing, researchers look for any signs of possible side effects that may have gone undetected in earlier patient research. Because of their large size, the studies are considered the most important study phase for picking up less common side effects and establishing safety.

Dr Ashish Jha of Brown University said via Twitter that the significance of the interruption was unclear but that he was "still optimistic" that an effective vaccine will be found in the coming months. "But optimism isn't evidence," he wrote. "Let's let science drive this process."

Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University in New York, tweeted that the illness may be unrelated to the vaccine, "but the important part is that this is why we do trials before rolling out a vaccine to the general public".

How does the vaccine work?

The vaccine candidateAZD1222, according to AstraZeneca, uses a "replication-deficient chimpanzee viral vector based on a weakened version of a common cold (adenovirus) virus" that causes infections in chimpanzees and contains the genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. After vaccination, the surface spike protein is produced, priming the immune system to attack COVID-19 if it later infects the body.

AstraZeneca has struck a deal with Europe's Inclusive Vaccines Alliance to supply up to 400 million doses of an experimental COVID-19 vaccine. The agreement struck Saturday aims to make the vaccine available to other European countries that wish to take part.

Late last month, AstraZeneca began recruiting 30,000 people in the US for its largest study of the vaccine. It also is testing the vaccine, developed by Oxford University, in thousands of people in Britain, and in smaller studies in Brazil and South Africa.

Two other vaccines are in huge, final-stage tests in the United States, one made by Moderna Inc. and the other by Pfizer and Germany's BioNTech. Those two vaccines work differently than AstraZeneca's, and the studies already have recruited about two-thirds of the needed volunteers.

The "adverse reaction" came the same day that AstraZeneca and eight other drugmakers issued an unusual pledge, vowing to uphold the highest ethical and scientific standards in developing their vaccines. The announcement follows worries that President Donald Trump will pressure the US Food and Drug Administration to approve a vaccine before it's proven to be safe and effective.

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Across the world, trees are growing faster, dying younger and will soon store less carbon – The Conversation UK

As the world warms and the atmosphere becomes increasingly fertilised with carbon dioxide, trees are growing ever faster. But theyre also dying younger and overall, the worlds forests may be losing their ability to store carbon. Thats the key finding of our new study, published in the journal Nature Communications.

In a world without humans, forests would exist in equilibrium, taking roughly as much carbon out of the atmosphere as they lose. However, humans have disturbed this equilibrium by burning fossil fuels. As a result, atmospheric CO levels have increased leading to an increase in temperature and fertilising plant growth. These changes have stimulated tree growth over the past decades, even in intact, old-growth forests that have not experienced recent human disturbances. This in turn has allowed forests to take up more carbon than they release resulting in large net accumulation whats often called the carbon sink.

Earth scientists like us often wonder how long forests can continue to be a sink. The extra CO will benefit trees everywhere, and temperature increases will help them grow in colder regions. So you could expect forests to continue soaking up much of our carbon emissions and that is exactly what most earth system models predict.

However, possible changes in tree lifespan may throw a spanner in the works. A few years back when studying old-growth Amazon forests, we noted that initial growth increases were followed by increases in tree mortality. We hypothesised that this could be due to faster growth reducing how long trees live for. If true, this means predictions that the carbon sink will continue may have been overly optimistic, as they did not take into account the trade-offs between growth and longevity. Our new findings provide evidence for this hypothesis.

To study the relationship between tree growth and longevity, we used tree ring records. The width of each ring tells us how fast the tree grew, while counting rings provides information on age and allows us to estimate its maximum lifespan. We analysed more than 210,000 individual tree ring records belonging to more than 80 different species from across the globe. This large undertaking has been possible thanks to decades of work by dendrochronologists (tree ring specialists) from across the world, who made their data publicly available.

Our analysis shows that trees that grow fast, die young. It has been known for a long time that faster growing species live shorter. A balsa tree, for example, grows quickly to 20 metres or more but will live for only a few decades, while some bristlecone pine trees have been growing slowly and steadily for nearly 5,000 years.

We found that this is not only true when comparing different species, but also within trees of the same species. It was a surprise to find that this trade-off occurs in nearly all types of trees and ecosystems, from closed-canopy tropical forests to the hardy trees that brave the Arctic regions. A slow growing beech tree may be expected to live several decades longer than its fast-growing relatives. It is very much like the story of the hare and the tortoise slow but steadily growing trees are the ones that live longest.

In order to study the implications of this we compared how much carbon would be accumulated under two tree simulation models. One simulation included this grow-fast, die-young trade-off, and the other used a model in which trees lived equally long, regardless of their growth rates. We found that trees growing faster and dying younger initially caused the overall level of biomass to increase, but it also increased tree mortality several decades later.

Therefore, eventually the forest starts to lose biomass again and return to the same level as in the beginning, but with faster growing and shorter-lived trees. Our models indicate that faster growth results in faster tree death, without real long-term increases in carbon storage. Some researchers predicted this long ago, and our results support their prediction.

These model predictions are not only consistent with observed changes in forests dynamics in the Amazon but also with a recent study reporting an increase in tree death across the globe.

An intriguing question is why the fast-growing trees, the rock stars of the forest, live much shorter lives. We dont yet have a conclusive answer, but we have looked at some potential mechanisms. For example, it could be that higher temperatures and other environmental variations that stimulate faster growth, also reduce tree lifespans. However, we find that reductions in lifespan are the result of faster growth itself.

One simple hypothesis is that trees die once they reach a certain maximum potential size, and the faster a tree reaches this size the younger it dies. Other possible explanations are that fast growing trees simply make cheaper wood (in terms of energy expenditure), and invest fewer resources in fighting off diseases and insect attacks, or are more vulnerable to drought. Whatever the cause, this mechanism needs to be built into scientific models if we want to make realistic predictions of the future carbon sink and thus how much CO will be in the atmosphere.

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Across the world, trees are growing faster, dying younger and will soon store less carbon - The Conversation UK

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AgeX Therapeutics and Lineage Cell Therapeutics Announce Expansion of Agreement Related to ESI Clinical-grade Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines for…

Sept. 9, 2020 12:00 UTC

ALAMEDA, Calif. & CARLSBAD, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- AgeX Therapeutics, Inc.(AgeX: NYSE American: AGE), a company focused on developing and commercializing innovative therapeutics for human aging, and Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.. (Lineage: NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs, and ES Cell International Pte Ltd. (ESI), a subsidiary of Lineage, today announced the broadening of their collaborative relationship with regard to ESI stem cell lines. ESI cell lines are current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compatible, registered with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and widely studied as a potential source for the industrial-scale manufacture of any cell type in the human body. Neither party made or received any cash payments in connection with this arrangement.

Both Lineage and AgeX are pioneering important aspects of regenerative medicine. Working together, we have amended our agreement regarding ESI cell lines derived under cGMP to be optimal for the business needs of each company, stated Brian M. Culley, Lineages CEO. In particular, Lineage has acquired exclusivity for the use of ESI cell lines in spinal cord injury and certain oncology indications. On the other hand, AgeX has gained greater flexibility and independence to support its efforts toward licensing certain technologies and cell lines to third parties. With this step complete, we next intend to explore additional opportunities to collaborate with AgeX on promising tissue regenerating projects.

The ESI cell lines are recognized for being the first clinical-grade human pluripotent stem cell lines created under cGMP as described in the publication Cell Stem Cell (2007;1:490-4). It may become possible to generate potentially limitless quantities of all the cell types of the human body from these master cell banks with a wide array of potential therapeutic applications. These cell lines are listed on the NIH Stem Cell Registry and are among the best characterized and documented stem cell lines available globally. Importantly, ESI cells are among only a few pluripotent stem cell lines from which a derived cell therapy product candidate has been granted FDA investigational new drug (IND) clearance to commence human studies.

Key to the creation of shareholder value is the placement of these important assets in the hands of collaborators to advance the development of a vast number of regenerative therapies, said Michael West, Ph.D., AgeXs CEO. Our collaborative relationship with Lineage led to this streamlined process that may facilitate the commercialization of these applications to the benefit of shareholders of each company. Since the beginning of the year, AgeX has entered into new research and commercial arrangements utilizing an array of its technology platforms, such as UniverCyteTM for the engineering of universally transplantable cells, PureStem for the manufacture and derivation of cells, and an ESI cell line as source material for deriving cellular therapeutics.

About AgeX Therapeutics, Inc

AgeX Therapeutics, Inc. (NYSE American: AGE) is focused on developing and commercializing innovative therapeutics for human aging. Its PureStem and UniverCyte manufacturing and immunotolerance technologies are designed to work together to generate highly defined, universal, allogeneic, off-the-shelf pluripotent stem cell-derived young cells of any type for application in a variety of diseases with a high unmet medical need. AgeX has two preclinical cell therapy programs: AGEX-VASC1 (vascular progenitor cells) for tissue ischemia and AGEX-BAT1 (brown fat cells) for Type II diabetes. AgeXs revolutionary longevity platform induced Tissue Regeneration (iTR) aims to unlock cellular immortality and regenerative capacity to reverse age-related changes within tissues. AGEX-iTR1547 is an iTR-based formulation in preclinical development. HyStem is AgeXs delivery technology to stably engraft PureStem cell therapies in the body. AgeXs core product pipeline is intended to extend human healthspan. AgeX is seeking opportunities to establish licensing and collaboration arrangements around its broad IP estate and proprietary technology platforms and therapy product candidates. For more information, please visit http://www.agexinc.com or connect with the company on Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, and YouTube.

About Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.

Lineage Cell Therapeutics is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs. Lineages programs are based on its robust proprietary cell-based therapy platform and associated in-house development and manufacturing capabilities. With this platform Lineage develops and manufactures specialized, terminally differentiated human cells from its pluripotent and progenitor cell starting materials. These differentiated cells are developed to either replace or support cells that are dysfunctional or absent due to degenerative disease or traumatic injury or administered as a means of helping the body mount an effective immune response to cancer. Lineages clinical programs are in markets with billion dollar opportunities and include three allogeneic (off-the-shelf) product candidates: (i) OpRegen, a retinal pigment epithelium transplant therapy in Phase 1/2a development for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in the developed world; (ii) OPC1, an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell therapy in Phase 1/2a development for the treatment of acute spinal cord injuries; and (iii) VAC, an allogeneic dendritic cell therapy platform for immuno-oncology and infectious disease, currently in clinical development for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and in preclinical development for additional cancers and as a vaccine against infectious diseases, including SARS-CoV-2, the virus which causes COVID-19. For more information, please visit http://www.lineagecell.com or follow the Company on Twitter @LineageCell.

About ESI

ES Cell International Pte Ltd (ESI). Established in 2000, ESI, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc., developed ESI hESC lines in compliance with the principles of current Good Manufacturing Practices and has made them available to various biopharmaceutical companies, universities and other research institutions, including AgeX. These ESI cell lines are extensively characterized and most of the lines have documented and publicly available genomic sequences.

Forward-Looking Statements for AgeX

Certain statements contained in this release are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Any statements that are not historical fact including, but not limited to statements that contain words such as will, believes, plans, anticipates, expects, estimates should also be considered forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Without limitation, such risks include those associated with the use of human pluripotent stem cell lines in the research, development, and use of therapies for the treatment of human diseases, disorders, and injuries, and risks associated with commercializing the pluripotent stem cell lines. Actual results may differ materially from the results anticipated in these forward-looking statements and as such should be evaluated together with the many uncertainties that affect the business of AgeX Therapeutics, Inc. and its respective subsidiaries, particularly those mentioned in the cautionary statements found in more detail in the Risk Factors section of its most recent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed with the Securities and Exchange Commissions (copies of which may be obtained at http://www.sec.gov). Subsequent events and developments may cause these forward-looking statements to change. Undue reliance should not be placed on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they were made. AgeX specifically disclaims any obligation or intention to update or revise these forward-looking statements as a result of changed events or circumstances that occur after the date of this release, except as required by applicable law.

Forward-Looking Statements for Lineage

Lineage cautions you that all statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this press release, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements, in some cases, can be identified by terms such as believe, may, will, estimate, continue, anticipate, design, intend, expect, could, plan, potential, predict, seek, should, would, contemplate, project, target, tend to, or the negative version of these words and similar expressions. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements relating to the potential commercialization of ESI cell lines. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause Lineages actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this press release, including risks and uncertainties inherent in Lineages business and other risks in Lineages filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). Lineages forward-looking statements are based upon its current expectations and involve assumptions that may never materialize or may prove to be incorrect. All forward-looking statements are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. Further information regarding these and other risks is included under the heading Risk Factors in Lineages periodic reports with the SEC, including Lineages Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 12, 2020 and its other reports, which are available from the SECs website. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they were made. Lineage undertakes no obligation to update such statements to reflect events that occur or circumstances that exist after the date on which they were made, except as required by law.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200909005398/en/

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AgeX Therapeutics and Lineage Cell Therapeutics Announce Expansion of Agreement Related to ESI Clinical-grade Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines for...

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